- What team
- Who are you - or mastermind Critic
- How to make the team work efficiently
The friendly and well-working team - a dream of any leader, as the organization of teamwork occupies a large percentage of his time. Often, however, this does not save the company from tension, conflict, and, as a result, reduce the quality of work. The main criterion for the organization of successful teamwork - this is definitely a quality solution of labor problems.
The effectiveness of any activity is estimated by the following formula: Productivity Quality * * * overhead reliability. It is believed that teamwork is more effective than working alone. However, it causes more negativity and fear. This phenomenon is not associated with impaired teamwork as such, but with the inability to organize it. Therefore, in this article we have tried to collect the most interesting and important information, explain the principles of successful teamwork.
What is a team?
Organization of effective teamwork begins with the organization of a good team. But not every group of people, working together, can be called a team. Team - a small number of people with complementary skills related to a single concept, striving for common goals and share responsibility for achieving them.
In the interests of each team are secondary. Each team member should have a high professional level, able to take decisions and communicate effectively with others.
Team members depend on each other, or rather, the work of one depends on the work of another. Therefore, in the team we have the equality and continuous exchange of information. Team members share responsibility for achieving the goal of each other. There is such a phenomenon as a command accountability - are certain promises that generate trust and ensure the achievement of results.
Tragically managers, it is impossible to take and instantly put together a good team. For this group of people working together to take place in its development a number of important steps. Here's how the organization of the team:
- Adaptation - a mutual information and analysis tasks. People carefully communicate with each other, formed pairs and triples. They seemed to be checking each other and develop mutually acceptable standards and principles of behavior, resulting in a certain wariness in the team. Effective teamwork at this stage is low.
- Grouping - create a small subgroup of likes and interests. Revealed discrepancies personal motivation and goals of teamwork. Team members can counteract the demands of the task - in this way is determined by the level of permissible emotional expression. For example, Secretary of throws paper and looks like it will react.
- Cooperation - the team members are aware of their desire to work on the solution of the problem. This is an open and constructive dialogue for the first time appears with the pronoun "we."
- Standardization activities - developed norms and principles of interaction in the team. There is a feeling of trust, interpersonal communication is at the highest level.
- The operation - a decision-making stage for a constructive solution of problems. Everyone has a role to play there. Team openly exhibits and resolves conflicts. Now we can talk about a true team that has common to all members of the team goals, work together to achieve these objectives, the availability of good and adequate organizational structure, a good psychological climate. Organization of effective teamwork at this stage can be considered successfully completed.
Psychologists describe a number of phenomena that arise in the group and related to the effectiveness of teamwork:
- volume effect - results of operations depend on the size of the group (the effectiveness of very small or very large group is the least).
- the effect of the qualitative composition of the group - the results of teamwork depends on the homogeneity-heterogeneity structure (best load group, whose members are of different sex and age, but virtually identical in social characteristics).
- conformism - the behavior and beliefs of members of the group are changed as a result of real or imagined group pressure. The role of public opinion is very high for each team member and each respects the principles worked out by joint efforts.
- deindividualization - loss of consciousness and fear of evaluation of anonymity in situations that do not focus on the individual.
- the phenomenon of shear risk - group accepts or most, or the least risky decision than to take on some of its members.
- "Ogrupplenie" thinking - all members of the group are exclusively engaged in the search for solutions suiting all and discarded fairly realistic options.
- social loafing - if responsibility is divided into the group, then all begin to work "carelessly."
You can talk about some of the signs of a good team organization. In it, participants consider themselves to be part of a workgroup. Balance between effective team work and cooperation. Members of the group feel competent, perform tasks on their own and are responsible for their implementation. Between them is a continuous debate to improve cooperation and increase the efficiency of team work. Everyone offers their ideas freely and criticize others.
The team members are aware of each other's tasks and have an idea of the talents and abilities of each, which means that interest and respect for each other. In the air, the atmosphere of open and constructive communication, all go to an open dialogue. Constantly, quickly and purposefully passed each other. We have the openness to the outside world and the organization of constructive cooperation with the other teams.
Who are you - the mastermind or critic?
In a good team, every member feels the line between what he gave to the group and the fact that he received from her. This is achieved by the fact that each person takes his place in the team the best. In carrying out its function at this point, he feels the balance between what he can and what he wants.
Studies have proven that the most effective for the organization of team work in the group must be present nine roles. They do not necessarily have to play nine people - some of the team members can combine certain functions, playing more than one role, but two or more. These roles:
- "Working Bee"
It is a disciplined and very reliable person. He is conscientious in interpersonal obligations due to constant internal control. It is practical, trusting and tolerant towards colleagues, conservative and internally beskonflikten. Powered by the team, without focusing on your goals. It acts on the principle of "work - it is a moral duty." This "working bees" transform the decisions and strategies of team work in specific tasks - sort objectives and build the logic of their achievements. But the principles of effective teamwork are that teams consisting entirely of "working bees" (even if they have a very high level of intelligence) does not achieve results above the average since they have valuable ideas and they do not have the flexibility - come to a standstill if necessary, change.
It is emotionally stable, calm and confident person. It is characterized by the development of a strategic vision of the organization, integrates and coordinates the efforts of the team to achieve the goals. Is able to find an appropriate role for each team. He can listen with an open mind, to consider and evaluate the merits of the proposals, resulting in a view of the entire group. Instead, creative thinking he has a strong character.
He is strongly motivated to achieve a result, has an average IQ (116-132), as people with very high intelligence, go to the excessive reflection. Well see strengths and weaknesses of others, a good communicator, a good listener. As its shortcomings can be noted that he is inclined to be influenced by others or can be inflexible assessments. He can not infect enthusiastically and effectively runs only in a stable environment.
This is a very energetic, "Bega skipping" people. It does not really get along with the leaders, and when he gets bored, it "eats the chief." He is restless, inclined to dominate, dynamic, pressure and has the courage to overcome obstacles (which his tone). For him, life - is vyzov.Esli leader - the leader of the social teamwork, the "motivator" - the leader of the task that is responsible for a separate project. He quickly learns the information devoid of shyness and timidity, prone to disappointments. As the shortcomings can be noted his irritability, impatience, tendency to frustration.
- "Idea's generator"
It's creative, imaginative, capable of solving complex problems a creative person. He was more concerned with the image of a whole, rather than its details. His organization is subject to the development of new projects, but the realization of these projects will be to develop others. These people are gullible and are vulnerable to attack society.
They can make stupid mistakes, because a lot of time paying the creative energy, the ideas, but do not take into account the needs of the group or do not contribute to the achievement of team goals. He needs the support guide. If the "generator of ideas" is criticized, he may even refuse to cooperate. This is his lack of - the organization of effective cooperation is not too concerned about it.
This researcher resources extrovert, full of enthusiasm. He is sociable, well-developed contacts and uses other people to take advantage skillfully directs a businesswoman talking to a useful conclusion for themselves. He left the band and brings information, ideas, materials, necessary for the group.
Its disadvantages: in a single operation it is not effective, he needs admiration of others. May spend time on things that do not belong to the target. He was not able to work in monotonous and repetitive situations. That is why he often quarrels with "working bees". It protects the teamwork of stagnation and gives the group a sense of reality.
This is someone who carries out monitoring and analysis of what is happening. For it is more important than the proper organization of labor, the task is more important than people. He is very intelligent and judicious, well predicts the situation. His criticism does not offend people, because based on the principle "nothing personal." He is a man of strategic thinking and insightful, he examines all the options and makes the unmistakable conclusions. Its main function - is the evaluation of ideas. He is able to justify its position and sees the strengths and weaknesses of each project.
It considers all factors and leads the team to take the right decision. Its drawbacks are that it pays little attention to the people and are not able to motivate, it lacks warmth and cordiality. Because of the attention to detail, he may lose the strategic goal. "Analysts" do not show themselves clearly, so it is not necessary to gather together. The best way they interact with the "leader", with the "motivator" and "generator of ideas", so the organization of work should go in this direction.
This man- "the soul of the company," a team player. Responsive, quiet, sensitive, diplomatic, able to listen to the other. It prevents friction governs conflicts calms - in general, provides a good morale of the team. He is able to exert influence on the delicate conflict to find common ground to the dispute, give the team extra strength in times of crisis.
All team members to easily interact with it, because themselves "masterminds" any problems relate to the cost of the work. As the shortcomings can be noted that the "masterminds" indecisive, poor ability to act and are influenced by other people. For them, the problem - nothing important - team. Not able to lead, they work best with a motivator.
It's closer, "trailer" projects. It is organized, conscientious, disciplined, worried about the result. Able to bring any matter to completion. "Comptroller" is capable of effectively working hard for a long period.
Poor, if its activity is accompanied by perfectionism - if completion can be delayed for a long time. "Controller" can be picky in relation to others. He is reluctant to delegate authority. It works well with the "supply agents", "generator of ideas" and "motivators" - those with ideas and supervisors implement them. Enjoy the respect of the "working bees". Worse interact with "analysts."
This team member has a rare knowledge and skills. An expert in a narrow professional field. We need a team in dealing with very specialized tasks. Others perceive critical because It seems boring. The organization of work of the person characterized by the fact that he can get involved in small details at the expense of the main objective.
All this does not mean that the team must be represented by nine people. But depending on the problem requires a certain set of roles, which will avoid competition between similar roles and achieve results with minimal effort.
How to make the team work effectively?
To achieve high levels of quality of activity is difficult even by one person. But what if your submission of a team depends on you and the effective organization of its work? There are a number of errors, which reduce the effectiveness of the team:
- Inconsistency manager, the team and the type of problem to be solved.
- Unsuccessful recruitment of workers in the team.
- Bad socio-psychological climate.
- Lack of clear objectives or criteria to achieve it
- Low effectiveness of teamwork
These errors are most common, but they can be avoided. The motivation of the work of almost any person consists of three components: the payment of interest and social importance. And if the first two items on everyone's lips, something about the latter often overlooked. But it is wrong - the team members need to be convinced that perform an important project, which will bring substantial benefits to the company. This has been repeatedly stated and shown at meetings of management and staff.
Still, the foundation of any team - is people. On the one hand, they must have a pretty extensive additional knowledge and skills necessary to achieve this goal. And on the other - they should be legkoobuchaemymi because teamwork is in itself a learning process, in which the skills of workers increases.
A special role is played among workers team leader. A competent leader, in addition to the management, planning and control, should organize and motivate employees of the collaborative activities, and to develop it in government. Because of the human factor is often the case is more complex than performing other of his duties: the machine works as much as programmed, but a man - always different.
The most important criterion when choosing a leader - his clear understanding of the organization of the team. The main mechanism of the effect - negative and positive feedback. In addition, it represents a command in conjunction with others, and eliminates external obstacles. A good leader can be regarded as one whose work as a member of the team is not obvious to others.
As mentioned above, in the initial stages of the psychological climate within the team has elevated her contentious. Top management should take this into account, and loyal to the team in such a crisis. Reduce the number of collisions is possible by means of training, brainstorming sessions and work on interesting projects in which the team feels a whole.
In order to reduce the number of conflicts team needs clear rules and principles. Moreover, these conventions should be formulated and adopted by the team itself from within. Violation of these rules should be punished, and not "down on the brakes."
Typically, the first time the team feels the team only when the first team work brings success.