stuttering in children 3 years


  • Call a doctor - speech therapist
  • The child's daily routine
  • Monitoring a child's speech
  • The behavior of parents

Stuttering in children 3 years and older - a problem very familiar to many parents. And to the child, as he matures, stuttering brings a lot of unpleasant moments. He suffers from learning, socialization of the child, reduced his self-esteem, and in severe cases may develop severe inferiority complex, which will remain throughout life.

Therefore, the problem in any case can not be ignored. Tragically, most of the parents, even the cause of stuttering in children is not trying to find, not to mention the treatment of the mistaken belief that all will pass on their own. Although, in fairness, it should be noted that the exact causes of stuttering are not managed until now to reveal even to doctors and speech therapist.

Call a doctor - speech therapist

The treatment of stuttering in a child should be comprehensive, and it can only appoint a doctor and speech therapist. The sooner treatment is started, the more successful it will be. So try as soon as possible to seek the help of a doctor, a speech therapist. Any delay in this case will play against your child.

As a rule, modern methods of treatment in most cases allow to save the child, even from heavy stuttering. However, the successful outcome of the treatment depends on the correct behavior of parents. They should strictly observe a number of rules and recommendations of the doctor, a speech therapist.

By the way, about a speech therapist. For successful treatment of stuttering children parents should be a very long time to work closely with your doctor, a speech therapist. It is therefore important to choose the right specialist. After all, if you do not get to make contact with a speech therapist and you can not fully trust him, can hardly be a question of successful treatment, no matter how good was the doctor.

 stuttering treatment in children

The child's daily routine

Usually, stuttering child is very agile and easily excitable. Therefore, parents must strictly organized daily routine of the child and ensure full compliance with it:

  • Sleeping child

Particular attention should be paid to baby sleep. A child under the age of 7 years at night to sleep at least 11 hours. Daytime sleep simply vital - lunch child sleep duration should be at least 2 hours. Baby naps have a positive effect on the nervous system of the child.

  • Kid Games

Of course, the cartoons - the most popular pastime of modern children. However, make sure that the child is not spent watching TV too long - it leads to excessive nervous excitability. So, and stuttering becomes much stronger. Do not forget that there are many useful educational games.

  • Walking

In no case is inadmissible to ignore the walk - for the child's body the fresh air is a must. Walk with the child for at least two hours a day - of course, if the weather permits.

Monitoring a child's speech

In speech therapy sessions control over the child's speech carries a doctor. But the doctor could not be around the clock with the child, so the rest of the time it is parents should monitor the child's speech. Did you notice that the child uttered a word or phrase, stuttering? Do not make your child observations and even more so do not laugh at him. Simply complete the word for the kid, not focusing attention on this.

In severe cases, children are often stuttering speech therapists recommend the so-called silent mode. Talking child can only in the classroom, under the supervision of a speech therapist. All the rest of the time the child must try to remain silent. The child can talk only when absolutely necessary and only in whispers.

Such a requirement speech therapists explained very simply - using stuttering unable to suppress a child's reflex to stutter. During speech therapy sessions the child's speech correctly and without hesitation. All the rest of the time the child will be silent, which means that on a subconscious level will be developed reflex, designed to correct it. Typically, such treatment lasts from several months to a year.

Of course, the baby is 3 - 4 years is very difficult to explain this necessity. However, parents will have to show remarkable imagination, because it affects the success of treatment. If you simply forbid your child to talk, it could have a negative impact on his psyche. Therefore Turn silent exciting game.

 stuttering in children treated

The behavior of parents

As mentioned above, to eliminate stuttering in a child's parents must comply with a number of very important rules:

  • Discussion of problems with child

In no case do not discuss with anyone that was not a problem when the child - with friends, family. Do not think that the child is 3-4 years still do not understand - the baby hears and understands much more than we adults tend to think. And very sensitive to discuss its drawbacks.

  • Personal example of adults

Carefully follow his speech in the presence of a child. It should be a quiet, unhurried, expressive and correct. Your right it is very important for the development of a child's speech.

  • Psychological home furnishings

One may treat stuttering is the most modern methods, but did not cure him, if the child's family will be surrounded by an unfavorable environment. One year, two, three, five years - at any age child should live in an atmosphere of harmony and love. Try to minimize any possible conflicts and disputes. Or, at least, is not to sort things out in the presence of a child. Otherwise stuttering may start even earlier in a healthy child.

  • Restricting the child's communication

Many speech therapists is strictly not recommended during treatment of stuttering drive the child to visit or take the guests themselves. First, the child will be ashamed of their stuttering, and secondly, for a child 3-5 years of the arrival of the guests is a serious stress, even if it is positive. So it should not need to expose your child's nervous system similar loads.

And walking in the bustling playgrounds should also be avoided. It is desirable that the child communicated with one - two quiet children - the same age or younger age. Such communication will only benefit the child.

Of course, stuttering in a child 3-5 years - the phenomenon is extremely unpleasant. However, parents should not despair - cure stuttering is quite possible with the help of a speech therapist. Although, of course, the efforts of parents have to work. And patience is useful to you - this treatment takes a long time. But in the end you have all the necessary work!

 Stuttering in children 3 years of age. How to get rid of the problem?

 a broken arm in a child


  • Especially children's fractures
  • Broken arm: Classification
  • Injury offset or without
  • How to identify the injured children
  • Procedure fracture
  • What treatment is indicated for fractures
  • The recovery period

The human hand is composed of three parts, namely the radius, humerus and ulna. Today, just their fracture is the most common injury. After all, no one is safe from falls and injuries, especially a child. And in adults, and the elderly account for half of the injuries just on a broken arm. With regard to children, according to statistics, this injury they usually get if mundane circumstances, such as at home or on the playground, in the fall from a height, while walking or running, and the like. Bones of hand children damage twice as often compared to the legs. Superiority of the "popularity" takes a fracture of the elbow, and the second "sick" place a child - forearm. Severe multiple injuries, fortunately, much rarer -primerno 2, 5% of 10% of all injuries of the musculoskeletal system.

Especially children's fractures

Bone child differ from adult bone in that they contain more organic substances such as protein ossein and a shell covering the outside of their thicker, plus it is well supplied with blood. Also, the kids there are areas of tissue growth. These factors determine the specific characteristics of injuries in children, which we describe below.

Most often, the child can be seen fracture "green branches". It is so named because it looks the bone looks like it broke down, and then bent. However, this is not the most serious injuries. After displacement with bone fragments can be gentle, since fracture occurs only on one side. The second is to avoid damage to the periosteum helps dense that keeps experiencing load fragments.

Sometimes a broken arm, which occurred at a young age, in the future may have serious consequences. The fact that the line interface of the bone (radial, ulnar and humeral) often runs in the growth of connective tissue, located near the joints. Its damage can cause premature closure of the formation and shortening, curvature or a combination of both defects in the process of growing children. Therefore, parents should monitor their child and otherwise safeguard it from possible falls and injuries.

In contrast to adults, children frequently arise damage protuberances that hold the muscle .  In fact this crisis - this separation of the muscles and ligaments of the bones .  However, the fabric of the child grow together more quickly than an adult .  This is due to a good blood supply of the periosteum, as well as accelerate the process of formation of blisters .  Therefore, any fracture (legs, arms) the child will heal much faster than the older generation .  Another feature of the damage at a young age - the possible effects of self-correction of displacement of bone fragments after injury .  This is due to the functioning of muscle and bone growth .  However, keep in mind that one shift body can handle and "simulate" it, and the other is not .  Possession of such information is important for the laws of each parent .  As in the case of injury to the baby is up to you the last word in deciding on surgery and further treatment .

Broken arm: Classification

Let's dwell on these kinds of injuries. They are traumatic and pathological. These arise as a result of disease processes in the bone, breaking its structure, the integrity and the strength and continuity. For such damage sufficiently small force from the outside, such as light or push pin, so sometimes called spontaneous. But a traumatic fracture of the hand - it is, on the contrary, a consequence of short-term effects on bone mechanical strength of considerable magnitude. According to statistics, it happens much more often pathological.

Fracture may also be closed or open - it depends on the condition of skin integument. First it considered aseptic, i.e. uninfected, as in this case the upper tissue integrity is not broken and all the bone fragments and the region of injury isolated from the environment. Open arm fracture different skin lesions. This can be either a small wound, or, conversely, an enormous gap soft tissues with their pollution and destruction. Such injuries are initially infected!

 broken arm offset the child

Injury offset or without

In this case, it depends on the degree of separation tissue. Fracture (radius or other) offset is considered complete if the communication breakdown between the fragments. It is an incomplete one, in which the integrity of almost saved (or fragments supported), that is, the connection is not completely dissociated.

Fractures of the hand is also classified according to the direction of line damage bone (ulnar, radial or brachial) .  Depending on this, they are divided into transverse, helical, longitudinal and oblique, stellate, T and V-shaped .  Do not forget that the child can occur fracture plane (skull, pelvis, shoulder), sponge (vertebrae, talus, heel, etc.) and long bones .  Here the problem is that they just form the basis of the extremities .  Often offset injuries occur bones, which, depending on their location, are diaphyseal (damage to the middle portion), epiphyseal (tampering end portion) and the metaphyseal .  In view of the affected area are distinguished fractures isolated (one part), multiple (two or more segments) .  It is also possible to combine the damage when, for example, trauma arm "completes" the other (cranial, abdomen, and so forth) .  Each case is different, not only the possible consequences, but also the method of treatment .  Therefore, watch your baby, tell him how to behave on the playground .  Because we all know that an injury as a disease is easier to prevent than to cure!

How to identify the injured children

Recognize whether there is a broken arm your child, it is not difficult. In this case, the clinical manifestations of complete bone injuries (radial, ulnar, and others) with displacement of the fragments do not differ from those of adults. The kid in an unhealthy condition usually excited, crying and capricious. A clear sign of a fracture is pain in the injured area, puffiness and swelling can be observed deformation of the hands and the inability to act, for example, move the damaged segment. In the area of ​​the projection on the skin are often formed a hematoma. In the first few days after the trauma the child temperature rises to 37-38 degrees, due to the absorption of the contents of the bruise.

However, errors in diagnosis - are not uncommon, especially injuries in young children .  Thus, in case of break, epiphyses, osteoepifizeolizah and subperiosteal fractures that do not differ offset can persist limb mobility, its contours remain unchanged .  Only when there is feeling pain in a limited area .  So often diagnosed as a fracture injury, that is fundamentally wrong .  It is also difficult to recognize other factors: lack of history, the best expression of the subcutaneous tissue, which greatly complicates the palpation, fragments are not characterized by displacement as a consequence - the inability to identify the injury under the periosteum .  The danger of such unqualified conclusions - wrong treatment, which can then lead to a distortion of limbs and dysfunction of the hand .  Therefore, to make a correct diagnosis and be sure of the designated recovery methods, it is best to carry out X-ray examination .

Procedure fracture

If your child is injured his hand in such a way, the very first thing to do - to immobilize the limb .  Thus it is necessary to fix not only the injured area, and two adjacent joint .  For example, if the fracture occurred on the forearm, it must immobilize the damaged segment of arms, as well as the radius and ulna joints .  This will reduce the pain and reduce the risk of further displacement .  And it can happen to any bone: radiation, shoulder, elbow - it all depends on where the strike occurred .  Then you need to impose on a limb bus from scrap materials (use a ruler, a stick and the like) and hang it on the dressing of a scarf or a shawl thrown over the neck .  If the hand looks unnatural, do not try to put it in the original appearance and level .  So you are only a cause unnecessary pain to the victim .  In addition, if the bones were displaced, their actions can enhance this effect, and even damage the soft tissues .

If there is a broken arm and an open violation of the integrity of the skin, the wound is infected .  In such a case, it may start bleeding vessels damaged bone fragments (radiation, elbow or shoulder, depending on the injury) .  Therefore, before immobilizing the limb, it is necessary to stop the loss of blood, treat the wound and apply a bandage (necessarily sterile)! To do this, first wash your hands (or who will provide first aid) and release the damaged section of clothes .  Symptom arterial bleeding - bright red color of blood flowing pulsating jet .  In this case, push the container slightly above the site of injury - where there are no dense muscle mass, where the artery is close to the surface .  When bleeding from a vein push it below the place where the blood flows (dark and throbbing) and lock the arm in a slightly raised position .  If the hemorrhage does not stop, until the arrival of the doctor, hold the wound with a clean towel, a piece of cloth, gauze or other improvised means .

If the child has an open fracture, but no bleeding, just remove from the skin torn clothes, dirt and other external stimuli. Rinse the wound under running water, and ideally - hydrogen peroxide. In the latter case can be formed foam, remove it from the edges of the injured area with clean cloth and apply dry sterile dressing. Open fracture (radius and others) is an indication for vaccination against tetanus. Consider this point, if the vaccination was not carried out, or expiration date has already expired.

Give your child a pain reliever (usually use funds on the basis of ibuprofen or paracetamol), but in any case, do not feed or poite as in the hospital may need anesthesia. What happens next depends on the correct diagnosis and prescribed treatment, so as soon as possible, take the baby to a nearby clinic. Survey conducted in children trauma center in some cities in the emergency rooms of hospitals, surgery and traumatology. This X-ray required!

 fracture of the radius at the hands of a child

What treatment is indicated for fractures

Bones children grow together rather quickly, especially in the primary school age (7 years), so the most common method vosttanovleniya is conservative. If the fracture is not accompanied by the displacement of bone fragments, simply imposing a so-called plaster splints. It does not cover the entire circumference of the injured limb, but only part of it. Typical fractures without displacement do not require hospitalization and are treated as outpatients.

In the normal accretion of radiation and other bones of the affected arm to attend trauma during rehabilitation will have to once every five to seven days. With proper dressing the child gradually decrease pain, and later they completely disappear. Movement disorders and sensitivity on the fingers of the hand should be absent. If the bandage was imposed unprofessional and squeezing limbs occurs, there may be such "alarming" symptoms such as aching, swelling, loss of or exacerbation of sensitivity. If there is at least one of them, see your doctor!

Unfortunately, not always easy helping the imposition of gypsum. In severe fractures with displacement (eg, intra-articular radius) may need surgery under general anesthesia action - closed reduction of bone fragments with the further imposition of gypsum. Such surgery takes only a few minutes, but due to anesthesia child leave hospital under medical supervision.

To prevent re-offset unstable fracture fixation can be used metal needles. Initially, the bone fragments (radial or ulnar forearm, depending on the injury) is fixed by them, and then applied a plaster cast. With this method requires special care and dressing, so the children are placed in the hospital for three to five days, and after the prescribed treatment on an outpatient basis.

The recovery period

In terms of radiation seam, elbow and shoulder bone is affected by several factors: age, the nature and location of the fracture. The average recovery of arms leaves 1-1, 5 months. A complex case with a shift will take a little more time.

Active rehabilitation period begins after the removal of plaster or other types of fixing (for example, spoke with severe fractures of the radius). At this time, it should encourage your child to develop movement in adjacent joints, increase muscle tone, supporting the ability to restore them to the injured limb. For this is a physiotherapy, special massage, swimming and physiotherapy. All these procedures need to take place over the course of recovery, without making breaks. A course of massage and physical therapy designed approximately 11 sessions - it improves the circulation of lymph and blood in the damaged areas, restoring muscle function and contributes to the development of motion in joints.

Particular attention during treatment should be given to child nutrition. Include a child's diet supplement containing the required group of minerals and vitamins.

In open fractures, which are compounded by a violation of circulation of blood, oxygen treatment is recommended - hyperbaric oxygen therapy. This method is used to prevent infection and promotes the activation of metabolic processes in the child's body. Initially, treatment is initiated in the hospital, and continued after the already under ambulatory. Sometimes after a compound fracture may be a violation of the injured arm and pain. In such cases, treatment can be carried out in special rehabilitation centers.

 A broken arm in a child

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