- The legal interpretation of the status of single mothers
- Why is the graph of the fatherhood so often is blank
- Benefits that the single mother
- Rights single mothers in the labor, housing and tax codes
Families with kids are growing up, well aware of how much force is required, patience and money to bring up at least one child. Very well, if both parents are equally involved in this labor-intensive process: Dad makes money, my mother engaged in child and home. As soon as a kid growing up, family responsibilities, or redistributed, or not, depending on the realities of life and desires of family members. The whole point is that the heavy burden of raising children is divided between the two - the father and mother. It is this traditional family is in the conventional sense.
However, in our difficult time of change and new trends affected all spheres of life, and even immutable, it would seem, the boundaries between masculine and feminine gained transparency, frequent among the representatives of the beautiful half of humanity becomes conscious choice to have a child. This occurs even when life together with his prospective father or impossible for a number of reasons, or even desirable.
This position is in our country a few decades ago was considered nonsense if not, then at least, was quite rare. After the birth of the child without a husband was perceived in society as a disgrace for a woman. So hardly anyone consciously decided on such a step. In general, a single mother at the time was considered the birth of their child mistake of youth. It was not a conscious decision about their conception, but rather an accident, and the birth of the baby has been dictated by circumstances rather than a deliberate desire.
But recently the situation has changed: the relationship between men and women have become more complex, the institution of family and marriage lost its former weight, but the instinct of motherhood still lives in each of us. So the question of what rights the state provides for modern single mothers, how well their status protected by law and what benefits are provided, are especially important.
The legal interpretation of the status of single mothers
For the average man, not very well-heeled in all existing legal subtleties, lonely is every mother raising a child or children without a husband. But in fact, in terms of legislation, a woman has this status only in those cases where:
- a child is born it is the official marriage;
- birth of a child has occurred for more than 300 days after the divorce;
- the child was born in wedlock (or until the expiration of 300 days after the divorce), but the fact of the husband contested paternity in court;
- child has been adopted (adopt) out of wedlock.
In other words, the status of single mother provides such a formulation: a woman with a child (children), which (-s) officially absent father.
Accordingly, a woman can not be considered as such by law, if it is:
- raising a child (children) after the termination of a legal marriage, even if the former spouse is not paying child support;
- She gave birth to a child in the period up to 300 days from the date of the divorce (or annulment), and for 300 days after the death of her husband;
- She gave birth to a child out of wedlock, but paternity established in court or voluntarily, even if the man lives alone;
- is a widow;
- raising a child (children), whose father (-s) deprived of parental rights.
In all the above cases, the children still there, or had an official father, so their mothers are women with a child (children), but without her husband.
Why is the graph of the fatherhood so often is blank
Very often, when a single mother goes to the registry office to register her newborn baby and its employees are advised instead of actual father put a dash. Naturally, they give such recommendations still pursuing their own interests, yet their words the woman should take note. This is due to a number of bureaucratic things such as:
- in the case of travel abroad with the child necessarily need permission of his father, and in fact often his whereabouts are unknown - as a result of the mother will have to try to prove his lack of law;
- if necessary, to register the child workers housing sector may insist on the presence of his father, although it is not quite legitimate, but is very important for the capital region;
- in the case of dangerous operation associated with a greater risk to a child's life, doctors sometimes need to sign an authorization from both parents - is, of course, exceptions, but life is unpredictable.
That's what causes forced single mothers put a dash in the graph information about paternity. But it must be said about the cons of this decision with respect to inheritance rights. After all, by law the children who have no birth certificate in the official records of the actual father, deprived of the opportunity to inherit his property. Therefore, the mother must weigh the pros and cons in both cases, and rely only on their own choices to protect their rights and child.
Benefits that the single mother
The woman in the status of a single mother has all the right to receive the same benefits associated with the birth of the child, which are provided for other categories.
- a one-time benefit paid in the event of registration in the antenatal clinic gestation less than 12 weeks;
- maternity leave (maternity payments);
- a one-time payment on the birth of the child;
- monthly payments on time, leave to care for a child who has not reached the age polutoragodovalogo.
This so-called mandatory federal benefits. But in every region of the Russian Federation has its own additional subsidy funds are assigned at birth. And be aware that some of them relate to all, while others are directed specifically to support single mothers, for example:
- a monthly allowance for families with children under the age of majority if their combined income is beyond the subsistence level;
- Compensating monthly payments due to the increase in food prices provided for children up to 3 years of age and the resulting increase in the cost of living for children under the age of 16;
- benefits who receive a monthly single mother or father with a disabled child under 18 years old (with a disabled child under 23 years old);
- payments provided monthly to a child living with a single mother or father who have a disability, the first and second groups are not working.
Rights single mothers in the labor, housing and tax codes
The state regulates the rights for single mothers to receive a number of benefits in the tax, employment, housing and social spheres. For working mothers, according to the current Tax Code laid a double standard tax deduction ("children") for the costs of maintenance of the child until the age of 18 years. But it's the right woman loses as soon as legally marry.
The Labour Code specifies that the single mother has a number of advantages at work. For example, it can not be dismissed at the insistence of the administration, if the child has not reached the age of 14, except for the liquidation of the company, but only if the compulsory employment. The employer must provide a workplace and a woman when the deadline of the labor contract (agreement), with full pay for three months after the end of the contract.
Single mothers laid the payment of sick leave due to illness of the child up to 14 years at a rate of 100% and a term longer than other women. They also rely additional 14 days of leave without pay at any time. Single mothers who are raising a disabled child have the right to give them to the 4 extra days off per month.
Housing Code, in turn, determines the priority for these women to get free housing. But there are some limitations that are common to all, regardless of status: qualify for government square meters can only those categories of people who are legally entitled to improve their living conditions.
A single mother is also entitled to a number of social benefits. Minor children of such women may be accepted in an institution on a full provision of the state, students are entitled to free textbooks and food. Also, once every two years can be released in sanatoriums and children camps without having to pay the full cost. For some medicines, especially costly, for single mothers a discount of up to 50%.
Mothers raising children without a father, always in need of help. It can be financial or in the form of benefits from the state, but often modern working women are quite capable to provide both themselves and the baby. But equally important aid society, or rather, the proper relation of people to single mothers. And it is in tolerance and understanding, as a woman raising a child alone, has all the rights on privacy and on professional growth and career development. So do not condemn lone mother who is trying to find happiness in marriage. This is not an attempt on her part to infringe upon the interests of the child, and the desire to bring it into full family.
If such a mother is among your colleagues at work or working under you, try to understand the fact that it sometimes have to be away at school, or other matters relating to the child. Consider the fact that in addition to her no one else to care for a son or daughter during his illness.
It is important that both the state and society have learned to respect the rights of these special mothers and did not perceive them as inconvenient, eternally dissatisfied lgotnits all, because they have to cope alone with the difficult task of raising children.