• What is tuberculosis?
  • How do you get infected and what is the further development of the disease?
  • Symptoms that can reveal their own
  • Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis
  • Treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis
  • Tuberculosis: Prevention

Pulmonary tuberculosis - a disease known to mankind for a long time. Over the years, it changed only its name (formerly called tuberculosis tuberculosis), but the essence of the disease remained one. It is a serious illness, from which no one is immune.

It is terrible not only for its consequences, but the fact that the direct impact on the social component of the life of any individual. And in general, pulmonary tuberculosis can be considered a social disease. Why so? In this and many other issues is to understand thoroughly, as it can affect anyone.
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What is tuberculosis?

It is an infectious disease that is transmitted to it by airborne droplets.

This makes the tuberculosis is very dangerous, because it has all the prerequisites to become an epidemic. However, modern society is hardly threatened. It should say "thank you" to vaccination. At the same time, the old pulmonary tuberculosis (consumption) could be (and often are) getting a real killer, which account for a huge number of lives blown.

What caused the condition? At the core lies the so-called TB Mycobscterium tuberculosis, its other name - the tubercle bacillus. This type of bacteria was discovered in the late 19th century scientist named Robert Koch. To date Mycobscterium tuberculosis is well understood. By the way, this causes tuberculosis bacterium can not only in humans but also in some species that only exacerbates the spread of the disease. As a rule, tuberculosis of the lungs are exposed to domesticated animals.

Light - this is not the only body that could be the goal of tuberculosis. But that tuberculosis occurs more often but its essence is studied in detail. Mortality from such diseases is about 16-19%. As the number of cases, at the moment in Russia tuberculosis in the lungs revealed about 80 people out of 100 000. A little more often it occurs in men than in women. But statistics show that women have the disease is less active for.

 TB infection
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How do you get infected and what is the further development of the disease?

As mentioned earlier, the bacterium Mycobscterium tuberculosis is transmitted by airborne droplets. This can happen during a conversation with a sick person sneezes near it, coughing, or any close contact with him. The most accurate statement is that it is important not so much the proximity of the contact as very hit Mycobscterium tuberculosis in the form of aerosol emissions.

Then stick to mucosal person and then inward and the body: the lungs or the gastrointestinal tract. In this case the primary tubinfitsirovanie. This will be much better if the stick will proceed to the stomach. There it has a chance to disappear under the influence of acid-base tough environment. In the case of entering the lungs a chance to catch tuberculosis are much higher. The environment for the development of tuberculosis there is much more favorable.

In the first period after being hit in the human body Mycobscterium tuberculosis does not manifest itself. Moreover, even on the part of the immunity it remains unnoticed. The incubation period can last for an unlimited time. The incubation period ends at the moment when the body can not withstand the infection. By the way, the incubation period a person can infect others.

The bacterium uses this favorable period for her and multiplies as fast as possible. Especially good fetal infection in the tissues where there is a good circulation of blood and lymph. For example, in the lungs, kidneys and lymph nodes.

After breeding the bacteria the chips are down. During this period, it solved a lot. If the body and its immune system is strong enough, then fine Mycobscterium tuberculosis exterminated from the human body, which does not allow the development of the disease. In this case, you can almost certainly claim that treatment will help. But if the body is weakened, it weakens its present factors (chronic vitamin deficiency, diabetes, HIV, hepatitis and other diseases, there is a high probability that pulmonary tuberculosis soon move into its active phase, with the ability to quickly develop.

At this point it solved another issue: whether a person with contagious Mycobscterium tuberculosis. Thus, if the bacteria comes from the so called granulomas, and the disease was published in the open form, which means that the patient actively allocates the infection into the environment. If the granuloma, which contains the bacteria retained its integrity, then infected by a man almost impossible.

But it is time to understand what are the first signs of tuberculosis. How it manifests itself in the early and later stages? And self-identify symptoms of this terrible disease? Everyone is entitled to this knowledge, because they can help in time to prevent or halt the disease.

 Diagnosis of the disease
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Symptoms that can reveal their own

Of course, the most accurate way tuberculosis is detected in laboratory studies, as well as the full examination of the doctor and his professional advice. But there are a number of symptoms, which should be a "wake up call" for the man. Symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis in adults and children are almost identical.

In general it can be argued that there is absolutely characteristic symptoms that are characteristic solely tuberculosis.

But, for example, is worried if present long persistent cough which is accompanied by an active sputum, in some cases, and blood. Appears shortness of breath, a person sometimes becomes hard to breathe.

Along with this it is not uncommon and a dry cough, sputum production, or so the blood is not a defining characteristic. The very hemoptysis occurs in the late stages of pulmonary tuberculosis. This is due to the occurrence of bleeding in the lungs, which results in a bad and very alarming symptom. What else could be signs of TB?

Shortness of breath - this is also the symptom that is observed in advanced stages of pulmonary tuberculosis. At this point, a large part of the body is already affected, which greatly complicates breathing for a sick person. Because of this, and there is shortness of breath. Lack of oxygen is very difficult to make up for anything, and you can sit down and (oxygen masks and other devices), it significantly limits the vitality and mobility of the patient.

Yet there is one clear sign of pulmonary tuberculosis. And it is called tuberculous intoxication. How to recognize it? Tuberculous intoxication adversely affect the body. It is manifested by the following symptoms:

  • sharp and in no way motivated by weight loss;
  • unusual and previously oversaw a blush on the cheeks a reddish hue;
  • at the same time it presents an unhealthy pallor of the skin all over the body;
  • nagging drowsiness, which is even after a long sleep (this is due to intoxication of the brain);
  • permanent increase in body temperature in the range from 37 2 to 38 3 ° C (low-grade fever);
  • changes in appetite (by its complete lack of a significant increase to the bordering overeating);
  • night sweats body, due to which the person often wakes up in the so-called cold sweat.

However, often in the early stages of pulmonary tuberculosis occurs completely asymptomatic and unnoticed by its owner. In this case, help may be just in time to clinical studies, some of which are familiar to everyone. Which method name in question?

 vaccination Mantoux
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Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis

All of the above symptoms and signs of the disease can be called the primary. They can be very noticeable and cheloveku.No medicine is not so limited. For accurate diagnosis uses a number of studies have established that accurately determine the presence of the disease, its stage and development.

The most common type of research that is familiar to everybody, - this fluorography. At the moment it is done every year, billions of people. Such manipulation identify any changes in the lungs and hilar lymph nodes. This method is an instrumental. In the same group with him and includes chest X-ray, computed tomography, bronchoscopy, and others.

With regard to laboratory methods for the detection of pulmonary tuberculosis, now mostly used sputum smear and bronchial washing water. The resulting material was subjected to the test, during which the bacteria Mycobscterium tuberculosis painted in a distinctive color. With this laboratory study can be conducted pleural fluid, lung biopsy, pleural and lymph nodes.

Lastly, immunological methods for detecting the disease. These include all known Mantoux test. Man 2 is introduced under the skin tuberkulirovannye unit that helps to see the body's response to them. But today, we can state the fact that the Mantoux test - an outdated method. Quite often, he gives false positive results, which causes jittery and the patient and doctor.

Much more advanced and modern immunological tests can be called Diaskintest. This rapid test to detect tuberculosis. At its heart is the same subcutaneous injection with specific proteins of tuberculosis. The chance for error is minimal, and so the experts all over the world prefer to use diaksintest rather than the Mantoux test.

The extremely complex and difficult to diagnose cases, can be used polymerase chain reaction, which also refers to a group of immunological methods for finding of pulmonary tuberculosis.

 TB treatment
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Treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis

Treatment of this disease consists of several components. Of course, everything depends on its manifestations and forms.

The most important condition for treatment is that it must necessarily be carried out in specialized clinics, which otherwise called tuberculosis dispensaries. Such measures are related to the patient's desire to limit contact with the community to prevent the further spread of infection.

The basis of treatment are special anti-microbial drugs, which suppress the activity of bacteria Mycobscterium tuberculosis. Treatment of such drugs are quite effective, especially in the early stages. But, and they have their tangible disadvantages. So, over time, an increasing number of strains that are insensitive influence of drugs.

In the treatment of tuberculosis can be used surgical technique. It is used in advanced forms of the disease, the presence of complications. Regarding the latter, then so may be different hemorrhage, pneumothorax, empyema, and some others.

The next stage of treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis is aimed at eliminating tuberculosis intoxication inevitably arises. There is intoxication and further from the use of antimicrobials. To reduce intoxication apply a variety of vitamins, sorbents, hepatoprotectors, infusion therapy, and other items.

Fighting during treatment, and have oxygen deficiency, which, as already mentioned, caused by damage to the lung tissue. Eliminating hypoxia greatly facilitates the course of the disease and the treatment itself. To do this, some devices may be used to normalize breathing. Among them, oxygen masks, oxygen concentrators for building and some others.

In general, treatment should be carried out in a timely manner, it should be clearly thought-out program, there must be systematic and consistent. All the time throughout the treatment the patient should be closely supervised by a professional. By the way, doctors are engaged such as Pulmonology and Tuberculosis.

But where are the best means, than any even the most effective treatment - is prevention. TB treatment can last for years, and sometimes even lifelong. A preventive maintenance takes much less time and effort.

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Tuberculosis: Prevention

Vaccination - is the foundation for the prevention of this disease. As already mentioned, it is a social disease. This is an important factor. No less important is the fact that it can be transmitted from person to person through the air. And so the infected person can not lead an antisocial lifestyle, but, for example, are constantly in contact to work with lots of people. In this and other cases, the vaccine can help prevent infection.

At the moment, there is no more effective method for prevention than vaccination. Additionally, you need to limit any contact with persons who are potential carriers of tuberculosis. At risk are persons of no fixed abode, HIV-infected and those who are serving a sentence in prison, and some other categories of people leading asocial and deviant lifestyle. These people often suffer from pulmonary tuberculosis.

For the purpose of prevention is worth a yearly chest X-rays to pass the lungs in adults and children. It is included in the list of mandatory medical measures, which should take place periodically every person. This applies to both adults and children. In addition, there is no differentiation in terms of vaccination. Vaccinate also need to both adults and children.

Thus, today's knowledge will help to strengthen its expertise in such diseases as tuberculosis. This will not be infected, or to recognize the disease, based on the symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis, suspend disease hold effective treatment. And let health fails anybody! Every human life can and should be complete. And in this physical condition plays a primary role.

 Pulmonary tuberculosis: how to recognize, treat and prevent?