"Of what, of what, of what made our boys and girls? "- Words of a well-known children's song. And that they are applicable to the story that is the psychological structure of the personality. Many well-known scientists (and not only psychologists) smashed his head on the answer to the question of what constitutes a person's personality and character. Someone said that the needs of someone as a unit indicated some hell, and that is why almost every well-known psychologist has its own views on the structure of personality. In this article we offer you only the most interesting and useful in real life.
The structure of personality in the writings of Sigmund Freud
The founding father of psychoanalysis could not ignore his work such a basic issue as a psychological structure of personality. Largely on his reflections on this subject repel other psychoanalytic discoveries - the types of personality, its development, etc. ... Freud describes the following terms of personality:
- "Eid" or "It" - the oldest formation in the human psyche.
It contains numerous instincts that we have inherited from animal ancestors. The most famous - is the instinct of life (along with its subspecies sexual instinct) and the death instinct (with the thirst for destruction and aggression). In our minds, they appear in the form of desires and the corresponding unpleasant emotions. The main feature of these desires and emotions is their selfishness and self-centeredness. This is due to the fact that they reflect the biological and instinctive nature of man, which includes only physical, hormonal and physiological needs.
Nothing social or cultural in these desires not; for example, if a male wants a female, he hit her on the head with a club and dragged into the cave, without asking for anything (though some women sometimes want this animal behavior from men).
Man is by nature deeply uncivilized as his desire, he is constantly trying to satisfy. But when he is in society, the implementation of such "animal" desires is no longer possible, and the person begins to suffer. Freud believed that one of the few not blame society for ways to satisfy the instincts is a fantasy - a man imagines embodied in the life of his desire, but in reality, nothing happens. However, always do only one imagination impossible.
With the entry into society a person begins to learn to behave wisely and personality gradually developed "ego" - it is separated from the "Eid", but continues to take out energy (more nowhere, because there are raging instincts, and they are the source of tension and energy resources). The "ego" consists of thinking and perception, memory and actions related to the satisfaction of the instincts. It controls the nervous system and the muscles responsible for the movement. But before the action man always decides whether or not he will do something, and if so, what.
"Ego" controls the relationship between the "id" and "superego", which are in a state of perpetual conflict. Thus, the "ego" needs help to find their satisfaction in the outer world and, if possible, the least destructive ways. For example, wants to satisfy the sexual instinct here and now, but "Ego" whispers to us: "Wait until the evening, when you can find a partner in a nightclub ...". Through its existence attempted realization of the desires of man become truly effective. But, despite its relative civility, "Ego" as "Eid", works on the principle of pleasure, the essence of which consists in an effort to get rid of stress.
It includes the standards, rules, patterns of behavior - everything ever invented social laws that a person learns and which help him to live in society. "Superego" and partly "ego" guided by the principle of reality when external circumstances determine human behavior. It is his voice we hear when we think about how to behave, to ban or about some rules.
Based on how the personality structure was presented in the mind of Freud, he described the various psychological problems, psychosomatic disorders, neurosis etc. ... The reason for their occurrence is a conflict between the "id" and "superego": they are too different and constantly fighting with each other. "Eid" - is the animal, and the "super-ego" - cultural. Due to the structure of society, many human desires can not be satisfied, causing neurosis. That is why many of us have different personal problems - we just can not be truly satisfied with their lives, as our animal nature anyway constantly suppressed society. This is payback for our culture, civilization and safety.
To part, Freud describes a mechanism that contributes to the partial satisfaction of our hidden desires. If we crave something shameful and anti-social, you can try to replace the object of their needs on a more affordable within society. Man is constantly engaged in such searches, for example, when he wants to destroy and kill, he goes to the gym or painting a picture. As a result of such trade-offs we get the energy to displace socially useful things, such as work, creativity, scientific achievements and the pursuit of power. This process is called "sublimation." Unfortunately, it can not completely remove the hoarding in people power, so the remaining energy is accumulated and becomes the basis for anxiety and neurosis.
The structure of personality in the writings of CG Jung
One of the most famous disciples of Freud (and at the same time, an apostate from his theory) Carl Gustav Jung is the author of his own theory of personality structure. Of course, it had a strong influence of classical psychoanalysis, but it still continues to be interesting and unique, which is why we offer it to your attention.
Structure of personality according to Jung includes the following levels:
- Individual unconscious
- Collective Unconscious
"Consciousness". It includes two archetypes - "Persona" and "Ego". Person - this is the most superficial layer. It includes a mask that we "wear" in society, social roles that we play for other people. Of particular importance at this level given the symbols of clothes, no occupations (computer bag, tools) or the status of occupied us in society (master's degree, designer accessories, machine). All these characters can find their expression in our dreams. For example, a person possessing a "strong person" may be a dream, in which he covered with ten layers of clothing. Even more important role in the life of a person playing the "ego." It is, in fact, is our consciousness that occurs because of the experience we received. "Ego" creates a sense of connectedness and continuity of the flow of thoughts, actions and emotions.
Collective Unconscious - a key concept in Jung's theory. It is innate: it traces the life and memory of our ancestors. Despite the fact that the collective unconscious - a legacy from all mankind, it manifests itself in the psyche of each individual in the form of archetypes. Archetype - is inherent in all people and innate mental image or structure that is recognized in human experience. Jung compares it to the riverbed, where there is no water.
In fact, it is defined by our ancestors form of thought, an imprint of collective experience. Archetypes are manifested in dreams, in art, in human activities. They can come in the form of some images in which our ancestors tried to convey what happened to them (the characters of myths, folklore, fairy tales and folklore, some traditions and rituals), or in the form of some specific characters (Buddhist the wheel of life, Ouroboros - snake biting its own tail, cross and so on ...)
Individual unconscious. It includes several archetypes: "Self," "anima and animus," "The Shadow." Shadow - it's something that a person believes in itself immoral, vile and unpleasant. It is the center of the individual unconscious. In contrast to the ideas of Freud, Jung's "shadow" - is not just a collection of isolated and repressed instincts, but something coherent - "I am poor." It is often to us in our dreams in the image of someone dangerous, dark or hostile. It is important to recognize her presence: "Shadow" is a part of the individual and emphasizes the dual nature of man, and a variety of features present in it. For example, we can be good and bad, brave and timid. Pushing the "Shadow", we generate in their internal conflicts.
"Animus" for women and "Anima" in men - a collection of all the unwanted image of himself as a man and a woman, respectively, which have been pushed out of consciousness. Something like "in every man there is a little bit feminine, and vice versa." Most people are embarrassed or reject the features of the opposite sex. Parents largely determine the formation of "anima" and "animus", and they, in turn, influence the choice of romantic partners.
"Self" is the center of the individual unconscious
. It symbolizes order and the integrity of the conscious and the unconscious man's existence, unites them
. Unlike Freud, Jung believed that the unconscious mind, and do not fight, but rather complement each other
. It's like the principle of "yin and yang" - the harmony, reconciliation of polarities and dynamic balance
. The main purpose of human life - the development of his "self"; but unfortunately, many people, it is not so developed, that they are not even aware of its existence and is considered the center of the consciousness of his personality
. "Self" is realized only when the human soul comes to harmony, and it is rare before middle age
. The development of "self" does not mean the end for the "ego": it still remains the center of consciousness, but it is connected to the "self"
. This is the essence of the process of self-realization
. As a symbol of the self, Jung described the point or circle
. Agree, in the images of their culture very much: pancakes, sun, planets, etc.
The reason for the different personal problems, Jung saw in disequilibrium between the conscious and the unconscious. For example, a person considers himself white and fluffy and totally refuses to accept the fact that his personality has a dark side. However, "The Shadow" still breaks out, and when he is faced with that, then it becomes very bad, sad and depressed.
The structure of personality in the writings of humanists
In addition to the psychoanalytic direction, socio-psychological structure of the individual described as humanistic psychology. They believed each person unique and unrepeatable, but some general framework are taking place. The most well-known and easy to understand are the work of two authors - Abraham Maslow and Gordon Allport.
Maslow believed that man - this is his needs and his psychological personality structure includes five levels. The first two levels - a lower needs: people can meet them for some time to forget about them. The other levels - it needs the higher man, from the perspective of Maslow, can not begin to meet them until realized lower, while their satisfaction is impossible (judge for yourself, if you have you need to love, it is practically inexhaustible, do not it happens that you fall in love, fall in love, and you have enough!). So what are the needs of Maslow describes?
- Physiological needs. It needs our body as a biological being. These include the need for food, water, air, sleep, sex, etc. These needs are basic and necessary simply to maintain human existence.
- The need for safety and comfort. This includes the need for clothes in a warm and comfortable home, the money that you have a vegetable garden on the difficulties in the presence of a strong door, stability and order in the state. Some people manipulate others using these needs: for example, if you create a person any threat (even imaginary) life and health, he will not think about anything else and can be forced to do what he would not do as completely happy and free.
- The need for love and belonging. We all feel it is important to need other people. We want them to need us, we loved and sympathized with us. It is because of this need, we seek to get married, start a family and have a baby - then we become part of something bigger.
- The need for prestige. This need for respect, self-esteem, recognition and a certain social status. Because of them, we seek to buy expensive and branded things, trying to occupy the high post, send their children to an elite school and do other prestigious public and endorses things. It is very important that we have praised and respected, not only others, but ourselves.
- Spiritual needs. These include the need for cognition and development, interest in the new, the need for beauty and harmony, striving to realize itself and thrust to achieve more and more goals. Spiritual needs - this is the best and highest that is in man. Thanks to them, we create and realize their abilities in those activities, which are inclined and interest.
Indeed, Maslow created a beautiful and coherent theory, but the question arises: how to deal with examples that are knocked out of her? For example, a starving artist, he is able to practically nothing there for months - the main thing that he had his favorite paints and easel. And the guy who saves his girlfriend? Such examples are the mass and they all confirm that, for self-love and all have to be fed and in comfort (otherwise we would all be lonely).
Another well-known humanistic psychologist oriented G.Olport offers his personality structure. He paid much attention to the ratio of general and individual in man, and, according to this, and describes the general personality traits. Common features - are characteristics possessed by all people, but to varying degrees (eg, intelligence - all the people they have, but its level at all different). Personality traits - these are individual behaviors that make a person unique and make up a complete picture of his behavior. They have consistently repeated that particular person, but virtually absent in humanity as a whole.
Personality traits - this is not some words, these are real facts that really manifested in human behavior. And they do not just occur - they define it. Personality traits are linked - there are no clear boundaries between them. Rather, each person is a set of overlapping features and specifications. We must not forget that the personality trait - is not synonymous with moral or social evaluation (although every feature we have the attitude, for example, endorsed by the kindness and irascibility condemned). Allport divided all the personality traits of the following groups:
- Cardinal. These features provide a very strong and pervasive influence on human life. They appear in almost every of his actions or actions. For example, people with bright authoritarian traits in the character always behaves quite specific: a stern voice said, the team is committed to power. This is due to its particular perception of the world. As examples of such fundamental character traits lead Allport's fictional heroes or famous historical figures such as Joan of Arc, Machiavelli or Don Juan. Throughout the life of these people is easy to detect the influence of the cardinal traits.
- Central. They manifest themselves in many situations, but not all. According to him, we define what type of personality belongs to the people, because they are quite clearly manifested in his actions. These traits are kindness, aggressiveness, impulsivity, and others. Allport himself believed that each person of their relatively small - only five to ten most important features.
- Secondary. It is less obvious features, but it is regularly manifested. An example of such characteristics can be homophobia - in fact the person is rarely shows that he does not like homosexuals. Such traits are less create an image and description of the person: it is necessary to know it thoroughly, to observe these characteristics.
Allport also had a very important and interesting work, he described the signs of psychologically mature person.