causes cervical ectopia


  • Classification of ectopic
  • What is the reason for the occurrence of ectopic cervical cancer?
  • Symptoms and diagnosis of cervical ectopia
  • Treatment, prevention and prognosis of ectopic

Ectopic cervical - this shift in the vaginal portion of the cervix boundaries of columnar epithelium. If the shape of the cervix ectopia uncomplicated, may show no clinical picture.

If ectopia cervix becomes complicated shape can be observed profuse discharge from the cervical canal as a whiter, sometimes bloody vaginal discharge, itching and burning in the genital area. Discover the disease is possible with gynecological examination. For an accurate diagnosis will require extended colposcopy, cytological examination of scrapings, biopsy is sometimes required.

Uncomplicated ectopia of the cervix does not require any treatment, but requires a complicated form of causal treatment, the performance degradation of altered foci. Ectopic cervical medicine is also called pseudo, zhelezistomyshechnoy hyperplasia, false erosion endocervicoses.

In normal vaginal area of ​​the cervix, which is available in the gynecological speculum examination, lines the outside of the flat stratified epithelium. And from inside the cervical canal has a lining of columnar epithelium. If there is ectopia, in the region of the external os shifted the transition boundary in the columnar epithelium is flat, settling at this locally or around its circumference.

The disease is characteristic for 40% of all women, and 11, 5% get it from birth. Very often, ectopia observed in women younger than 30 years. This in itself is not able to pass the disease in cervical cancers but in the presence of ectopia probability of malignant tumors is only increasing.

 examination by a gynecologist
Back to contents

Classification of ectopic

As already mentioned, ectopia can be congenital and acquired. The false nature of the erosion can buy relapsed. According to the clinical form of ectopia can be complicated and uncomplicated. It is said that uncomplicated ectopic cervical medicine is normal and physiological condition of the woman. Take a complicated shape can result in ectopic colpitis and cervicitis, which can be caused by infection.

If there is a breach of the relationship of stromal and epithelial elements of the cervix, then the ectopia is called ectropion.

Based on histology isolated papillary and glandular ectopia of the cervix, as well as false with squamous metaplasia erosion.

Glandular ectopia accompanied by signs of inflammation and accumulation of glands with an extensive network of glandular moves.

Papillary ectopia accompanied by the growth component of the stroma and the formation of papillary structures, which are covered with cylindrical epithelial tissue.

The healing process involves the reverse substitution ectopia cylindrical epithelium cells mature flat epithelial tissue. In other words, a so-called zone of transformation. This process involves and reserve cells, originally transformed into immature and then mature metaplastic epithelial tissue.

Distinguish between finished and unfinished transformation zone is possible using colposcopy. Cellular metaplasia in adverse effects to be cut off, leading to a recurrence of cervical ectopia. In the case when the cells overlap mouth cervical glands metaplastic layer may cyst formation cervix (Nabothian cyst).

 sampling on tests
Back to contents

What is the reason for the occurrence of ectopic cervical cancer?

During puberty and early childbearing period ectopia is regarded as a kind of features and is quite normal. In these periods the basis ectopia cervix is ​​excessive secretion of the hormone estrogen (relative hyperestrogenia). During pregnancy false erosion it is also a norm, and is due to changes in hormonal levels and ovarian function.

According to various theories ectopia of the uterus may result from inflammatory processes dishormonal, immunological and traumatic factors.

The emergence of ectopic cervix as a result of inflammation is due to recurrent vaginitis endotservitami and which are caused by streptococcus, E. coli, various pathogens of STDs (ureaplasmosis, mycoplasma, chlamydia, bacterial vaginosis, and others). Abnormal and even abnormal discharge which affect the vaginal part of the uterus to cause a so-called flat desquamation of epithelial tissue to form at its site of this erosion. 1-2 weeks endocervical epithelial tissue extends to surface erosion, with the covers it on the spot and then formed ectopic site.

Infection of the uterus may contribute to a variety of birth defects, mechanical damage to the cervix during abortion trauma of the uterus using spermicides and barrier contraceptives.

It is believed that the development of ectopic could provoke and ovarian dysfunction. Very often there is ectopia in diseases such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, ovarian stromal hyperplasia, hormonal background and the failure of the menstrual cycle and other conditions caused by increased release of estrogen.

It is believed that the decrease in immunity, and can also cause the body's weakened immune system. Very often, ectopia can trigger early sexual activity, frequent change of sexual partners, the presence of diabetes, smoking, multiple births, etc.

Back to contents

Symptoms and diagnosis of cervical ectopia

Uncomplicated ectopic uterus is not accompanied by any symptoms and is found, as a rule, with a planned inspection of the gynecologist. But most of the women there is a complicated form of ectopia (in 80% of cases), which is combined with a variety of inflammatory and precancerous lesions (polyps cervical dysplasia, etc.). In the presence of vaginitis or endotservita observed allocation of cables from the cervical canal, dispaureniya, itching, contact bleeding.

Primary disorders that lead to ectopic uterus, can cause malfunctions of the menstrual cycle and even sterility.

Diagnosis of ectopic available during normal scheduled inspection gynecologist. The presence of congenital pseudo set at the first reference to the gynecologist. If diagnosed ectopia acquired is recorded its formation on the surface of the cervix, which had never changed.

The gynecologist can see ectopia, examining the patient on the gynecological chair. Ectopic presented in the form of bright red hearth having irregular shape in the external os. Upon contact with the false erosion gynecological instrument, a slight discharge of blood.

If you have found ectopia of the uterus, the doctor prescribes conduct extended colposcopy, which will reveal an atypical site presented cylinder epithelial tissue and areas of transformation. Very often (in 40% of cases) during iodine samples (Schiller) observed abnormal Colposcopic picture: punktatsiya, mosaic, leukoplakia, yodnegativnye zone. Upon detection of such features requires a more in-depth survey.

Diagnosis involves conducting bacteriological seeding, microscopy, PCR studies. In addition, a mandatory procedure is considered to scrape cytology. Such a study will reveal inflammation, the presence of cells of cylindrical and flat epithelial tissue. If there is an anomalous Colposcopic and cytological picture, it is necessary to conduct a biopsy of the uterus or the separate diagnostic curettage with subsequent histological examination.

To study the function of the ovaries can be with special function tests and studies of hormonal status. When identifying any hormonal disorders should consult a gynecologist-endocrinologist.

Back to contents

Treatment, prevention and prognosis of ectopic

As already mentioned, uncomplicated ectopic does not require treatment. Nevertheless, you need dynamic monitoring, which will allow time to identify any abnormalities in the development of false erosion.

Treatment of complicated pseudo should take into account the available change. As a rule, appointed causal anti-inflammatory and antiviral therapy, carried out the correct selection of contraceptives, an adjustment of hormonal and immune disorders. After these procedures performed destruction of pockets of pseudo methods of laser coagulation, cryogenic effects, chemical coagulation, radiosurgery. In identifying Nabothian cyst cervical performed their autopsy.

How to prevent the emergence of pseudo? Firstly, it is recommended as often as possible to visit your gynecologist. The frequency of visits should be at least 2 times a year. Secondly, any sexual infections should be treated promptly. Inflammatory diseases also require urgent treatment. Frequent change of sexual partners can only provoke a false erosion, avoid sex with different men.

Treatment pseudo held for the following purposes:

  • To eliminate concomitant inflammatory process;
  • for correction of immune and hormonal disorders;
  • correction microbiocenosis vagina;
  • for destruction of diseased tissue uterus.

Hospitalization is indicated only in cases, if necessary biopsy cervix. Resume sexual activity after a biopsy can be no earlier than 4 weeks.

To avoid such a disease will allow regular visits to the gynecologist, followed by inspection, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, a balanced diet and proper culture of sexual life. Remember that a weakened immune system makes the body vulnerable to all diseases. Therefore, try to use all the necessary vitamins and minerals, give up bad habits, limit yourself to drinking. Have sex with a proven man, avoid promiscuity. These simple rules will help to avoid many gynecological diseases, including ectopia. Good health.

 Pseudo cervix: symptoms, causes and treatment