development of premature infants


  • Causes of premature births
  • Prevention of premature birth
  • Physiological formation of premature babies
  • The first year of life
  • Mental and motor-motor development
  • Feeding preterm crumbs
  • Rehabilitation period

Parents of kids with haste to see the world, always concerned about the issue - whether the development will not keep up with the crumbs? Caring for children born in the early stages, it is difficult, but doable. Medical attendance, complete monitoring and counseling of children, as well as the desire of parents to help their crumbs can significantly reduce the resonance pattern. Premature birth of children the onset of change, but it will take quite some time and the differences will be over.

A premature baby is born in the interval from 28 th to 37 th week. It weighs no more than 2, 5 kg. Recognizes four levels of prematurity, and the care and development of children should take place exactly in accordance with the desired level:

  • I - from 2500 to 2000 grams;
  • II - from 2000 to 1500 grams;
  • III - from 1500 to 1000 grams;
  • IV - less than 1000 grams.

Causes of premature births

Identify the reasons for the birth of premature children is difficult, because in most cases they are not isolated, and combined with each other. However, often defined already established for many years, factors such as socio-economic or biological and clinical. So, what are the causes of premature birth?

  • Inadequate living conditions of the pregnant woman. The main reasons can serve: late appeal for medical help, badly balanced diet, lack of normal household conditions;
  • Harmful and hard work. Women should remember that according to the Labour Code of the Russian Federation, it has the right to appeal to the higher authority for a transfer to facilitate the work;
  • Exacerbated by the Health and Safety habits: smoking, alcohol abuse, and especially the use of narcotics;
  • Just cause may be too late pregnancy or in the very young age girls;
  • The presence of women in the past, medical or spontaneous abortions;
  • Various clinical factors that are in chronic diseases of the mother. Perhaps the existence of problems of the endocrine system, the nervous shock during pregnancy;
  • From the side of the fruit as possible genetic or chromosomal diseases, and as an option, an immunological conflict with the mother.

 development of premature babies by month

Prevention of premature birth

Remember that in most cases the preventive measures help to avoid delays in the appearance of the crumbs into the light. Causes of premature labor, as is clear from the above, are removable. Compliance with all the advice and recommendations of your gynecologist can help you to wait for the due date of birth crumbs. If for any reason a gynecologist offers admission in order to preserve the pregnancy, you should not give it up - the baby's health is unacceptable to jeopardize.

The threat of premature birth in a hospital maternity ward is eliminated very quickly. Doctors will try to maximize the pregnancy, after a seven-month premature baby has a much better chance of normal development than the baby born into the world in her fifth month of pregnancy.

Every pregnant woman should know about the signs of preterm labor, not to miss the first alarm "bells" as quickly as possible and seek medical advice. Always worth to ask for help if:

  • In pregnant women, there are regular nagging pain in the abdomen or in the lumbar region;
  • Constantly wet clothes - there is a possibility of leakage of amniotic fluid;
  • Sharp pain;
  • Sudden headache, dizziness.

Physiological formation of premature babies

At birth, all children lose weight, which is much more noticeable when the baby was born prematurely. Such a child can lose up to 15 percent of body weight. Weight loss greatly affects the thermoregulation of the body, so the baby should be carefully the conditions of heating. For this purpose the incubator method, it is quite effective as it allows to create all the necessary physiological conditions for life and development of a premature baby.

By the way, if you have the opportunity to ask for help in the hospital profile, specializes in conducting premature birth, try to do it. In such hospitals nursing of premature children is common, and the entire medical staff have the necessary skills. But even if such an opportunity you do not - do not panic. Incubator for premature babies have any maternity hospital, so the survival of children is high.

That is exactly how the child will be born depends on many factors and health indicators. Remember that the very preterm children after cesarean section have a much better chance of survival and successful further development. This is due to the fact that children, having extremely low weight, can not simply move the process of passage through the birth canal.

The first year of life

The incubator creates a suitable environment for the existence of that helps the child during breathing do not spend a lot of energy, especially if born very preterm children. And if the child was born healthy, his future weight gain in the coming months equated to normal.

Developing fast enough, as if trying to catch up with their peers, a premature baby is gaining weight well enough, after a couple of months, increasing the weight of the half. It was the weight value can increase six-fold. Having a low weight at birth, the baby will be faster to type it in the initial year of life.

A similar picture can be seen, if you pay attention to the growth. In the first year of life the baby grows about 40 centimeters. And adding to 2 centimeters each year, to five years it will not be very different from their peers.

Respiratory, bodies of the root of the nervous system, the shape of the skull in premature babies have inappropriate values. Therefore, physicians should carefully monitor the increase in head circumference in the first year of life.

  • In the first month up to 6 cm;
  • The second month of 2-3 cm;
  • In the third month of 2 cm;
  • From the fourth to sixth months to 1 cm;
  • Then - about a centimeter every month.

 development of premature babies and care

Mental and motor-motor development

Psychomotor skills formation and the majority of children born in the early stages, appear later than in full-term babies. The development of premature babies by month depends on the degree of prematurity remains. Backlog varies by the level of prematurity: with I-II level - development equated to a year; at III-IV level - to 3 years.

Beginning four months premature babies harder to hold the head when lying on his tummy. And closer to six months - vertically. Already five months comes emotional development - premature babies distinguish outsiders from home, start taking a toy that adults offer them determine the source of the sound.

Close to eight months children develop mobility in a horizontal position. The kid can make a turn on his tummy with tummy on the back, trying to crawl. Then he learns to sit, lie down, stand up on their own. To eat without the help of adults having read these kids trying not before 11-12 months. In the same period comes and skill accuracy.

Feeding preterm crumbs

Premature babies have a much lower weight than those born at term. And their body is forced to grow at a faster pace than that of peers. But then you need to look at the problem from the other side - in preterm crumbs immature digestive system is not well developed as sucking and swallowing reflexes.

As an obstacle to the normal process of digestion may be insufficient saliva production, which is typical for premature crumbs. And the capacity of the stomach is not as great as that of children born in time, so they are much more likely to vomit. Due to the reduced secretion of gastric juice breast milk is not digested in their entirety.

In some maternity hospitals practiced lure premature babies artificial mixtures. Pre-negotiate the matter with the pediatrician. In deciding exactly how to nurse premature baby, remember that the most useful and nutritious meals is just the breast milk of the mother.

Try to maintain breastfeeding in any way possible. As a rule, it can be done in most cases - it would wish. Even ate the baby was born so weak that he can not eat on their own, and receives power through the probe, it can be fed expressed milk.

Rehabilitation period

And premature birth and nursing of the little crumbs left behind. Natural disturbances doctors and mom and dad are gone also. Your pipsqueak hurry to be born, I received the required weight, has acquired the skills needed for life - to breathe, cry, suck.

Of course, all parents are extremely concerned about this issue as the rehabilitation of premature children. It is worth noting that in uncomplicated cases, no special rehabilitation program is not required - the nature will do everything herself. The most important condition is that you must abide by the parents - a timely and regular monitoring of the child in the clinic. And very soon your crumb will not differ from their peers!

 Premature infants: development, feeding, care

We strongly recommend to read: How to make a rug for the baby develops