Pneumonia - is a disease, which is better to know only in theory, as indeed any other. Especially when it comes to childhood pneumonia. It is unlikely that someone from the parents know exactly what this disease. However, disappointing statistics, three out of five kids at least once in their lives suffered from pneumonia. Most often this disease lies in wait for the baby at the tender age - about two - three years. And pneumonia symptoms in children is a little like adults. That's about it and will be discussed below. So, pneumonia: Symptoms and Treatment.
Early diagnosis of the disease and its treatment is very important as pneumonia threatens not only health, but also the child's life. Inflammation of the lungs at the beginning of the disease can be confused with acute bronchitis. However, actually, they are radically different. When pneumonia acute inflammation of tissue exposed to the smallest parts of the lungs - alveoli.
Called alveoli small bubbles, which are located at the very ends of the bronchi. It is in the alveoli and enters the air during respiration. In the alveoli comes the main process - the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen needed to ensure that all cells of the body to fully saturated vital for them to get rid of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
When pneumonia is, or as it is popularly called, pneumonia, pathogen penetrates into the alveoli, causing inflammation to develop strong. The alveoli begins to accumulate exudate - fluid that impedes the flow of the normal process of gas exchange.
The child's body is sharply reduced supply of oxygen. As a result, the child develops a hypoxia (oxygen starvation) all vital systems and organs that can not affect negatively on the health of the child. And most of all it suffers from cardio - vascular system of the baby. That is why if the child acute pneumonia treatment should be initiated immediately.
Causes of pneumonia
The causes of pneumonia in children and adults are different. In adults, pneumonia is almost always develops as an entirely distinct disease. In children, the 90% of all cases of pneumonia as a complication of recently transferred infections, such as acute respiratory infections, or influenza.
As you know, in the nasopharynx of any person as an adult and a child, all the time is pathogenic microflora. While the immune system is functioning properly, the pathogenic flora does not manifest itself in the body and does not cause any harm. But if a child falls ill with acute respiratory infection or something else, but even simple supercooling organism, pathogenic microflora, this becomes more active. If a child in addition to her more and get germs from the outside, the situation is compounded, and as a consequence, weaker kids begin to develop pneumonia.
The immune system of a child is very strongly influenced by the fact whether the infection will develop pneumonia or not. In addition, an important role is played by the age of the baby. The younger the child, the higher their risk of developing pneumonia, and the disease itself in infants is much harder than in older age. This fact is explained by the fact that the younger the child, the more he pronounced age-related physiological characteristics that make the risk of pneumonia is much higher.
Particularly strong in the course of the disease affects such factors as the development of the respiratory system. A child is born with is not sufficient to form and mature respiratory system. Lung tissue is not ripened crumbs and airways are narrower and thinner. Because this process of gas exchange in the child's body is much less intense. This fact greatly contributes to the development of various lung infections, particularly pneumonia.
The mucous membrane lining the airways, very tender and abundantly supplied with numerous blood vessels. When attacking the mucous membranes of pathogenic organisms quickly swell, thereby breaking the normal ventilation. Particularly affected ciliated epithelium lining the mucosal surface of the lungs. Purpose mucociliary - removal of emerging diseases of the lungs of phlegm. And with pneumonia this ability completely lost and stagnant mucus in the lungs. This significantly worsens the condition of the sick child aggravates the course of the disease, as sputum is a great breeding ground in which the pathogenic microflora thrives and actively propagated. That is what aggravates the disease.
In addition, there is a certain number of diseases that increase the risk of pneumonia and affect its course. Such diseases physicians include:
- All types of malnutrition.
- Iron deficiency of any nature incurred.
- All types of rickets.
- Any disease that affects the central nervous system.
- All kinds of heart defects.
- All types of immune system deficiency.
Varieties of pneumonia in children
Despite the common causes of pneumonia and the principle of its course, doctors have identified a number of varieties of the disease. Depending on what part of the lung is affected, and distinguish types of pneumonia. We will not bother readers a detailed description of the anatomical structure of the lungs. In general, the structure of the lung looks like this: Each lung is divided into equal shares, and the shares are divided into segments.
- Focal pneumonia in children.
When focal pneumonia occurs lesion small portion of lung mucosa diameter of not more than one centimeter.
- Segmental and polysegmental pneumonia.
Segmental called the pneumonia, which occurs as a result of the defeat of the entire segment inflammation of the lungs. When polysegmental pneumonia, respectively, inflammation affects immediately several segments of the lungs.
When lobar pneumonia suffered entire lobe of the lung.
It goes without saying that the most part of the lung is involved in the inflammatory process, the more difficult the disease and the greater the well-being of the child is suffering. Furthermore, a right-hand and left-hand separated pneumonia. There is quite simple - depending on which side, right or left, develops inflammation, pneumonia is right-handed and left-handed.
Recently, parents are increasingly hear such a determination, as SARS in children. But what is it and what this disease is different from a typical pneumonia, know not all. Incidentally, SARS is more common for children, but adults are not affected virtually the disease.
They differ as these types of pneumonia in the first place by the agents, which are the cause of disease. By the way, in different age groups of children pneumonia pathogens in general are very different. For example, the children of the first six months, most of the inflammatory process in the lungs is caused by pathogens such as E. coli, staphylococci and pneumococci.
At the same kids from 6 months to about five years of age of pneumonia, in addition to the above pathogens can provoke mycoplasma and chlamydia. It is those of pneumonia, which were caused by chlamydia and mycoplasmosis, doctors called atypical. Their course and treatment proceed differently than in the case of ordinary pneumonia.
Chlamydia and mycoplasma pneumonia symptoms manifest themselves, similar to the symptoms of regular respiratory diseases. The child appears abundant runny nose, sore throat, sneezing. And even typical pneumonia heat may not be at all, and all the indicators of a blood test remain unchanged.
The child suffers from a debilitating dry cough more typical acute bronchitis, and not for pneumonia that is often largely difficult to diagnose the disease. And the nature of wheezing in the lungs is not typical for the traditional pneumonia. Treatment such as SARS has its own characteristics. Pathogens do not react at all but strictly for certain antibiotics. To determine the sensitivity to antibiotics is necessary to conduct a special examination of sputum. Only in this case, antibiotic treatment of pneumonia is successful.
The symptoms of atypical pneumonia in children
Before we talk about the symptoms of pneumonia, I would like to remind our readers that they vary depending on what was the causative agent and the child's age. Thus, in the first year of life most strongly manifest themselves strongest signs of intoxication:
- A significant increase in body temperature - about 39 5 degrees.
The peculiarities of pneumonia include the fact that all attempts to reduce the temperature brings a very short-term results, or just turn out to be useless. Although pneumonia in children without fever also takes place.
When inflammation of the lungs almost all the kids refuse to eat. The kid can often asks his chest, but it is unlikely he will eat the breast he needed only as a means of peace. The lack of appetite in the youngest children should be the signal for the mother of serious health problems and cause for immediate treatment for medical assistance.
- Violation of the central nervous system.
The behavior of a child with pneumonia varies greatly. A child can become lethargic, sleeping more than usual. But maybe on the contrary, I am very nervous, a lot of crying and capricious.
But typical pneumonia symptoms, such as coughing and chest pain have little children is almost entirely absent. Moreover - even the most experienced physician - pulmonologist in the first 48 hours of the disease simply do not hear the wheezing child, and conducting radiological surveys also will identify the focus of inflammation. Because of this, early diagnosis of the disease is not possible, that in consequence of the negative impact on the course of the disease and greatly complicates the treatment of the child.
However, despite all this, the presence of suspected pneumonia in small crumbs still possible. Attentive mother definitely notice changes in the condition of their baby. If your child is behaving unusually - constantly asleep, or, conversely, is naughty, he had a fever for no apparent reason, you should be wary.
Signs of pneumonia in a young child:
- Baby's breath. The increase in the number of respiratory movements or, more simply, shortness of breath in young children is one of the major signs of inflammation of the lungs. There are certain standards of breath, excess of which may indicate that the child has pneumonia: In children under two months of age - 60 or more breaths per minute. In children aged from two months to one year - 50 or more breaths per minute. In children over one year - 40 or more breaths per minute.
- Hyperthermia body. We have already talked about the fact that an increase in body temperature caused by pneumonia, is very difficult to eliminate even pharmacological agents. Any medicine lowers the temperature of only a very short time, after which it rises again. When hyperthermia caused by common acute respiratory illness or influenza-like phenomena do not occur simply to bring down the temperature.
- Cyanosis of nasolabial triangle. Very often in young children with pneumonia can be observed bluish skin area between the nose and mouth - nasolabial triangle. Especially pronounced blue at a time when the baby suckles.
- Retraction of the skin. This symptom is almost wholly an indication that the crumbs inflammation of the lungs. To determine whether your crumbs symptom of skin retraction in the spaces between the ribs, strip crumbs and closely observe him as he breathes and changes whether the relief of the skin between the ribs.
Treatment of pneumonia in children
Doctors there are standards for treatment of pneumonia. Treatment of pneumonia in children has the following objectives: the complete elimination of the inflammatory focus and elimination of all symptoms of pneumonia, so-called symptomatic treatment. It is about the treatment of pneumonia and will be discussed below. However, remember that all the information is only of a general nature and in no case should not be a parent guide to action.
All treatment should be administered only by the attending physician of your child - because he knows exactly how to treat pneumonia in children. And even more unacceptable to use traditional recipes the treatment of pneumonia. This is explained by the fact that the treatment of pneumonia folk remedies do not bring any effect, but valuable time can be lost forever.
In order to eliminate the source of inflammation, doctors used the treatment course of antibiotic drugs. Of course, very few parents will be delighted to hear that the child will be treated with antibiotics. However, in the case of pneumonia do without antibiotics is simply impossible. What is needed antibiotics for pneumonia in children, and in what dose is necessary for your child accurately determine only doctor.
It is also very important and symptomatic treatment aimed directly at eliminating symptoms of the disease and alleviate the patient's state of health of the child. As pharmaceutical preparations for the symptomatic treatment the doctor prescribes a child mukalticheskie means to facilitate expectoration, and antipyretic drugs.
Speaking of temperature, we would like to once again remind parents to the old truism - it is not necessary to shoot down the temperature of that hour, as soon as the mercury exceeded the mark of 37 degrees. Fever - it is the body's way of dealing with pathogens and knocking it, you reduce the body's defenses, helping to multiply pathogenic bacteria. The temperature of a child is necessary to shoot down only if it exceeds 39 degrees. Exceptions to this rule are only a very small kids who are under one year of age and those children who have previously there were attacks subfebrile seizures.
The destination child mukolticheskih drugs - facilitating removal of phlegm from the bronchial tubes. In addition, many modern mukolticheskie preparations have greatly increased the impact and the activity of antibiotics used to treat pneumonia. We do not give the name used by mukolticheskih drugs, as well as their should be prescribed only treating your child's doctor. Despite the seeming harmlessness of these preparations, if used improperly can lead to unpredictable consequences.
At the hospital or at home?
Upon hearing that the child pneumonia, the first thought that visiting parents - "Is the hospital? "In deciding whether a child required hospitalization or possible treatment for pneumonia at home, the doctor takes into account several key factors:
As a rule, if the pneumonia sick child under the age of three, the doctor suggests treatment of my mother is in the hospital. The reason is very simple - in such a tender age complications of pneumonia can be very unpredictable, up to respiratory arrest. In order to prevent this, the child must be under round the clock medical supervision until complete recovery. Pneumonia in infants is a serious threat to the life of the crumbs.
- The general health of the child.
In the event that a child becomes ill with pneumonia older, taking a decision on the need for hospitalization, the doctor takes into account the general condition of the child. If he suffers from what - or chronic illness, or else he simply weakened immune system, your doctor may also prefer the treatment of pneumonia in the hospital, despite his advanced age.
- The severity of the disease and the type of pneumonia.
No less important role in choosing the place of treatment plays a type of pneumonia. For example, the treatment of focal pneumonia at home is not too much trouble, but treated at home lobar pneumonia at home is just dangerous.
This is what will be discussed below.