Personality rights - is the cornerstone of all psychology. People from around the world have long been interested in the question of what our nature is, and what makes us different from each other. Types of personality - is what helps us to go for a couple of minutes to learn something about the other person and somehow predict his actions and behavior. Agree, it is very convenient and saves our mental resources!
But here ripened a question about how to use the typology. Every little bit educated psychologist tried to create their own, resulting in a science formed chaos. To date, the number of types described by scientists person exceeds any reasonable limits. There are among the classifications and frankly delusional, and completely incomprehensible, and broken in real life. But the question remains relevant, because when meeting we still want to know what type of person in front of us. We offer you a classification, which are tested for years and known to millions of people around the world. Choose any of them and enjoy!
Personality types and psychoanalysis
Sigmund Freud - the first person to recall any discussions about a psychological matter. Indeed, he gave his opinion on any occasion and even created a very interesting and unbanal psychological theory, from which they emerged, many other areas - psychoanalysis. Types of personality, of course, also interested him, although there is a perception that their description - it's just a joke Freud. As a basis for classification, he suggested that the main stages of human development, rather then on some of them stuck all of us.
Take, for example, oral type, or rather one of its two varieties - the oral-passive. This character is laid in the early infancy when the baby suckles, and it is connected with either insufficient or excessive stimulation of the area of the mouth (this is an elaborate explanation!). Simply put, if you do not give the baby to breastfeed or, conversely, too tight with this case, there is a possibility of formation of "oral-passive person." It is characterized by optimism and expectation of maternal warmth of the world, as well as the search for external approval at any cost. Such a person has a very characteristic habit: he is trusting, constantly looking for love, smokes or has some other relationship.
Another type of character, oral-aggressive, laid in the second half of the first year of life, when the baby teeth erupt early and there is biting and chewing. If during this period the child's needs are not met, there is a jam at this stage. Traits of a man reduced to aggression (as easy to guess from the title type), pessimism, love disputes and sarcasm, the desire to dominate all others. Such a person exhibits rigidity in dealing with others, which is why he, as a rule, a few friends.
Another type of human character - anal - is also divided into two types. Oddly enough, but Freud linked the consolidation of these traits with potty training. If a child wanted to keep everything inside, this same trend finds expression in later life. He will grow stingy, stubborn, petty, thorough, punctual - in general, a pedant. If the child naoboro, that is "stuck" on pushing, then he in the future will manifest tendency to destroy itself and the world, impulsivity, temper, aggression, propensity for sadism, jealousy, and desire to have everything that you love. Oh, and it is not easy for people to communicate with this person!
Phallic nature of man - this is not the ultimate dream. Freud singled out male and female types, which, incidentally, is not necessarily the same sex. It is formed by the age of four to six years. The male type includes people who are different persistence insolence, boastfulness, the desire to succeed, which for them is proof of masculinity. Female same type manifests itself in the tendency to flirt and seduce, intense sexual life (sometimes too), as well as a desire to show the men what's what. Unfortunately, those other features are neurotic, and therefore do not bring their media is nothing but devastation and periodic depression.
Freud also described a fourth type - Genital - however, in the opinion of Sigmund, a man with such a character does not exist in nature. It is a kind of unattainable ideal, which is well settled in life and in general happy. This person is able to establish close relationships with others and to reach the highest peak in them without unnecessary quarrels and conflicts. He is active and loves to work. His is the ability to delay immediate gratification of their desires for the sake of something more important in the future.
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Personality types and the most striking features
No less prominent German psychiatrist Karl Leonhard created his personality typology based on its own practice. Surprisingly, the basic features that make up the core of psychiatric diseases are found in normal healthy people, but is less pronounced. They are called "accentuation" - the so-called "tapered" traits. Look closely at this classification, because it very clearly and vividly describes the different types of personality.
Gipertimnye character is characterized by high activity. This man can rightly be called "eternal Energizer" - sometimes it seems that he never gets tired. He was always busy with something, and if not, it is in search of interesting activities for him. He is characterized by optimism and love of life, he is in pursuit of a bright and new experiences. However, there have hyperthymic rights and negative features: the race for different classes he sometimes taken several things at once, and none of them brings to the end. His speech and thinking often resemble jumps from one idea to another, which is why hyperthymia often lack any personal depth. It also happens that, due to their excessive gaiety and lightness they miss some really serious and important events.
There is the opposite type of character - distimny. It can still be called melancholy, because the people of this type are characterized by the seriousness and focus on the sad and dark side of life. These people often have a pronounced moral and ethical code of life, which is certainly a plus that person. However, they live in the world is not easy: slow thinking and passivity in the actions are not qualities that are widely popular in the modern world. These people are characterized by isolation, introversion and reasoning about the world. That is why their profession should not be associated with increased physical and mental activity.
Cyclothymic personality are proof that everything is balanced. The above described two opposite personality type, and I must say that cyclothymic they both get along with each other. A distinctive feature of the person is to change the poles of his mood and attitude to the world: one day he can be in an active and optimistic frame of mind, and the other - to indulge in melancholy and sad. The reasons for this variability may be different. Sometimes, as in all others, they are caused by external events, in other cases - any natural cycles: the change of the time of day, time of year, or something else.
Conspicuous identity is very, very original. You will be hard not to notice them, because the brightness and the desire to draw attention to themselves - these are the main features of such a man. They are also distinguished by a high capacity for displacement from the memory of all that they do not like, whether it is negative information about yourself or just any unpleasant event. That is why it may seem that people constantly lied demonstrative: they tend to forget that they do not want to know, and think of what they would like to have in reality. They are extremely self-confident, conceited and constantly brag about themselves. Conspicuous women are very attracted the attention of men, because, as a rule, they are very good looking, have honed manners and the ability to subtly manipulate the partner.
Pedantic type of character differs kindness and indecision. Such a person is necessary to analyze all-all-all the details before making any important decision - that is why they have so tightened the process. He is absolutely unable to displace their doubts - rather, he stuck to them. Again and again, he checks the results of their work: how they are satisfactory, and whether the work is complete. He constantly transforms and remains at overtime. Because of this, it so happens that a pedant starts to lag behind the workforce. On the other hand, in the work that requires so much attention to detail, such a person will be at the top. At home with pedantic as it is not easy: in his apartment should prevail impeccable cleanliness.
Impulsive and excitable type of person likely to meet every one of you. These are the people who can not control himself or somehow manage their conditions. Their behavior is determined by momentary feelings and desires, which they can not cope. Such a person has a characteristic explosive: if something goes wrong, as he pleases, he will be long and loud swearing. They are psychologically "heavy", that is, it is very difficult to adapt to any changes in your life. As well as the pedants, they are attentive to the details, with the only difference that the first worry when something is out of place, and the second angry.
Exalted people differ much more violent than all the others, a reaction to life events. Emotions they appear bright, and incredibly intense experience. Delight of happy events for them is as deep as heavy sadness of the tragic events. In the words of the poet, "a passionate exultation to deadly boredom." However, this type of person is characterized by increased altruism: he wants everyone to have everything and was always good (sorry, that does not happen, and that's what upsets ekzaltanta). They are so much attached to the family and friends that the experience of their successes and failures can be extremely deep. They are characterized by a love of nature, music, art, psycho-spiritual practices so that strong emotions are not always associated with personal relationships.
Anxiety and personality are often found in nature. As you know, as a child, we are very much afraid: snakes, dogs, spiders - this is normal. However, there are children who initially are more anxiety and fearfulness, and the people around them are presented as a threat. In the adult human, of course, things are not so pronounced, but in general the picture is similar. The future seems to him an unhappy and full of possible mishaps. In addition to the multiple fears and anxieties people have a disturbing inability to defend its opinion in the debate - on the contrary, they are effaced and lost in front of an energetic opponent. They are characterized by timidity and lack of confidence in itself. Such people often become "scapegoats" in all kinds of conflicts.
And last on the list - emotive personality type. These people have a deep sensitivity and responses associated with subtle emotions. Their concern is not rude and animal feelings, and all that is associated with humanism, soul, humanity and responsiveness. They are like the exalted personalities just do not fall into these extremes - feeling they develop less speed. They are sensitive and kind-hearted, compassionate, and easier to rastrogannosti. Like ekzaltanty, emotive people love nature and art works. Of course, they are characterized by tearfulness: talking about the movie or the story with a sad ending, they cry. So easily have emotive person may appear tears of joy and delight. Unfortunately, because of their sensibility they easily get depressed because of the tragic events.
Colleagues Karl Leonhard added to its classification another type of character - schizoid. Not to be confused with schizophrenia! Inherent schizoid isolation and rationality: it is much more interesting to be in the world of higher mathematics or quantum physics, rather than in the world of the living. It generally has a high level of intelligence and the development of abstract thinking, to help him to become a professional in their respective fields. Schizoid stingy emotions: they can remain indifferent departure of a loved one or a diploma, but they can be upset because of the inability to solve the philosophical dilemma. This demonstrates the paradox of their character and identity. Oh yeah, their behavior sometimes encountered many oddities: pretentious clothes, strange gestures and phrases, or anything else.
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Personality types associated with temperament
It's no secret that temperament is closely related to the type of character and personality. It is based on the properties of the nervous system and particularly its functioning. Temperament is characterized not by what one does, but how he does it. Ever since the days of Hippocrates, there are four types of temperament. However, the basis for the classification chosen a very strange - the predominance of the body of any liquid: blood, lymph, bile, and the usual black. Times have changed, but these types of human temperament remained unchanged, indicating that their actual existence. Thus, the following basic personality types: choleric, sanguine, phlegmatic and melancholic.
Choleric peculiar choppy, fast and at the same time completely unbalanced character. He often changes the mood - from elation to depression several times per day - which is accompanied by emotional outbursts. Choleric spends a lot of resources at it, because of what he is quickly exhausted. It is easy to see that such a person has no steadiness of nerve processes, which distinguishes it, for example, from sanguine. However, there is a striking performance choleric, he is not always able to correctly use: too carried away with something, he can invest in this business is much more than you need, which will result in fatigue and disappointment.
About sanguine may say that he is alive and moving people. He often changed the emotional experience that is associated with its ability to quickly respond to everything that happens around. It is distinguished by a few hot temper, even though he quite easily reconciled with their troubles and setbacks. Externally sanguine manifests itself in the expressive facial expressions and sweeping gestures. If he likes his job, he is able to be very, very productive, but when she gives him the boredom, the effectiveness of the sanguine drops significantly.
It can be called phlegmatic calm and unhurried. Sometimes it resembles a brick wall, which can not penetrate. Phlegmatic has a stable mood and aspirations, as well as the external manifestation of avarice in emotions and feelings. His facial expressions malovyrazitelnoe and gestures rather moderate. But do not think that the phlegmatic - a "cracker", he just prefers to emotionally included only the most important events. In the work, he remains poised and calm, showing persistence and perseverance. Slowness of the person compensated diligence, so phlegmatic unable to show relatively high productivity (especially in clear and measured activities such as accounting).
Well, and, finally, melancholic. This type of vulnerability is different temperament and a tendency to experience because of the wide variety of events. Melancholy is very sensitive, and it can frustrate any, even the most innocuous things. At the same time it has increased fatigue and impressionable. Melancholy can not be idle, because in such a situation, it seems that they are neglected and nobody needs. It is a little more anxious than other people. But do not think that the melancholic - it is a kind of unadapted loser. Among the representatives of creative professions is full of this kind of people who have managed the full use of all features of his temperament: Tchaikovsky, Gogol, Chopin, Descartes and others have achieved success in their business, and could well be proud.
Speaking of temperament, it is worth remembering the two known types of the human personality - is the introversion and extraversion.