Almost all parents strongly enough concern to all the questions that one way or another relate to the education and training of their children. And this is not surprising - in our time all the people clearly understand that a good education - the key to success in life. And the prestige of working trades plummeted.
Almost all parents who are interested in educational methods, sooner or later there is such a thing as a student-centered learning. However, few of them understand what exactly is this technique, and what advantages and disadvantages it has. Without this information, parents very difficult to decide whether personal - oriented teaching it to their child.
On the Internet you can easily find a wealth of information about this method of education, but it is in almost all cases will be almost entirely unintelligible parents. And no wonder - because almost all such material is written by teachers for teachers. It is replete with a huge number of specific narrowly specialized terms and concepts, to understand that without appropriate education is almost impossible.
So what should parents do? It is simple for parents and written this article. In its most simple and accessible language described personality - oriented training. You are able to appreciate all its pros and cons, and decide whether this technique is suitable for your child's education.
The principles of the child's learning
Surely, you do not just pay attention, that all kids have different levels of school performance - someone grasps the material on the fly, without any special effort, and encouraged parents to round five and the other child for days sits on the textbooks and notebooks, and barely draws Three weak. Or even the same child at different teachers received completely opposite assessment. And parents are scratching their heads: their child is incapable of learning or the teachers too picky to their child?
However, most of these factors are absolutely nothing to do with. In the most greater child's progress depends on the effectiveness of teaching methods, which uses one or another teacher. In modern pedagogy There are many different methods for the education of children. However, they all are based on several types of approach to training child. There are the following main types of learning approaches:
When using the tiered approach to teacher training is primarily focused on the level of complexity of teaching material that is available for each student. That is, simply put, children who do not shine with special abilities, the teacher gives only the minimum required material, which, in his opinion, they are able to cope.
As a rule, the child gets a three, and more able children learn the material more deeply and, accordingly, get higher marks. Recently, however, this method of teaching is subject to fairly strong criticism, both from teachers and from parents - they believe that this is not always true, as the weaker puts students at a disadvantage.
- A differentiated approach
This approach is also very widely used in many schools. Children with this approach in the original group are distributed on the basis of academic achievement, behavior and professional orientation. The most striking example of this approach to learning are so-called core classes. Typically, these classes are typical for high school students who have already decided on the choice of their future profession. There are classes of biological, chemical, mathematical and other profiles. Appropriate subjects are studied in greater depth - they are assigned to a much greater amount of time, and the program is more extended.
This approach to learning has a large number of both positive and negative sides. For example, on the one hand, in-depth study of the core subjects will greatly help the child properly prepare for EGE and facilitate the subsequent training in profile university. However, on the other hand, specialized classes are often given insufficient number of other general subjects that is not very good.
- Subject-personal approach
The essence of this approach is that each child gets to themselves their own individual approach, in which the teacher takes into consideration all the personal characteristics of the child - his temperament, abilities, passions, aspirations and desires. This approach to learning is the painstaking and time-consuming, requires great patience from the teacher and labor. Implementing this approach requires systematic work, which covers all stages of education. Furthermore, for the successful implementation of this approach is necessary to create a special learning environment, which will take into account the characteristics of the child and give him a fully reveal his abilities. Otherwise, the application of this approach to the educational process becomes almost impossible.
And not the last role in this approach to learning the necessary specialized training plays a teacher, and his sincere desire to use this approach to teaching children. In the event that the initiative to implement this approach to the educational process does not come from the teacher and from the management of educational institutions, it is unlikely this scheme will be a success. Unless, of course, the teacher did not interested and will not receive all the necessary information about the features and nuances of this form of learning.
Personality - oriented training
It is this approach to the organization of the educational process is the basis of the principle of personal - oriented teaching. Strictly speaking, the most accurate and succinct formulation of a phenomenon such as student-centered learning, a little different, and it sounds as follows. "Student-oriented education - it is training, which takes into account the individual characteristics of the child. It is the identity of the child is the subject, which is directed and learning process. " Numerous experimental educational programs, which are based on it personality - oriented education, are quite rapid success.
Even the teachers and parents of the children say that this training brings a much more productive fruit than traditional school, and preschool education. In recent years, such training is gaining popularity and begins to be successfully applied not only in the experimental and elite kindergartens and schools, but also in normal pre-school and educational institutions.
The objectives and characteristics of personality - oriented training
Of course, nothing is being done for a reason. And actions have a purpose. And what is the purpose of personality - oriented training? After several generations received quite a good education and without the use of new teaching methods, is not it? It was at this point we are now, and try to understand together with our readers.
The goal of any education is a child's acquisition of certain "baggage" of knowledge. However, as will be full of knowledge, and become a learning process for the child to torture, or in the fun, almost everything depends on how the child gets the best of knowledge.
The goal of the learner - centered learning in the first place is the development of a full-fledged personality of the child, his or her identity and otherness in the other children. The learning process is structured in such a way as to take full account of the child's personality, its value orientation and personal beliefs. After all these factors and based internal model of the world of the child.
Training should be constructed in such a way that learning mechanisms are completely consistent with the natural mechanisms for any child learning about the world. The teacher must take into account both the mental and behavioral characteristics of each individual of his pupil, and the basis of personality - oriented education should be based on cooperation between the student and teacher, as well as the complete freedom to choose the child.
At the moment, unfortunately, most of the teacher in the learning process at the heart puts its own interests, making them a priority. Simply put, the teacher builds a line of educational process in such a way as it is most convenient to him, not the child. And the child willy nilly forced to adapt to the teacher. In such conditions of personally focused training is almost impossible.
When personality - oriented training as a teacher builds a learning process in a way that comes to the fore is the interests and needs of the student. And only with strict regard to all of their features teacher can determine exactly pillars of its activities. This point is extremely important, and it should be considered mandatory. Otherwise, no question of personality - oriented training even can not be - it can not be a priori.
The same applies to the identification of the subjective experience of each individual child. Personal experience educators call all the knowledge and skills, which currently has a child with respect to each specific areas of study. It would seem that the measure is unnecessary as an educational program for children and students in the same class, the same.
But we should not forget that all children are different. And therefore, the same information given teacher different children learn very differently - some more, some less. The subjective experience, respectively, children are also very varied. And if we are talking about an educational method is student-centered learning, the teacher should focus precisely on the subjective experience and abilities of each individual student.
You should also focus on issues such as the choice of the method of constructing the learning process. It's no secret that for some children, the usual response from the board turns into a real torture, while the written work of a child cope just fine, and it is absolutely their own without any outside help someone. And sometimes the reverse situation - in the writings child commits a lot of errors, but its oral replies simply brilliant.
The same applies to the mastery of the material - some children are much better able to absorb new information at the hearing, the other - in the reading, and the third - in recording it. Absolutely all of these types of learning information are absolutely normal and natural - it all depends on what type of memory the child developed most strongly. The teacher should choose the teaching methods that best fit each individual teacher.
I agree that it is rather difficult to do, given the fact that in a class of ordinary school has about twenty children. It is important to correctly and efficiently organize the training process so that all children receive individual attention and consideration. That is why the teacher requires a high level of professionalism and specific training, without which the personality - oriented training is simply impossible.
It is also very important for the personality - oriented training to assess not only the end result - the resulting estimates, but also the process of achieving this result. The teacher should keep in mind that all children initially have different abilities and levels of knowledge. And often children with lower levels of achievement in order to get the "troika", puts much more effort than the "strong" child for the "quartet".
This educator must consider when grading - sometimes it makes sense to overstate or understate the assessment, taking into account the efforts being made by the child in the learning process. However, the teacher must be very tactful and considerate - otherwise all the other children can resist this, and look at, "injustices". It is much wiser to explain to children the decision - believe me, children are able to understand and, more importantly, to accept this fact.
Stages of student-centered learning
Personality - oriented training consists of several stages. Each step is very important and to ignore them in any case can not be otherwise necessary to achieve the desired result will not be possible. As we have found this approach to learning involves a lot more freedom in the learning process. The child is no longer forced to adapt to the teacher - that the teacher adapts to the characteristics and needs of the teachers.
So, what includes the steps of personality - oriented training?
- Type of interaction "teacher - pupil"
First of all, the choice of methods of personality - oriented training, in contrast to conventional training programs, which are widely used, it is necessary to radically, radically change the principle of relations "teacher - pupil". The teacher should leave aside their usual style of command and go to work with the students - otherwise the whole idea with personality - oriented training will result in failure.
This construction of the relationship between teacher and student, thus dramatically changing the position of the pupil. From the simple, often mechanical, performing tasks given to him by the teacher the child proceeds to the process of active creativity. Changing the mindset of the child itself - it gets results-orientated, rather than attempt to simply "sit out" the lesson the allotted time and go home. Agree - to the learning process is the important point.
And the atmosphere in the classroom is changing dramatically - becomes much more relaxed, friendly and active. Children are not afraid to ask questions to the teacher, and the teacher does not shrugs off students, as if from a nuisance. Lessons are much more like the companionship, not a warning and control. However, it goes without saying that children, as it may be, remain children. And monitoring them is a must - and the teacher should have sufficient skills to conduct this monitoring unnoticed by the child, in no way detracting from his abilities, and even more so without compromising his dignity.
To personality - oriented education has brought the expected results, the child must determine the goals, of course, with the help of a teacher. And to achieve a positive result of the child should not be put in front of him too global goals. Much more useful to set a number of smaller goals - for a day, week, month, quarter of study.
And this is not casual - child psychologists have long proved that the child a sense of time is not the same as for an adult. For example, for us the year - not such a long period, and the child is a very long time. And so to achieve that goal, which is scheduled in the indefinite future, the child just simply not interested.
But such goals, which the student will be able to achieve very fast, very beneficial to the child - increase his self-esteem, give confidence in themselves and their abilities, and most importantly - increase the child's interest in learning. The educational process is converted into an active process of self-development of a child who is really interested in the learning process, rather than trying to learn from the sticks. It goes without saying that such a learning process brings far greater benefit than conventional teaching methods.
It is important that the teacher who uses the personal - oriented teaching, the need to remember the correct organization of training activities. And he should start it with the organization of its own activities. It must be constructed in such a way that the head of the learning process was not a teacher, namely student. That child for a successful personality - oriented education should be a central figure.
A teacher needs to create and maintain the necessary psycho-emotional atmosphere - enjoy the success of the child and praise him, his failure to empathize and support, not allowing him to despair and give up.