causes of oral candidiasis


  • Factors affecting the development of oral candidiasis
  • The symptoms of oral candidiasis
  • Diagnosis of oral candidiasis
  • Treatment of oral candidiasis
  • Prevention of oral candidiasis

Oral candidiasis - is a fungal infection of the mucous membrane of the mouth caused by a microscopic fungus yeast genus Candida (Candida albicans).
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Factors affecting the development of oral candidiasis

On the display of the pathogenic properties of fungi of the genus Candida primarily affects the state of the human body. The main role in the development of candidiasis reduction plays the protective function of the immune system. Oral candidiasis usually occurs with immunodeficiency or on the background of the imbalance of the immune system. To promote the development of candidiasis may be the following concomitant diseases: tuberculosis, HIV infection, Kaposi's, diabetes type 1 and 2, hypothyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, and others.

Development directly candidiasis of the oral mucosa contribute to gastrointestinal disease (Akhil, reducing stomach acidity). Candidiasis of the oral mucosa is very often asymptomatic primary symptom of type 1 diabetes, as a violation of carbohydrate metabolism in the body creates favorable conditions for the growth of fungi of the genus Candida in the mouth. Therefore, the presence of symptoms of chronic candidiasis should be required to produce a blood test for glucose to prevent diabetes.

Medical candidiasis

Of candidiasis of the oral mucosa contributes to treatment with cytostatics and corticosteroids. They depress the immune system and contribute to strengthening the stability of yeast-like fungi. In recent years, widespread uncontrolled antibiotics, which contributed to a sharp increase in patients visiting the hospital in about candidiasis of the oral mucosa. The oral formulation is a violation of their own microflora, which leads to the development of dysbiosis, created ideal conditions for the uncontrolled growth of yeast fungi genus Candida.

A similar effect on Candida has a different reception antimicrobials (sangviritrin, Trichopolum, chlorhexidine, and others.). In addition, candidiasis can be caused by alcohol and drugs, taking the drugs for oral contraceptive exposure to radiant energy, etc. In rare cases, infection with Candida is through oral sex, kiss, during the passage of the baby through infected mother's birth canal.

The impact of the immune system

An important role in the development of candidiasis of the oral mucosa is the state of its immunity. Development of the disease in this case, contribute to chronic mucosal injury sharp-edged teeth, improper dentures, crowns decaying teeth, etc. These and other factors contribute to the penetration of the wound fungi Candida genus and their subsequent propagation therein.

Particular attention should be given to the spread of infection to people who use dentures from acrylic plastics, since yeast fungi grow well on the surface, contributing to the maintenance of chronic inflammation of the oral mucosa under the denture. At the first signs of candidiasis should immediately consult a doctor, dentist. If the treatment of the disease to treat carefully enough, it may pass from the oral cavity to the esophagus and even internal organs.

What happens when oral candidiasis?

Most often, candidiasis of the oral mucosa observed in infants and the elderly, especially the frail difficult the chronic diseases. Due to lower the immune system functions fungi of the genus Candida are becoming active, there is the secretion of a variety of enzymes that contribute to strengthening reproductive and attached to the fungal cells of the oral mucosa. When the number of colonies of Candida exceed the allowable value, will develop symptoms characteristic of candidiasis.

 Symptoms of candidiasis
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The symptoms of oral candidiasis

Symptoms typical of candidiasis of the oral cavity, are quite varied and depend on the state of immunity, the patient's age, presence of concomitant acute or chronic diseases, use of certain groups of drugs (corticosteroids, antibiotics), and many other factors. The most common form of candidiasis of the oral mucosa is acute pseudomembranous candidiasis, or, as it is called thrush.

Acute pseudomembranous candidiasis

In infants, the disease is very common and occurs relatively easily, without causing severe symptoms. Thrush in adults is usually not the primary independent disease, but occurs as a secondary disorder concomitant with more severe disease (diabetes mellitus, vitamin deficiencies, blood disorders, cancer, tuberculosis, etc.).

The main symptoms of mucosal lesions

With this type of candidiasis primarily affects the mucous membranes of the lips, palate, tongue, cheeks, back of the tongue. It noted a sharp redness, dryness, swelling. Against the background of hyperemia (redness) is clearly visible white film that rises above the level of the oral mucosa and consists of colonies of Candida. In its structure, it resembles cottage cheese or curd. In the initial period of thrush plaque easily scraped off with a spatula. Below that is a smooth, relatively hyperemic and edematous mucosal surface.

In severe cases, cheesy plaque accompanying oral candidiasis, takes the form of a continuous film covering the mucosa, becomes more dense and barely scraped, its color changes from white to dirty yellow. Beneath it is exposed mucous covered erosions or ulcers. Thrush Patients complain of pain when eating, a strong burning sensation in the mouth.

 Diagnosis of the disease
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Diagnosis of oral candidiasis

The diagnosis of oral candidiasis is made by the clinical picture of the disease, the patient's complaints, laboratory data (microscopy scrapings from the mucous membranes of the mouth), a result of clinical blood tests, study of glucose in the blood serum. It is necessary to carry out inspection of the skin and nails of the patient for candidiasis. PCP is a dentist, but if necessary, appoint additional consultation gynecologist, mycologist, an endocrinologist.

The final diagnosis is finds in the scrapings from the mucosal surface of the mouth yeast fungi genus Candida. Held microscopic examination of scrapings from the mucous membranes of the mouth and dentures. Scraping produces an empty stomach before brushing teeth or 5-6 hours after a meal. After completing the course of treatment and the disappearance of the clinical picture of the disease is carried out repeated microscopic examination.

Differential diagnosis

Differential diagnosis (unlike other diseases with similar symptoms) such diseases as oral candidiasis spend allergic stomatitis, syphilitic papules (elements rash, representing bespolostnoy education, rising above the level of the mucous membrane of the cheeks, gums, tongue), various forms of drug stomatitis, lichen planus.

 a burning sensation in the mouth
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Treatment of oral candidiasis

Treatment for thrush is a complex process that requires an individual approach in each case. The complex of therapeutic measures includes not only pharmacological effect directly on the pathogen. Also produces measures aimed at improving the immunity of the body, treatment of opportunistic diseases (gastrointestinal disease, leukemia, diabetes mellitus), sanitation of the oral cavity. It plays an important role good nutrition.

If candidiasis was caused by taking antibiotics, corticosteroids, or sulfa drugs should make a correction of their reception with the addition of antifungal drugs.

General treatment of candidiasis

For oral administration are appointed antifungals (levorin or Nestatit 4-6 times daily after meals course of 10 days). Before receiving recommended to crush the tablet, and the resulting powder is sucked under the tongue, since these drugs are poorly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Levorin usually administered in the form of tablets for sucking in his cheek. Also good antimycotic effect have Dekamina sucking hard candy (1-2 candies 6-8 times a day).

Caramel is placed in the cheek or under the tongue and hold until resorption, as far as possible without making swallowing movements. A good antifungal drug Diflucan has. It is appointed in capsules of 50-100 mg (depending on the severity of) one time per day. To reduce the dryness of the oral mucosa and the effect on the yeast used 2% solution of potassium iodide. The solution is taken 2-3 times a day for 1 tablespoon after a meal. The solution inhibits the growth of fungi and iodine increases salivation.

Local treatment of candidiasis

For lubrication of the oral cavity used 0, 5% dekaminovaya ointment, amphotericin B, 1% solution, and 1% clotrimazole cream. The mucous membrane of the mouth and lips edging processed dye solution (1% solution Gentian violet solution fukortsinom, 2% solution of methylene blue). Detrimental effect fungal microflora have means basified medium oral (2% solution of sodium tetraborate, or borax, 2% sodium hydrogen carbonate, baking soda or food, 2% boric acid solution.)

Rinse produce 1 cup of the solution to 6 times a day. It should protect oral mucosa from damage, make her a thorough reorganization, which can begin within 2-3 days after the beginning of antimycotic therapy. Dentures Candida processed to remove the same solutions as the oral cavity.

Traditional methods of treatment

In the treatment of candidiasis in addition to drug therapy used with great success, and folk methods. It is considered an effective method of rinsing the mouth with herbal decoctions (chamomile, bark Duma, sage). To remove grease with its cheesy plaque 3 times a day mammal or sea buckthorn oil. Another effective way is to drink based on yogurt. To make it, you need to rub a clove of garlic and mix it with a glass of yogurt. The resulting drink is taken orally 1 cup 4 times a day for half an hour before meals.

Diet for oral candidiasis

From the daily diet to exclude dairy products, any kinds of sugars (milk, beet, fruit, cane), alcohol, vinegar, and contain it sauces (mustard, ketchup, mayonnaise), cereals (oats, rice, wheat, rye), fungi, yeasts and drozhzhesoderzhaschie products (pastries, bread, pastries), meats (especially sausage), caffeine (it triggers the release of large amounts of glucose by the liver, so you should give up coffee and tea during the treatment), fermented foods, pickles, cheeses.

Recommended ingestion of lean meat (turkey, chicken, lean beef, lamb), fish (preferably low-fat types), eggs, buckwheat, low-carbohydrate vegetables, fruits and berries (cabbage, spinach, lettuce, onion, green pepper, garlic, avocado , pears, raspberries, blackberries).

From dairy products is acceptable use of unsweetened yogurt, cheese low-lactose (the Swiss, mozzarella). If there during the diet irresistible craving sweets, you can drink some sweetened juice or cook dessert with sweeteners.

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Prevention of oral candidiasis

The main measures that help prevent thrush, is a regular proper oral care and dentures. In the treatment with antibiotics and corticosteroids administered prophylactically or Levorinum nystatin, mouthwash alkaline solutions. Teeth brushing is recommended that toothpastes containing a solution of borax in glycerine. Dentures for teeth require special handling agents intended for cleaning.

Natural defenses of the human body from the yeast fungus is eating yogurt or other fermented dairy products containing live cultures of bifidobacteria - antagonists fungi, as well as the use of products with excellent antimycotic action: propolis, hot red chilli, garlic, grapefruit, berries, cranberries, butter tea tree.

 Oral candidiasis: causes, diagnosis, treatment and prevention methods