Children's well-being is the main concern of all parents, without exception. A small children often give parents cause for alarm - the neck hurts, snot, if not: diarrhea or vomiting occurs. And my mother need to know how to provide first aid to your child before the arrival of the doctor.
However, to my mother could give a child needs help, she needs to know what could provoke diarrhea or vomiting. Yes, and assistance should also be rendered properly - otherwise the child may significantly worsen. This is what will be discussed in this article - vomiting in a child without a fever and diarrhea, a diarrhea, or all of the symptoms accompanied by fever.
Features a child's diarrhea
There are a great number of a variety of factors that can lead to the development of diarrhea in children. Among them are intestinal infections and food poisoning, and worm infestation or lactase deficiency, stress, taking certain medications and others.
Chair of the child with diarrhea may also be different both in color and flavor and consistency. These figures depend on what gave rise to intestinal disorders. A chair, a child may be a thin, almost watery and mushy, brown or greenish, and in rare cases - even white. The chair can be very bold, brilliant, with chunks of undigested food. The smell of the chair can also vary greatly - from no odor to acid or even rotten. In stool consistency of the child experienced doctor can with high probability to assume that it was the cause of the disease.
So, for example, if the child is suffering from rotavirus infection, a chair he usually foam, painted it may be in a different color - with amoebic dysentery color of raspberry jelly, salmonellosis - the color of swamp slime, hepatitis - and all white. But, of course, no doctor will diagnose the disease based only on the color and smell of the chair - he will conduct all the necessary tests. Not least is the absence or presence of a child vomiting and temperature - these indicators are also taken into consideration when making a diagnosis.
Most often suffer from diarrhea, children under one year of age. And this phenomenon has several objective explanations that parents must take into account:
- Violation of personal hygiene and sanitary standards
The most common cause of diarrhea in infants is a basic disregard for parents' sanitary standards. Poorly washed hands dirty pacifiers or bottles, dirty rattle - all of which can cause gastro - intestinal infection.
It is important to carefully monitor the baby's diet. The slightest error - the wrong quality, composition or quantity of food can lead to intestinal disorders. Also, a child's digestive system is that any changes in the diet can trigger bowel disorder.
- The sharp change of climate zone
Even adults suffers sharp change of climate is very difficult. And what to say about very young children. Therefore, the doctor in the first two years of life is not highly advised to plan trips with the child in different climatic zones. Oh and if this trip is a must, parents should purchase antidiarrheal pharmacological agents.
For children diarrhea terrible complications such as dehydration. And the younger the child, the more terrible for him dehydration. The main signs of dehydration are:
When dehydration child may experience a strong feeling of thirst. A young child who can not ask for a drink, the main indicator is dry sponge baby - they may even crack. However, do not rush to drink baby - remember that a large amount of liquid may provoke an attack of vomiting. Liquid baby should be given in small portions - about a teaspoon, but in a short time - about five - ten minutes. Simply put, the child must be desoldering.
The skin of the baby becomes dry and loses its elasticity. However, parents may notice this feature only for very severe dehydration, which is a serious threat to the child's condition.
A very important diagnostic value in the dewatering is urinating child. If a child urinating less than 6 times a day, the color of urine is dark and has a pungent odor, it can be suspected significant dehydration. In the presence of dehydration in young children aged up to three years shows immediate hospitalization. A child diarrhea leads to dehydration, the 70% of all cases.
Intestinal infection, food poisoning
Also, vomiting, and diarrhea may occur in a child with food poisoning or different intestinal infections. In such cases, diarrhea is almost always accompanied by uncontrollable vomiting, fever - sometimes to a very significant indicators, there are strong pain in the abdomen.
Additionally, largely deteriorates and general condition of the child. Kid becomes apathetic, lethargic, he refuses to eat, can sleep almost all the time. In addition, recently, doctors are increasingly faced with acute respiratory illness with diarrhea syndrome. In such cases, the child identify all those symptoms. Which is typical of SARS - runny nose, cough, sore throat, fever. But beyond all these "charms", the child develops diarrhea and vomiting. At the first manifestations of the disease parents need as quickly as possible to call the doctor - young children dehydration growing rapidly, in just a few seconds.
Intestinal dysbiosis, irritable bowel syndrome
Another frequent cause of diarrhea in a child - a goiter. Dysbacteriosis called a violation of the normal microflora in the gut. Normally, intestinal bacteria overgrowth is almost always accompanied by a so-called irritable bowel syndrome.
Dysbacteriosis recognize not so difficult, it has very specific symptoms:
The child may complain of arching pain in the abdomen. If a little pipsqueak, and can not complain about the pain, attentive mother can easily notice changes in behavior crumbs - it will cry twist legs.
- Diarrhea or constipation
Another pronounced feature of dysbiosis are alternating constipation and diarrhea. And during diarrhea in the child a very special chair - quite liquid, with fragments of undigested food, which has an extremely unpleasant odor. When these symptoms you need to show the child to the doctor who will specify a diagnosis and prescribe appropriate treatment.
It is also often the cause of diarrhea in the infant is lactose deficiency. The violation occurs in the case if the body of the child content reduced or absent enzyme such as lactose. The causes of the violation, a few - it may be innate, inheritable feature of the child's body, and may be caused by the baby transferred acute intestinal infections. Also, a violation may be caused by allergic reactions to cow's milk, the result of receiving a number of pharmacological agents.
Often enough lactase deficiency in infants has the nature of a temporary phenomenon and is caused by physiological immaturity of the intestine. As children get older and mature intestinal lactase deficiency goes away on its own, without any - any foreign intervention.
In the case of congenital lactase deficiency is, its symptoms begin to appear in the first hours of life. During each feeding the baby she had been frothy liquid stool having a pronounced sour smell. In addition, there are baby intestinal colic, flatulence, belching, and almost constant regurgitation, weight loss, exceeding the physiological norm. The main indicator of a child's lactose deficiency is the presence of carbohydrates in the feces.
Treatment of lactose deficiency is subject to a strict diet - complete exclusion from the diet of milk. As a rule, this measure is very effective - on the second - the fourth day the child disappeared diarrhea, vomiting, intestinal colic disappear. Starting from the fifth day a baby begins to gain weight. Remember that the transition to a lactose-free mixture should be smooth - for two - three days.
This condition is expressed in baby gluten intolerance - a protein which is contained in cereal crops. The disease usually either inherited or acquired as a result of intestinal infections or parasitic infestations.
As a rule, the disease makes itself felt at the end of the first year of life, when the diet crumbs introduce solid foods from cereals or bread. The child appeared its clinical manifestations such as plentiful foamy chair with sharp and highly unpleasant smell, weight loss. As the disease progresses the child observed the development of fat, vitamin and protein deficiency. If the disease were left unattended, it will progress - a child on the back of strong emaciation will be very large, swollen belly.
For the treatment of this disease from the diet of the baby is necessary to exclude all those dishes that contain any - or of cereals - whether buckwheat, rice or semolina. In addition, the child is prescribed a number of specific pharmacological agents.
Vomiting in Children
And if the diarrhea more or less clear, vomiting in children is a lot more questions. Vomiting of a child can be an absolute doddle, does not require at least some - or concern. A signal can be quite a serious illness that requires immediate medical attention.
Vomiting of a child is never an independent disease. She - a symptomatic sign of any - or metabolic diseases, gastro - intestinal tract, or a symptom of the general intoxication of the child. Cause emesis in a child, in addition to those diseases in which there are and diarrhea and vomiting, and already mentioned above, it is:
Often, the very first sign of appendicitis in infants is precisely the appearance of vomiting. And in any case, do not forget about such an opportunity - unfortunately, but in recent years more and more doctors are forced to operate for acute appendicitis children under the age of one year of age, and.
- Diseases of the central nervous system
Very often vomiting are a signal of the existing irregularities in the functioning of the nervous system. Most often, these disorders are: asphyxia, resulted in an organic CNS damage, increased intracranial pressure.
- Receiving pharmacological agents
Sometimes vomiting is the body's response to the reception of certain pharmacological agents. Typically, to determine such vomiting is not so difficult - it appears for the first hour after taking the medicine.
Piroplasmosis called pyloric spasms, which is why regular emptying of the stomach becomes impossible. The disease is functional. It makes itself felt in the first few days of life. The child starts vomiting after feeding. However, it is not abundant, and there is no after each feeding. The vomit may contain streaks of bile. Kid loses weight, but not critical. Girls exposed to the disease more often than boys. The doctor will appoint a child normal treatment.
This disease is characterized by impaired gastric emptying. This is a flagrant violation of the vice pyloric stomach, and is a congenital hypertrophy of the muscle layer just gatekeeper. The disease, unlike pilorospazme much more susceptible to the boys.
The first time the disease makes itself felt between the second and fourth weeks of life remains. After each feeding the baby comes gushing copious vomiting, and its volume largely exceeds the amount of food eaten. Between meals, the child remains constant regurgitation.
The child quickly loses weight, his skin is so parched that is easy to assemble in small folds. The child appeared systematic constipation and appetite increased considerably. In this case, parents need as quickly as possible to see a doctor for help - treatment of disorders of the digestive system surgery alone, and not delay a day.
Babies can trap and such diseases as acute gastritis. In this case, the child appears vomiting, diarrhea or not accompanied by or fever. However, the child may be anxious, since he will almost certainly hurt the stomach. In this case the mother should put the child, offer him a drink and call a doctor - a pediatrician, who will examine the child and decide on further treatment strategy remains.
All we once heard about this disease, migraine, and may themselves suffer from periodic bouts of it. But few mothers realize that little pipsqueak can suffer from the most severe migraine attacks. And they are the crumbs may also be accompanied by bouts of vomiting. The correct diagnosis can only be experienced doctor - neurologist.
Remember that little kids tend to pull in my mouth all in a row. And it happens that small objects the child can swallow. And if you swallowed a foreign object is large enough, and get stuck in the esophagus, the child can begin intense vomiting caused spazmicheskim smooth muscle of the esophagus.
As a rule, such vomiting occurs within minutes after a child has swallowed a foreign body. The child is very restless, he may start to cry, his breath can also be extremely difficult, can develop a strong watery eyes. The vomit contains undigested food, and in the event that a foreign object damage the lining of the esophagus, there may be streaks of blood.
If you notice such symptoms parents should as quickly as possible to call the brigade "first aid".
Strictly speaking, any vomiting in infants in any case should not be left without due attention from parents. In the event that the child is healthy, he had bouts of vomiting should not be. And complain about the tiny baby no matter what can not, therefore, vomiting is often the only alarming symptom.
Yes, and diarrhea also in any case can not be ignored - he's in almost all cases, evidence of the presence in the body of the child of certain pathological processes. Vomiting and diarrhea in children - a reason for immediate treatment to the doctor!