nosebleeds reasons

Quite often, parents are faced with such a problem as bleeding from the nose. And the loss of blood during this bleeding can be quite large - frightened not only the child but also his parents. In addition, there is also the fear of the fact that virtually none of the parents do not understand what is the basis of nosebleeds. This is what will be discussed further.

The causes of epistaxis

Whatever provoked bleeding from the nose, still it is due to two factors - a violation of the integrity of the blood vessel wall, or else due to abnormal blood clotting. Nosebleeds can be as spontaneous, arising independently, and what provoked - or injuries.

Doctors are two types of causes of bleeding - local and general. Thus, nosebleeds reasons:

  • Local causes

Most often caused by bleeding due to damage to the vessel walls - about 90% of all cases. This is especially true in those cases where the vascular plexus Slizkov located close - in this case, the slightest impact on the nasal mucosa may cause severe bleeding.

And injuries, causing nosebleeds, can be very different - severe trauma of the nose and the nasal septum, for example, as a result of hitting the ball or drop the child. And sometimes quite harmless enough at first eye habit child picking his nose with his finger.

Also nosebleeds often provoked by the presence of foreign bodies in the nasal cavity. The most urgent problem is this for young children, who often put in the spout various foreign bodies - buttons, beads and other. And children often either do not talk about it to adults for fear of punishment, or just simply forget about it. And the slightest effect on the spout crumbs leads to injury of the nasal mucosa and, as a consequence, nasal bleeding.

Moreover, this phenomenon is fraught and other complications. In that case, if a foreign object is located in the nasal cavity for a long time, developing inflammation of the nasal mucosa. After a few hours of the child's nose will not abundant bleeding from the nose, with pus impurity and accompanied by an unpleasant odor.

It is also the cause of nosebleeds can be a variety of tumor of the nose. In children, a great happiness, in almost all cases there is a benign tumor that is removed, in principle, easily and without any - any effects on the body of the child and his or her health in general.

In the event that a child has pathological anomalies of the anatomical structure of the nose, quite often, in addition to nasal breathing difficulties, nosebleeds occur. Very often result in bleeding from the nose anomalies such as a deviated septum or pathology of the vascular system of the nasal mucosa.

It is also not uncommon change in the structure of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity, arising from a long-term impact on the body of pathogens of diseases such as syphilis, tuberculosis and diphtheria, as well as chronic rhinitis.

And sometimes the cause of nasal bleeding may be even an ordinary dry air in the room. The mucosa of the nasal cavity dry, sticks to the walls of blood vessels, which largely losing its strength and elasticity. And the slightest impact - sneezing, blowing the nose leads to the fact that the container bursts.

  • Common causes

In addition to local reasons, there is a sufficiently large number of diseases that cause nosebleeds general. These diseases are somehow associated with bleeding disorders or permeability of the vessel walls.

The causes may be diseases of the blood, for example, such as hemophilia. A person with hemophilia, blood clots are significantly worse than that of a healthy person. This occurs due to the fact that the blood is not enough specific enzymes responsible for blood clotting. By the way, hemophilia affects only boys, whereas girls are only carriers of the defective gene.

And infectious diseases such as influenza, measles, rubella, greatly increases the permeability of blood vessels and causes an inflammation. At about the same result can cause a lack of vitamin C, or in the presence of hereditary diseases that lead to the disruption of the normal structure of the vascular wall.

Also, very often leads to nosebleeds that a child has chronic liver diseases. Such diseases include all types of hepatitis and cirrhosis. Also, bleeding may provoke chronic inflammatory processes in paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity itself.

Very often, to the emergence of the child's nose bleeding causes increased blood pressure. The reason causing this is the increase in pressure, there are so many. These include hypertension and kidney, and exercise, and overheating of the child, and renal disease.

Stop nosebleeds in children

In children, nasal bleeding may begin suddenly, often just a dream. Parents can find out in the morning on the pillow child bloodstains. Sometimes the bleeding is unilateral, but may be from both nostrils.

The intensity of these hemorrhages also may be different - both weak and strong enough. It can quickly stop by itself, and can be continuous, and to stop it, we need some effort.

  • Fresh air

It should be as soon as possible to undo the clothes the child, if necessary, to open the window. Make sure that your child breathe through the mouth instead of the nose. On the nose, or put something cold - a piece of ice wrapped with a handkerchief or cloth soaked in cold water. But the child's feet, on the contrary, should be warm. Due to this flow of blood to the nose decreases, and bleeding stops faster.

  • Vasoconstrictor drops

In case of bleeding in a child is often repeated, the doctor will prescribe special drops that constrict blood vessels. This will help stop the bleeding quickly.

  • Foreign body

In that case, if the bleeding is provoked by the presence of a foreign body in the nasal cavity, in any case not allowed to try to remove it yourself. It should be as soon as possible to see a specialist, who quickly and safely extract the foreign body from the nasal cavity.

In the event that nosebleeds scant, the above measures will be enough to stop him. In the same case, if it is excessive, it is necessary as soon as possible cause brigade "first aid". Before the arrival of the brigade must be carefully controlled pulse and breathing of the child, as well as ensure that the child drowned in blood.

After stopping the bleeding nasal cavity child must be thoroughly lubricated with a cotton swab liquid paraffin. This will help prevent drying of the mucous membrane. In addition, within the next days is necessary to strictly limit any physical activity of the child, so as not to provoke rebleeding.

In that case, if the child provoked bleeding excessively dry air, it is necessary to regularly moisturize. You can buy special moisturizers, and you can do with improvised means, for example. Hang in the baby's room wet sheets or towels. The nose of a child can dig preparations seawater.

In the event that nosebleeds are general in nature, the doctor will prescribe your child a number of necessary tests - blood tests, doctor consultations and other hematologist. In no case is inadmissible to ignore the systematic bleeding from the nose.

In the event that nosebleeds in children is repeated regularly, the baby will slowly dwindle, it may be chronic iron-deficiency anemia. As a consequence of anemia occurs disruption of the immune system, resistance to pathogens of various diseases and aggressive environment will be significantly reduced. In addition, anemia inevitably arises chronic hypoxia. A constant lack of oxygen, in turn, can cause irreversible pathological changes in vital organs.

Therefore, if more than twice the baby was epistaxis, the cause must be established as soon as possible. At the time the measures to significantly reduce the risk of complications.

 Nosebleeds in children

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 vomiting in a child without a fever and diarrhea

Children's well-being is the main concern of all parents, without exception. A small children often give parents cause for alarm - the neck hurts, snot, if not: diarrhea or vomiting occurs. And my mother need to know how to provide first aid to your child before the arrival of the doctor.

However, to my mother could give a child needs help, she needs to know what could provoke diarrhea or vomiting. Yes, and assistance should also be rendered properly - otherwise the child may significantly worsen. This is what will be discussed in this article - vomiting in a child without a fever and diarrhea, a diarrhea, or all of the symptoms accompanied by fever.

Features a child's diarrhea

There are a great number of a variety of factors that can lead to the development of diarrhea in children. Among them are intestinal infections and food poisoning, and worm infestation or lactase deficiency, stress, taking certain medications and others.

Chair of the child with diarrhea may also be different both in color and flavor and consistency. These figures depend on what gave rise to intestinal disorders. A chair, a child may be a thin, almost watery and mushy, brown or greenish, and in rare cases - even white. The chair can be very bold, brilliant, with chunks of undigested food. The smell of the chair can also vary greatly - from no odor to acid or even rotten. In stool consistency of the child experienced doctor can with high probability to assume that it was the cause of the disease.

So, for example, if the child is suffering from rotavirus infection, a chair he usually foam, painted it may be in a different color - with amoebic dysentery color of raspberry jelly, salmonellosis - the color of swamp slime, hepatitis - and all white. But, of course, no doctor will diagnose the disease based only on the color and smell of the chair - he will conduct all the necessary tests. Not least is the absence or presence of a child vomiting and temperature - these indicators are also taken into consideration when making a diagnosis.

Most often suffer from diarrhea, children under one year of age. And this phenomenon has several objective explanations that parents must take into account:

  • Violation of personal hygiene and sanitary standards

The most common cause of diarrhea in infants is a basic disregard for parents' sanitary standards. Poorly washed hands dirty pacifiers or bottles, dirty rattle - all of which can cause gastro - intestinal infection.

  • Diet

It is important to carefully monitor the baby's diet. The slightest error - the wrong quality, composition or quantity of food can lead to intestinal disorders. Also, a child's digestive system is that any changes in the diet can trigger bowel disorder.

  • The sharp change of climate zone

Even adults suffers sharp change of climate is very difficult. And what to say about very young children. Therefore, the doctor in the first two years of life is not highly advised to plan trips with the child in different climatic zones. Oh and if this trip is a must, parents should purchase antidiarrheal pharmacological agents.

For children diarrhea terrible complications such as dehydration. And the younger the child, the more terrible for him dehydration. The main signs of dehydration are:

  • Increased thirst

When dehydration child may experience a strong feeling of thirst. A young child who can not ask for a drink, the main indicator is dry sponge baby - they may even crack. However, do not rush to drink baby - remember that a large amount of liquid may provoke an attack of vomiting. Liquid baby should be given in small portions - about a teaspoon, but in a short time - about five - ten minutes. Simply put, the child must be desoldering.

  • Skin changes

The skin of the baby becomes dry and loses its elasticity. However, parents may notice this feature only for very severe dehydration, which is a serious threat to the child's condition.

  • Changes in urination

A very important diagnostic value in the dewatering is urinating child. If a child urinating less than 6 times a day, the color of urine is dark and has a pungent odor, it can be suspected significant dehydration. In the presence of dehydration in young children aged up to three years shows immediate hospitalization. A child diarrhea leads to dehydration, the 70% of all cases.

Intestinal infection, food poisoning

Also, vomiting, and diarrhea may occur in a child with food poisoning or different intestinal infections. In such cases, diarrhea is almost always accompanied by uncontrollable vomiting, fever - sometimes to a very significant indicators, there are strong pain in the abdomen.

Additionally, largely deteriorates and general condition of the child. Kid becomes apathetic, lethargic, he refuses to eat, can sleep almost all the time. In addition, recently, doctors are increasingly faced with acute respiratory illness with diarrhea syndrome. In such cases, the child identify all those symptoms. Which is typical of SARS - runny nose, cough, sore throat, fever. But beyond all these "charms", the child develops diarrhea and vomiting. At the first manifestations of the disease parents need as quickly as possible to call the doctor - young children dehydration growing rapidly, in just a few seconds.

Intestinal dysbiosis, irritable bowel syndrome

Another frequent cause of diarrhea in a child - a goiter. Dysbacteriosis called a violation of the normal microflora in the gut. Normally, intestinal bacteria overgrowth is almost always accompanied by a so-called irritable bowel syndrome.

Dysbacteriosis recognize not so difficult, it has very specific symptoms:

  • Stomach ache

The child may complain of arching pain in the abdomen. If a little pipsqueak, and can not complain about the pain, attentive mother can easily notice changes in behavior crumbs - it will cry twist legs.

  • Flatulence
  • Diarrhea or constipation

Another pronounced feature of dysbiosis are alternating constipation and diarrhea. And during diarrhea in the child a very special chair - quite liquid, with fragments of undigested food, which has an extremely unpleasant odor. When these symptoms you need to show the child to the doctor who will specify a diagnosis and prescribe appropriate treatment.

 diarrhea in a child under one year

Lactose deficiency

It is also often the cause of diarrhea in the infant is lactose deficiency. The violation occurs in the case if the body of the child content reduced or absent enzyme such as lactose. The causes of the violation, a few - it may be innate, inheritable feature of the child's body, and may be caused by the baby transferred acute intestinal infections. Also, a violation may be caused by allergic reactions to cow's milk, the result of receiving a number of pharmacological agents.

Often enough lactase deficiency in infants has the nature of a temporary phenomenon and is caused by physiological immaturity of the intestine. As children get older and mature intestinal lactase deficiency goes away on its own, without any - any foreign intervention.

In the case of congenital lactase deficiency is, its symptoms begin to appear in the first hours of life. During each feeding the baby she had been frothy liquid stool having a pronounced sour smell. In addition, there are baby intestinal colic, flatulence, belching, and almost constant regurgitation, weight loss, exceeding the physiological norm. The main indicator of a child's lactose deficiency is the presence of carbohydrates in the feces.

Treatment of lactose deficiency is subject to a strict diet - complete exclusion from the diet of milk. As a rule, this measure is very effective - on the second - the fourth day the child disappeared diarrhea, vomiting, intestinal colic disappear. Starting from the fifth day a baby begins to gain weight. Remember that the transition to a lactose-free mixture should be smooth - for two - three days.

Celiac disease

This condition is expressed in baby gluten intolerance - a protein which is contained in cereal crops. The disease usually either inherited or acquired as a result of intestinal infections or parasitic infestations.

As a rule, the disease makes itself felt at the end of the first year of life, when the diet crumbs introduce solid foods from cereals or bread. The child appeared its clinical manifestations such as plentiful foamy chair with sharp and highly unpleasant smell, weight loss. As the disease progresses the child observed the development of fat, vitamin and protein deficiency. If the disease were left unattended, it will progress - a child on the back of strong emaciation will be very large, swollen belly.

For the treatment of this disease from the diet of the baby is necessary to exclude all those dishes that contain any - or of cereals - whether buckwheat, rice or semolina. In addition, the child is prescribed a number of specific pharmacological agents.

Vomiting in Children

And if the diarrhea more or less clear, vomiting in children is a lot more questions. Vomiting of a child can be an absolute doddle, does not require at least some - or concern. A signal can be quite a serious illness that requires immediate medical attention.

Vomiting of a child is never an independent disease. She - a symptomatic sign of any - or metabolic diseases, gastro - intestinal tract, or a symptom of the general intoxication of the child. Cause emesis in a child, in addition to those diseases in which there are and diarrhea and vomiting, and already mentioned above, it is:

  • Acute appendicitis

Often, the very first sign of appendicitis in infants is precisely the appearance of vomiting. And in any case, do not forget about such an opportunity - unfortunately, but in recent years more and more doctors are forced to operate for acute appendicitis children under the age of one year of age, and.

  • Diseases of the central nervous system

Very often vomiting are a signal of the existing irregularities in the functioning of the nervous system. Most often, these disorders are: asphyxia, resulted in an organic CNS damage, increased intracranial pressure.

  • Receiving pharmacological agents

Sometimes vomiting is the body's response to the reception of certain pharmacological agents. Typically, to determine such vomiting is not so difficult - it appears for the first hour after taking the medicine.

  • Pilorospazm

Piroplasmosis called pyloric spasms, which is why regular emptying of the stomach becomes impossible. The disease is functional. It makes itself felt in the first few days of life. The child starts vomiting after feeding. However, it is not abundant, and there is no after each feeding. The vomit may contain streaks of bile. Kid loses weight, but not critical. Girls exposed to the disease more often than boys. The doctor will appoint a child normal treatment.

  • Pyloristenosis

This disease is characterized by impaired gastric emptying. This is a flagrant violation of the vice pyloric stomach, and is a congenital hypertrophy of the muscle layer just gatekeeper. The disease, unlike pilorospazme much more susceptible to the boys.

The first time the disease makes itself felt between the second and fourth weeks of life remains. After each feeding the baby comes gushing copious vomiting, and its volume largely exceeds the amount of food eaten. Between meals, the child remains constant regurgitation.

The child quickly loses weight, his skin is so parched that is easy to assemble in small folds. The child appeared systematic constipation and appetite increased considerably. In this case, parents need as quickly as possible to see a doctor for help - treatment of disorders of the digestive system surgery alone, and not delay a day.

  • Acute gastritis

Babies can trap and such diseases as acute gastritis. In this case, the child appears vomiting, diarrhea or not accompanied by or fever. However, the child may be anxious, since he will almost certainly hurt the stomach. In this case the mother should put the child, offer him a drink and call a doctor - a pediatrician, who will examine the child and decide on further treatment strategy remains.

  • Migraine

All we once heard about this disease, migraine, and may themselves suffer from periodic bouts of it. But few mothers realize that little pipsqueak can suffer from the most severe migraine attacks. And they are the crumbs may also be accompanied by bouts of vomiting. The correct diagnosis can only be experienced doctor - neurologist.

  • Foreign body

Remember that little kids tend to pull in my mouth all in a row. And it happens that small objects the child can swallow. And if you swallowed a foreign object is large enough, and get stuck in the esophagus, the child can begin intense vomiting caused spazmicheskim smooth muscle of the esophagus.

As a rule, such vomiting occurs within minutes after a child has swallowed a foreign body. The child is very restless, he may start to cry, his breath can also be extremely difficult, can develop a strong watery eyes. The vomit contains undigested food, and in the event that a foreign object damage the lining of the esophagus, there may be streaks of blood.

If you notice such symptoms parents should as quickly as possible to call the brigade "first aid".

Strictly speaking, any vomiting in infants in any case should not be left without due attention from parents. In the event that the child is healthy, he had bouts of vomiting should not be. And complain about the tiny baby no matter what can not, therefore, vomiting is often the only alarming symptom.

Yes, and diarrhea also in any case can not be ignored - he's in almost all cases, evidence of the presence in the body of the child of certain pathological processes. Vomiting and diarrhea in children - a reason for immediate treatment to the doctor!

 Vomiting and diarrhea in a child

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