retinal dystrophy

Modern humanity is suffering from a wide variety of diseases. This is explained by various factors - conditions and way of life, its highest rate and the impact of adverse external factors. It is not an exception to the rule and the human visual system.

There are many different diseases of the visual system. And this list is not the last place is occupied by retinal degeneration. The most susceptible to the disease the elderly, especially those with diseases such as hypertension and diabetes. Alcohol abuse and smoking are also greatly increase the risk of retinal atrophy.

The structure of the retina

Before we talk about this disease as retinal dystrophy, you must tell our readers, what is the retina of the eye, and why it is needed. A thin layer of the nerve cells forming the inner membrane of the eye and is the very retina. The retina consists of two parts - the rear and front. Nerve cells - photoreceptors, are designed to absorb light to form the back of the retina. With most of these photoreceptor nerve impulses that carry specific information, transmit it to the central nervous system, and then - to the brain. And there, in the visual analyzer, it comes directly itself processing the information received. In front of the photoreceptors of the retina such is not present.

Despite the fact that the retina itself is very, very thin, it consists of several layers, each of which performs its own function. For example, the outer layer of the retina, known as the pigment, is closely related to an average, vascular, shell eyes. In the center of the retina is a blind spot - the optic disk, which does not contain photoreceptors.

In close proximity to the central nerve disc is the macula - the yellow spot in the center of which is a kind of pit in which the image of highest quality. That is why if the destructuring occurs (change) of the retina in this place, all eyes is greatly reduced. If you change other areas of the peripheral retina, then the sick person is very much narrower field of view, depending on the location of the affected source.

The process of degeneration of the retina

In the case of retinal cells disrupted the normal metabolism, resulting in cells accumulate qualitatively and quantitatively altered metabolic products may cause damage to the retina, expressed in greater or lesser degree - dystrophy.

The reasons for the development of macular degeneration a lot. As mentioned above, the reasons for such concerns, and smoking and alcohol abuse and diabetes. There is also a reason that can trigger the development of retinal atrophy include:

  • Diseases of the circulatory system. Violation of how the composition of the blood and circulatory same process can often trigger the disease.
  • Violation of lymph circulation, including lymphadenitis, especially chronic and relapsing.
  • Infectious diseases in the elderly.
  • Disrupt the normal hormonal levels of the human body, particularly those caused by diseases of the endocrine system.
  • Violation of the normal process of metabolism - is a violation of the power all cells, including tissues of the eye, which eventually can lead to atrophy of the retina.

Strictly speaking, most often it is poor circulation in the tissue cells and retinal dystrophy. This process is very typical for the elderly. However, in some cases, degeneration may occur in younger people. For example, this may occur if a person is suffering from severe myopia. Pronounced myopia leads to the fact that the transverse dimension of the eye increases greatly and, consequently, the pressure on the membrane of the eye becomes several times more potent.

Furthermore, the development of retinal dystrophy and may cause injury to the eye, especially when damaged mucosa. As well as macular degeneration can trigger any chronic eye diseases or cardio - vascular system, kidney disease, leading to the frequent increase in blood pressure. And another factor provoking retinal dystrophy can be a strong influence on the human organism different toxins - simply put, poisoning.

 degeneration of the retina

Types of macular degeneration, its symptoms

Doctors divide atrophic retina into two subspecies, each of which has its causes, characteristics of the disease and forecasts. So dystrophy is:

Central retinal dystrophy

There is a central or, as it is called, Generalized retinal near the macula - the point where vision is most clearly. The cause of such complications is almost always pathologic vascular changes of the eyeball, the most common age of exceptional character.

In this case, the development of the disease is slow - for several years. The clarity of vision is not lost immediately, but gradually. Especially bad person sees the objects that are located near it. Typically, if not accompanied by degeneration of the central and peripheral still, onset blindness occurs.

Obvious signs that a person is suffering from macular degeneration is the presence of such features as the contortion of image, the appearance of different spots before the eyes, often colored. Also, these features include double vision, and objects for which such patients often enough people complain. But of course, in any case we should not forget that all people are unique - someone may have all the features listed above, and someone just one of them.

The central retina also has two subspecies:

  • The dry form of macular degeneration. In this case, between the choroid and retina is an accumulation of the emissions of the body as a result of metabolism. This discharge is a kind of tubercles on the surface of the retina. This subspecies dystrophy is the most rarely seen - decreased vision occurs very slowly, and the prognosis of this type of disease is most favorable.
  • The wet form of macular degeneration. Wet retinal dystrophy is a much more severe form of the disease - vision can greatly reduce in a short period of time - from a few days to a few weeks. When the wet form of macular degeneration in her field happens congestion or blood or lymphatic fluid.

Peripheral retinal dystrophy

When peripheral retinal dystrophy affects all other areas of the retina. Particular insidiousness of the disease is that it is, in most cases, proceeds virtually asymptomatic - only occasionally in a human patient may appear bright spots flash before eyes. However, most of this kind of macular degeneration revealed by accident - with a planned inspection at the doctor - ophthalmologist.

Treatment of retinal degeneration

No matter what the reasons were due to atrophy of the retina, bottom disease needs immediate treatment. And the sooner treatment is started, the more effective it will be. As a rule, with the help of treatment to completely restore the level of vision does not always work - but the sooner it is started, the better the doctors the chances of success.

Primarily for the treatment of macular degeneration is necessary to eliminate or minimize the manifestation of the disease, which, strictly speaking, are the cause of this disease. Only after this is done, the doctor - ophthalmologist begin immediate treatment of retinal dystrophy.

To date, the treatment of retinal atrophy used arogonovy laser. It is used to strengthen the retina, and if the disease is already in a very poor condition, the laser can limit retinal detachment. The principle of operation of the laser treatment of the following - the impact of the laser entails an extremely sharp rise in temperature. Higher temperatures, in turn, leads to the fact that coagulate tissue.

The operation takes place completely bloodless. Furthermore, the laser has a very high accuracy and allows efficient splice bundle and vascular reticular membranes of the eye. This operation is carried out as follows: a sick person in the affected eye wears a special contact lens, which has the antireflection coating. Through this contact lens doctor is able to penetrate into the eye. Himself a laser beam is applied through a special slit lamp. A surgeon using a stereomicroscope has the ability to focus the laser beam at the desired location, and monitor the overall progress of the operation.

Concluding the conversation about the degeneration of the retina, it is necessary to reiterate that the earlier the disease is detected, the more effective its treatment. Therefore, everyone should regularly visit the doctor - an ophthalmologist for checkups.

 Macular degeneration. Treatment of the disease

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 how to get rid of scabies at home

How to get rid of scabies at home? This question is relevant to the present day. Scabies is quite a common disease that can catch anyone. Dispatched by the disease in direct physical contact with an infected person or through the use of common items - towels, dishes, linens. And even an ordinary door handle can be a source of infection.

So do not assume that the disease is inherent in a low-income and socially disadvantaged people. To catch them can be absolutely anyone - in the subway, in public transport, in the store.

Often, people are interested in what the incubation period in scabies. The incubation period - is the period of time that passes between the way the tick penetrates into the skin, and that when the first symptoms of the disease. Definitely doctors to answer this question can not be as precise time limits simply do not exist - the duration of the incubation period depends on many subjective factors.

For example, in the case of human infection occurs as a result of penetration of the skin itch mite adult females, the incubation period can be very small - only a few hours. During this time, adult females have time not only to gnaw the skin a large number of moves, and deposit their eggs. And, accordingly, the first symptoms of the disease appear very, very quickly.

In the same case, if a person was infected larvae of scabies mite incubation (latent) period will increase significantly - it will be about fourteen days. About two weeks are necessary in order to itch mite larva has passed all stages of its development and become adult individuals capable of reproduction.

Symptoms of scabies

There are a number of specific symptoms, the appearance of which indicates that the person is infected with scabies. One of these symptoms is a strong itching. The person experiences a strong tearing itchy skin, which during the day is almost gone. But in the evening and night hours the itch comes back with renewed vigor, becoming almost unbearable. This itching can almost completely deprive the rights not only of peace, but even sleep.

However, doctors - dermatologists say that different people manifestation of scabies can vary - depending on the number of scabies mites and the individual characteristics of each individual. There are several factors that affect the intensity of itching. Firstly, itching occurs while itch mite gnaws moves and moves under the skin. Accordingly, the greater the number of ticks, the more moves they make, and the more itching.

In addition, itching can be amplified because of the possibility of allergic reactions in the human body waste products of scabies mites. By the way, many experienced doctors - dermatologists in the treatment of scabies is prescribed to sick people receiving antihistamines, which greatly facilitate the human condition and reduce the intensity of itching.

When viewed from the affected areas of the skin doctor can easily detect visual signs of the disease: the presence of serous scabs, itch moves, papules. There may be a large number, but can - and very small - it all depends on the number of scabies mites. As a rule, the localization of scabies mites scabies is typical - the lesions localized in the knee or elbow joints, hips, abdomen, buttocks, hands and breasts.

As mentioned above, the most important and distinctive symptoms suggestive of the presence of scabies in humans is the presence of the itch moves, who follow in the epidermis of the female scabies mite. To distinguish it is not too difficult - it is a reddish line, straight or curved, rising a few millimeters above the skin.

At one end of this course you can easily see a black dot - in fact, the very female scabies mite. And sometimes itch moves look very - different - kind of a chain of small bubbles, which are located in one line. Moreover, a similar pattern is observed most often in children.

In severe cases, if the disease has lasted for a long time, as a sick man for some - any reason not receive required him specific treatment on the surface of his skin without - or labor to the naked eye can detect stuffy itch moves, which are cracks on keratinized skin cover. Typically, such a clinical picture observed if the disease lasts for more than two months.

But in that case, if the disease lasts no more than two weeks, without the help of a doctor to detect itch moves also virtually impossible. By the way, in case if a person carefully comply with all rules of hygiene, discover itch moves are not so easy, even a doctor. In such cases, doctors - dermatologists say malosimptomno scabies. And it is very important to properly and timely diagnose the disease and prescribe treatment. Otherwise, the disease may take the form of a running flow, and to treat it will need much more time and effort.

However, the presence of burrows is not the only sign of disease. Another feature is the presence of itch in the skin small bubbles bright - pink filled with clear content. In no case is unacceptable to squeeze out the contents of these bubbles - otherwise there is a risk of infection and even sores festering abscesses.

In addition to the bubbles for scabies is very characterized by the presence of the skin, to a large extent combed and crusts. Most symptoms are much data in the field of localization of scabies mites - hands and feet, knee - elbows, stomach area and other places, which have already been mentioned above.

 how to get rid of scabies

Scabies in children

The disease scabies in infants has a number of specific features. Firstly, damage to the skin in children occurs much faster than an adult human. Secondly, it affected a much larger area of ​​the skin: the face, palms, soles, scalp. Defeat can happen in just a few hours maximum per day. Children, especially under the age of three years, the most severely affected by itching of the hands and face. Also, a child with scabies, very fast significantly modified the nail plate - they are much more loose, thick, may crack.

In children, diagnosis of scabies is sometimes quite difficult. This is due to the fact that the clinical manifestations of scabies in children are often very similar to the clinical picture of weeping eczema. In addition, small children is very often very combed the skin, which is why often joins secondary bacterial infection of the skin. To correct diagnosis, the doctor will prescribe laboratory tests which will reveal the presence or absence of itch mite.

Treatment of scabies

In case you notice yourself or your loved ones any - any of the above symptoms of scabies, you must immediately seek medical help from a doctor - a dermatologist, and in its absence - to the doctor - the therapist.

Very often, people are faced with this disease, try yourself at home to decide how to get rid of scabies, hesitating to go to the doctor. However, this should not do in any case - self-medication can only worsen as the course of the disease and the overall health of the sick person.

The doctor will choose you exactly the treatment that will be most suitable. And it does not entail any negative consequences for the general state of the human body. After the doctor knows exactly how to get rid of scabies. Folk remedies for the treatment of scabies often do not have the desired action, but precious time will be lost, resulting in the disease may take the form of a running flow.

In order for treatment to be effective, you need to follow a few simple, but very, very important rules:

  • Lingerie

As mentioned above, can be infected with scabies when using shared with the sick person household items. However, in the course of treatment can be repeated infection itself, with poor personal hygiene. That is why in order to get rid of scabies in the treatment process is necessary to produce a daily change of clothes, underwear and bed linen, towels and other household items.

All these things must not only be washed and thoroughly boiled - a simple washing may not always destroy the itch mite adults, let alone the larvae, which are not susceptible to the effects of household chemicals. Doctors recommend disinfection as follows: boil the underwear is necessary for approximately ten minutes after boiling, pour a glass of soda in ten liters of water. After drying the laundry must be carefully ironed iron on both sides.

  • outerwear

However, the itch mite may be present not only in underwear and bedding. And far from being any clothing survive boiling, not to mention outerwear, boil that can not be in principle. So what to do? Really throw? Not at all - such extreme measures are completely useless. Just bring clothes into the street. In winter, it is enough to leave in the cold for two - three hours in the summer of the same - a few days.

  • Household items

Also, in any case we must not forget that the itch mites and their eggs can remain on furniture, cookware, door handles and even the floor. And treatment may be unsuccessful because the person will always be infected. Therefore, about their disinfection and in any case not be forgotten. For disinfection, you can use special solutions that are sold in pharmacies. Or you can prepare a disinfectant solution on their own, at home. For this purpose, five liters of water must be thoroughly dissolve two tablespoons of bleach and a glass of soda.

If you follow all the above measures, no problems with how to get rid of scabies, you will not. Better yet, do not ever encounter any of this, with any - any other disease. Be healthy!

 How to get rid of scabies at home? Go to the doctor!

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