• What is sexual orientation
  • As people learn about their homosexual?
  • What is the psychological impact of discrimination against sexual minorities?
  • Are there any methods to return to the traditional orientation?
  • Sexual orientation in adolescence
  • What is the nature of same-sex relationships?
  • Can gay or lesbian to be good parents?
  • How to reduce discrimination against homosexuals?

Until the mid-seventies of the last century, any deviation from the usual norm in sexual relationships was considered a mental illness. But in 1975, the American Psychological Association appealed to colleagues from around the world to remove the stigma of mental illness to the people, which are characterized by homosexual sex - with lesbian, gay and bisexual men. Psychology deals with the emotional well-being of people, and, consequently, the fact that this is a threat to prosperity. American psychologists have shown that prejudice and discrimination against people who consider themselves lesbians, gays and bisexuals, gives a negative psychological effect, not only for each such person, but also for society as a whole.

Today, followers of non-traditional sexual relationships are not considered mentally ill people, and treat them all over the world has changed dramatically. But still the attitude towards them is not straightforward. What distinguishes these people from the rest and that is all - sexual orientation?

What is sexual orientation

Sexual orientation refers to the solid structure of the emotional, romantic and / or sexual attraction to men, women or both sexes. It also refers to a sense of identity the human characteristics that are associated with the behavior and the sense of unity with people who have the same direction of orientation. We know that sexual orientation ranges from traditional heterosexual, when there is an emotional, romantic or sexual attraction to the opposite sex to homosexual. Sexual orientation, in turn, is divided into several types: gay or lesbian (having attracted to people of your gender) and bisexual (having attracted to both men and women). This range of behavior has been described in various cultures of the peoples of the world.

Sexual orientation may be different from the other components of sex and gender, including by biological sex (the anatomical, physiological and genetic characteristics associated with being male or female), gender identity (the psychological basis of being male or female) and the social gender role (cultural norms which define the scope of the masculine and feminine behavior).

Orientation sex is often perceived as if it were the only indicator of the biological sex of the individual, and an indication of his gender identity. But this view is incomplete because sexual orientation - is more of a concept from the plane of relations with other people. Man expresses their sexual orientation is, in collaboration with those who focus on his sexuality, and it can manifest itself in very simple actions, such as when the partners kiss each other, or even just holding hands. Thus, sexual orientation is closely associated with intimate personal relationships that meet the deep need for love, affection and intimacy. In addition to sexual behavior, personal relationships include not only physical love, but also an emotional attachment, common goals and values, mutual support and commitment to each other.

Thus, sexual orientation is not only the personal characteristics of a person. Most likely, this or that sexual orientation determines a group of people, which probably every member of the group will meet their needs in a romantic relationship is an important component of personal identity for many people.

 sexual orientation

As people learn about their homosexual?

According to current research results now, the main indicators that form the basis for adult sexual orientation, there are usually between adolescence and early youth. Such models of emotional, romantic and sexual desire may occur without prior sexual experience. A person can still be a virgin, but it may already be aware of the fact that he or she - sexual orientation, whether lesbian, gay or bisexual. The same applies, by the way, and heterosexuals.

Different people have very different experiences is relating to their perceived sexual orientation. Some firmly know that they are lesbian, gay or bisexual, long before they actually enter into such a relationship. Others engage in sexual relations before are aware of their sexual identity to a particular orientation. Condemnation of the society and the covert discrimination often makes it difficult for many people the opportunity to come to the determination of their sexual identity, so the awareness of non-traditional person their sexual preferences can be quite a slow process.

But what causes a person to have a particular sexual orientation? What are the prerequisites may contribute to this? Scientists disagree about the precise reasons that lead to the development of a human heterosexual, bisexual, lesbian or gay orientation. And though there are plenty of research on this topic to date, experts have not found anything that would lead them to conclude that sexual orientation can be determined by any particular factor. Many of them believe that the formation of the orientation of the large and complex nature of the role played by education and, therefore, people can choose not to sexual orientation on your own - from it is actually independent.

What is the psychological impact of discrimination against sexual minorities?

Prejudice and discrimination, which is almost all over the world are exposed to gay people are social and personal effects on the plane of these people. Impact on lesbian, gay and bisexual people on a social level is reflected even in everyday stereotype behavior of these groups. Such stereotypes persist in people of traditional orientation towards members of visible minorities, even if there is no clear evidence of their membership to gays or lesbians. It is usually very unfriendly; such people are greatly limited employment opportunities, education of children and the recognition of their right to establish couples.

On a personal level, too, discrimination can have negative consequences, especially if gays, lesbians or bisexuals try to hide or deny their sexual orientation. Such psychological burden can have serious negative consequences for the health and emotional well-being, becoming a source of constant stress. And if in other cases, the support of others can help a person in dealing with stress, that gays, lesbians and bisexuals can hardly count on such support.

So can we still consider homosexuality a mental disorder? Experts believe that this is not a mental disorder. Studies have shown that there is no internal connection between any of the sexual orientations and psychopathology. Heterosexual and homosexual behavior are normal aspects of human sexuality. As we mentioned, the two forms of sexuality were recorded in different cultures and different peoples in different historical epochs. Also, such forms of sexual behavior are not uncommon in the animal kingdom.

Are there any methods to return to the traditional orientation?

Recall: in 1974 for the first time homosexuality was removed from the list of mental illnesses. It happened in the United States; and in 1990 it followed the example of American psychologists and the World Health Organization, which has made the appropriate changes in the International Classification of Diseases. And once sexual orientation - is not a disease, and there is no reason to treat it.

The only thing that can make psychologists for people with a different sexual orientation - is to help such individuals to deal effectively with social discrimination Society successfully resolve issues arising from internal conflicts in his social circle and actively lead a happy and fulfilling life.

 people are homosexual

Sexual orientation in adolescence

Adolescence - a period when the child tries to psychologically separate from parents and family and begins to develop its own autonomy. This age can be a period of experimentation, and many young people may experience fluctuations in an effort to define their sexual orientation. Awareness of sexual feelings is part of growing up young person. Sometimes teenagers are experiencing homosexual feelings or experiences that confuse them and cause confusion in the definition of their sexual orientation. Such confusion clears up over time, with different young people with different outcomes.

Some teens are interested in participating in same-sex relationships, and even spend some "experiments" in this direction, but do not consider themselves gay or lesbian. And some still continue to be attracted only to the same sex, but do not show any sexual activity or enter into heterosexual intercourse for some time. This is due to their fear of persecution by those who can comprehend them in a society where, as a rule, is in an intolerant attitude to this kind of love.

For some, the learning process of young people attracted to members of their own sex eventually ends up they begin to identify themselves as lesbian, gay or bisexual. For some of them the recognition of this identity can end the confusion with the definition of their sexual orientation. If they find understanding and support of their loved ones, their psyche is hardly subjected to stress testing.

I must say that the younger man pleaded with gay person, the less his inner resources to defend their right to be that way. Thus, young people who perceive themselves early enough "is not such as all", especially in need of understanding and support from parents and other loved ones. Very often, they face certain problems and experiencing a negative experience, such as beating or bullying classmates. These experiences can lead to very negative consequences, such as suicidal thoughts, such as unprotected sex and alcohol and drug use.

That is why it is very important for a teenager to be able to talk about their feelings entangled with someone to whom he can trust completely, whether it's someone from parents, other family member, a close friend or a school psychologist. Teenagers do not always easy to find someone to talk to his exciting topic. Especially since he is not quite sure that the person he wants to trust, will react calmly and positively.

Sometimes parents really are not ready for such a conversation. In this case, psychologists, doctors or counselors can help a teenager to cope - confidentially and privately, without informing the other members of his entourage - with the difficult feelings that causes it to developing sexuality. These professionals can help teens find ways to deal with any peer pressure and bullying and harassment to which they may encounter in their future life. They can also help parents manage any difficult feelings they may experience, learning about the sexual attitudes of his grown-up children.

What is the nature of same-sex relationships?

In the West, often carried out all sorts of studies that deal with homosexuals. The research results show that many of them have exactly the relationship that they themselves seem more attractive. For example, survey data show that from forty to sixty percent of gay men and forty-five to eighty percent of lesbians are as romantic relationships with partners with similar sexual orientation. And the polls that were conducted in the US in connection with the population census showed that one pair of nine, who live together, but did not register a marriage includes same-sex partners.

The stereotypes that have long existed in relation to lesbians and gay men are still alive in our society today. But many of these stereotypes no longer reflect the actual situation. For example, people think that gay and lesbian relationships are inherently dysfunctional and do not bring them happiness. However, Western scholars argue that to date and same-sex and heterosexual couples are equivalent to each other on the issue of relations and to fulfill its obligations with respect to each other.

Another stable stereotype has it that the relationship of homosexual couples are unstable. But despite the social hostility toward same-sex relationships, lesbians and gay men pose a fairly stable couples. The same Western research shows that almost eighteen to thirty percent of homosexual couples have lived together for ten years or more. In addition, many gays and lesbians say that the opportunity to enjoy the same legal rights associated with marriage, that of ordinary couples could further enhance the stability of relations between same-sex partners.

A third common misconception surrounding is that many believe if the goals and values ​​pairs gays and lesbians differ significantly from the objectives and values ​​of the heterosexual couples. In fact, the factors influencing satisfaction with their relationship partners, as well as commitment and stability of these relationships are remarkably similar, with the same factors in opposite-sex couples.

But studies based on the experience of people who identify themselves as bisexual, carried out much less. If these people are in a same-sex relationship, then they are obviously faced with the same problems that exist and lesbians and gay men. If they are in heterosexual relationships, their experience of partnerships can be very similar to the experience of people who consider themselves staunch heterosexual.

 People with gay

Can gay or lesbian to be good parents?

Now this question is particularly concerned about the society greatly. Same-sex marriage in the different countries began to be recognized by law, and people who consider themselves husband and wife want to raise and educate children. The attitude to the issue of education of children in gay families today really sharp and ambiguous. Meanwhile in the US, for example, thirty-four percent of lesbian women and twenty-two per cent of gay men who are sharing a household with their same-sex partners reported during the census that lives with them at least one child under the age of eighteen. But there is also a single lesbians and gay men who have children and these parents are also quite a lot.

The legal status of lesbian and gay people in many countries has increased significantly. But many members of heterosexually oriented society expressed concern about the welfare of children in same-sex families. Most of these questions is based on the negative, which is surrounded by stereotypes about homosexuals. How can this negative impact on their children? Are children raised by gays and lesbians to be in severe disadvantage compared with children of heterosexual families? The most common questions people have and the answers to these questions are psychologists: