A good representative of the heather family is the azalea rhododendron genus, which came to us from Asia. Beautiful bright azalea grows well in greenhouses and home, so she quickly won the hearts of lovers, gardeners. Among the many varieties especially pleasant in the Indian azalea, which is known for its many species and hybrids.
An attractive feature of their azaleas, which are rarely found in the world of flora. In winter, when much of the rest house plants, azalea fully revealed in all its glory and blossoms. Therefore, azalea often give as a gift instead of the usual bouquet of flowers. If you already have at home is an ornamental plant or you want to fill your flower collection, then these tips will be useful to you. You know, what should be the care and reproduction of transplant azaleas.
Like all rhododendron, azalea considered very capricious and whimsical. Quite often, the newly acquired plant after 2-3 weeks of being in a new place, suddenly drops leaves and dies. Therefore, it is feared to acquire not only beginners, but also lovers, florists with extensive experience. And the reason - the right care and timely procedures are necessary to guarantee safe azalea growth for many years.
Terms of care
First of all you need to know that for azaleas is vital to cool the room. The temperature should not rise above 18 degrees Celsius, and the recommended optimum temperature for growth of azaleas should not exceed 15 degrees. If you have conditions permit, the pot azalea in the winter can be placed on a closed loggia.
In October-December, the plant begins to lay the buds. With strong cooling and freezing azalea should be put in the room. Be sure to place the pot with a plant on the sill of a window, which overlooks the western or northern part of the world. We should not forget that the need to safeguard the plant from the gentle flow of hot air from the central heating.
If the room air is very dry and its temperature above the optimum, the timing of flowering is greatly reduced, and even appears likely that only the buds appeared, immediately fall off. Respect the right temperature allows experienced mistresses increase periods of flowering azaleas. One of the simplest methods - is putting some on the edge of the pot azalea with small pieces of ice.
The temperature regime is closely associated with the regime of watering the plants. We must remember that azaleas - a plant from a warm humid climate. Therefore it is necessary to constantly check the soil to the touch, it must be kept moist. But only damp, not wet! By lowering the temperature to water the plant should be less, and the temperature rises, on the contrary - more often.
To moisten the dry soil in the pot, you can azalea pot for 3-4 hours to set a large size container with water. So earthen room will be satisfied with water and becomes wet. After this procedure, watering plants resumed three days later. In winter, when heating because the air is dry and hot, housewives azaleas recommended to alternate with normal irrigation watering from the pallet. And in the summer heat in addition to being azaleas watered morning and evening, it still needs further spraying.
The most suitable water for watering azaleas - rain, distilled or melt. If you use water from the tap, then it should definitely let stand, and even better to boil and cool it. The procedure spray the plant is also desirable to carry out the boiled water. Most importantly, do not forget - azalea not respond well to water with high rigidity.
The soil in the pot with the plant to be certain acidity. Every two weeks, it is desirable to water the azaleas weakly acidic solution of lemon. But acidifying irrigation is carried out only after the procedure of soil moisture in the pot.
Proper care of azalea plants requires the provision of a bright light. But not everything is simple: if the plant is placed under the direct sunlight, it leaves begin to wither and fall off the buds. Therefore, azaleas require a certain place where there is enough light, but where the sun's rays do not penetrate. If necessary, you need to buy a special fitolampy.
With the end of the period of flowering azaleas all faded flowers and blackened leaves should be removed. 30 days after flowering on young shoots should be new 3-4 pairs of leaflets. Just at that moment required pinched out the tops of the shoots. This procedure is done three times a year. Last nipping azaleas accounted for July-August, before setting buds.
When the young shoots grow on azaleas after the formation of buds, then at least the appearance of them should be removed. This procedure pinching leads to more intense flowering. After the end of the flowering period, and the stretched-out weak shoots are subject to mandatory cropping.
Young azaleas (up to three years of age) require annual transplantation. Adult plants should be transplanted less frequently - every two years. For the transplant, it is desirable to prepare a special pot. For azaleas is better to choose a wide flat pots, because its root system has a horizontal position. By the way, these pots, you can avoid unnecessary soil loosening.
As for the soil, it is better to buy a ready, because at home to cook it yourself is difficult. Preparing a pot for transplanting azaleas, we must first put the bottom of the drain, and then fill up the whole ground.
During the transplant should be especially careful with the root neck azaleas if it covered with soil, the plant quickly dies. We must be attentive to the rest of the root system, trying not to hurt her. Transplanting azaleas, better cross it carefully, along with a clod of earth, which is stuck to the root system in the fresh soil.
The most common way azalea growers propagated by grafting. But this activity is quite troublesome that require extra care. That is why many amateur Azaleas prefer to buy ready-made plants in the store. If you do decide to learn how to propagate azaleas from cuttings, then take note of these tips:
to take cuttings shoots that failed to stiffen;
the length of the cuttings should reach fifteen centimeters;
stalks cut by the kidney with a sharp knife;
with the lower part of the stalk removed all the leaves;
stalk is placed in a container with moist soil or peat by preparing a recess about five centimeters;
the land around the cuttings well trampled;
sapling planted closed jar or polyethylene;
for good rooting cuttings need high humidity and maintain a temperature of about 25 degrees above zero;
Cuttings require daily two-spraying thrice.
Rooted cuttings about six months. After the establishment got stronger plants are transplanted into a permanent pot and continue to care for them as for other azaleas.
If you provide the correct plant care and constant care, it will ensure active and lush flowering azaleas. Be patient and love azaleas, and she will thank you for all the work.
Care Basics lemon
How is Crohn's
Reproduction of lemon
What can be difficult?
The benefits of lemon
All citrus plants belong to the family Rutaceae and belongs to the subfamily of orange, kind - citrus. Lemon - it is an evergreen, flowering, which occurs several times a year. Flowers are bright citrus sour smell, and the fruits are formed, as a rule, on the spurs on the branches of the fourth order. Ripe fruit can remain on the plant for up to two years, gradually changing to a greenish color, and then again becomes golden. Room lemons have a more thin-skinned than the ground, and their flavor - more intense. Today we look at what should be the proper care of such exotic wood.
But first let's look at how to choose a home lemon. Remember, this tree should grow in exactly the same conditions in which he was grown seedling. It is obvious that the tree brought from southern countries, will be a very long time to adapt to our climate - acclimatization is always transferred lemons painful. Sometimes the plant and did die. Therefore try to choose varieties that are adapted to the maximum to our climate.
Reproduction indoor trees is due to vaccinations or by grafting. Because buying seedlings from the hands, ask what a particular supply of seedlings. For example, in Armenia and Georgia citrus commonly grown in an open ground, but there may also vaccinate and trees on Trifoliate. This allows you to carry a good winter in greenhouses or indoors like a winter garden. However, for the cultivation of such plants in the room unusable.
Care Basics lemon
Grooming lemon, pay attention to the fact that he did not feel the lack of light and heat. The process of budding and flowering, and fruit set occurs most effectively when the average temperature of the soil and the air is 15 to 18 degrees. In winter the lemon should contain a well-lit, cool place at 12-13 degrees.
If during the winter indoor lemon grows not shown in the temperature, it can lead to the fact that not a tree zaplodonosit. In addition, the plant is sensitive to abrupt changes in climate. If you live in a private home and decide to put the tree on the street, then because of the sharp drop in the temperature range it can not simply dump the leaves, and even fruit. It could also affect the future fruiting.
Lemon needs a bright diffused light. Well, if you place a tree or near the eastern, western or near a window. Plants need pritenenii from the direct rays of the spring and summer, with the onset of the hottest hours. Citrus - a plant of the places with climates short days. This means that in the case of the long daylight hours during their fruiting is delayed.
In the summer, to create the most optimal and high-quality lighting, move the pot to a tree deep into the room, but in the winter, on the contrary, put the lemon closer to the window. The lack of lighting or loss threatens oblistvleniem bright decorative appeal. In addition, the fruits of plants grown with the lack of light will be different special acidity. But if the tree, on the contrary, an excess of light received, the fruits will be burned in the form of dark spots.
How to pour the lemon?
Proper watering - it is something without which it is impossible comprehensive care. Plants, like people, need to update water balance. Citrus should be watered beforehand supernatant water - chlorine must erode. Watering is carried out twice a day in summer and spring with warm water. In winter, watering is more moderate, about twice a week.
It is important to ensure that the winter does not dry earthen room. It can cause leaf rolling or falling off. The same applies to the fruit. But try not to overdo - from abundant watering potted lemon may die. With the coming of October to temporarily stop watering - it will provide the root system to breathe freely and at the same time prevent the stagnation of liquid in the pot. Along with watering not forget proryhlyat topsoil.
Carry out regular spraying lemon on a hot summer. In winter, the plant needs only spray when they are kept in a room where there is central heating. If lemon grows where the air is dry, they can be subjected to the attack of mites and scale insects. Because it is essential to comply with the necessary humidity. In the case of lemon optimal index is from 60 to 70% if the temperature is not higher than 20 degrees.
Young lemon room is transplanted by transshipment, from year to year. Transshipment should be carried out when the root system of the tree have not braided entire pot. In this situation it would be sufficient to change the drainage layer and the upper layer of soil in the pot.
Fruit trees usually transplanted three times a year before their active growth. Once growth is completed, the plant is transplanted not worth it. Try not to damage the soil when transplanting. Yet it is important to provide a quality drainage. Note: you need to root collar in the new pot was approximately at the same level at which it was, as in the previous pot. It is not necessary transplant could move the tree when it blooms and bears fruit - all this may lead to defoliation and fruit.
Provide good soil lemon tree, which must be easy. If the tree is too large, the soil should be heavier. Its acidity should be from 6 5 to pH 7. If a room lemon young for him soil should consist of two parts one part of the turf and leaf earth, as well as parts of humus based on cow manure and the proportion of sand.
Older lemons require a soil three parts turf land and one - the sheet, the proportion of humus based on cow manure and 1 part sand in combination with a small amount of clay fatty species. This point requires a careful approach, because if the soil is not suitable to the plant, its cultivation will not be effective.
First summer room needs watering lemon combined with the addition of fertilizers. It will increase the sugar content of the fruit, while reducing overly bitter taste, which is all the citrus fruits grown at home. It operates a simple principle: the older the plant, the greater the need for fertilizing and fertilizers.
Fertilizing substances need to make after you have watered the plant. If you use additional lighting for the cultivation of lemons, the fertilizer should be implemented, and in the winter. Then the tree will bear fruit and lemons are different pleasant taste and citrus smell right.
How is Crohn's
Care lemon involves periodic cutting and forming its crown. All this can be done the whole year, but it's better to do it in the spring, sometime in April or May. It is necessary to give a grafted lemons tree shape. In order to escape growing up straight, you need to tie it to a stick, outstretched in a pot. Based on the height of the stem, now distinguish vysokoshtambovye trees with a trunk of 30 cm in height, sredneshtambovye (20 cm) and nizkoshtambovye (about 15 cm).
For the correct formation nizkoshtambovogo lemon necessary to trim the crown as soon as the plant reaches a height of 15 cm. Cut just before the start of active growth (February-March). Leave about 5-7 sheets. Then, from the lateral buds will develop shoots. From 5-6 reserve somewhere in the escape of three that grow in different directions.
The trees that have already been formed, further pruning is carried out to maintain the correct shape of the crown, as well as to remove the fat shoots that can drown it. This is necessary for the rejuvenation of the plant. Incidentally, the indoor lemon required to rejuvenate aged 14-20 years, that is, when the active fruiting decreases. To do this, cut branches up to 5 order - it causes increased growth of the kidney that are dormant. Already rejuvenation of the plant is transplanted into another bowl, shortening the roots of 1/3.
Reproduction of lemon
Typically, citrus propagated by grafting, cuttings, layering and seeds. At home, the most optimal method is the cuttings, but in order to obtain varieties adapted to the culture room, lemon is required to deduce from a seed planted in the room, and grow immediately.
Seeds are planted in the home, usually germinate after 35-40 days. Lemon seedlings is not very well tolerated in the process of picking a young age: they may grow too long root, which when topping swordplay is not recommended. Taproot should be cut only when planted seeds will have at least 4 leaf. If it does not cut, it will not branch, and its growth will be long, twisting at the bottom in the ring.
If the seeds are planted in boxes, the root trimming should be carried out without removing the plant itself, and after 15 days, then gently swipe transplant in dishes where lemon will grow constantly. If the seeds are sown in one pot, they are not subjected to transplant seedlings, but cut the taproot when it is necessary to be sure. Trimming is carried out using the root sharp long knife, approximately 10-cm depth.
To do so, enter in the ground at the knife 8-10 centimeters from the seedling, the angle to the ground should be 45 degrees. Enter the knife a little bit away from the direction to a specific seedling, then gently with circular movements, the axial root crop. If you are unsure, you root pruned or not, repeat the procedure once again entering the same knife, but a couple of centimeters closer to the plant itself.
If the room was taken out of a lemon seed, its fruiting begins no earlier than in 8-10 years, perhaps even later. Initially, they will not give a lot of fruit, but for the purpose of breeding cultivation in this way is simply necessary. Sometimes, the process was faster fruiting, grafted seedlings, using as a scion of the fruit-bearing shoots lemons. In this case, the lemon will bear fruit for the third year, maybe even a little earlier.
Now let's talk about the propagation by cuttings. Room lemon usually propagated in this way. Cuttings should be more developed kidneys. At the same time they are taken from the plant fruiting, good and healthy. The cut cuttings made from twigs, wood is still soft and which can be bent. Cuttings from young twigs slightly flattened, and their rooting is much weaker.
Citrus cuttings can be carried out throughout the year. If held in the spring cuttings, using the branches of autumn growth, if the summer - spring branch growth. This applies in the case of indoor lemons and oranges. By the way, the best results in the process of propagation by cuttings shows orange. Rooting cuttings takes place in pots, greenhouses and greenhouses. However, rooting can be in ordinary water, we need only to keep a glass of cuttings in a well lit area.
Indoor lemon can multiply and by grafting. It can serve as a rootstock plants grown from seeds and scion - some varieties of lemon, which are specially grafted for good fruiting trees of certain varieties. Do not use as a rootstock trifoliate wild lemon, which is also called trifoliatom as plant grafted thus may lose leaves in the winter. Use evergreen stock, which can be bought in almost all specialized shops.
What can be difficult?
Lemon, like any houseplant, may experience some difficulty - care of it requires your attention. For example, it happens that the new foliage is shallow, and the old - shed or yellow. You may not bloom, but the fruit and not be tied. This indicates that the plant needs good feeding nutrients. You may need a transplant.
You can see small yellow spots on the leaves, or yellowing of the edges. Perhaps their premature abscission. As a rule, so it affects excessive watering. Make sure that the room was getting a moderate amount of lemon liquid - does not dry, but did not suffer from an excess of it.
If the plant is hit pests, it is manifested in the dry and shriveled leaves. Usually on a lemon or mite attack Jose scale, to combat which uses phytocomplex; You can buy them in ordinary flower shops.
If lemon is contained in improper conditions, namely, if it is not enough air, or it is too dry, the leaves may curl and brown spots appear. It can also contribute to a rare and lack of spraying liquid damage ticks. Do not forget to wipe the leaves of the tree, using a soft sponge dipped in a little soapy water. And do not be lazy to make the plant courtyard or balcony - a room lemon thrive outdoors.
Proper care includes the following rules:
Illuminated sunny location;
Moderate soil moisture;
A rare winter watering and mild spring and summer;
The optimum soil moisture;
Filtered water for irrigation;
Watering lemon melt water at room temperature in winter;
Weekly fertilizer from March to August;
Foliar feeding winter once a month by spraying a solution of potassium permanganate;
Wash the leaves of lemon;
Careful pruning and transplanting.
Follow the above rules are not so difficult. Lemon - not the most demanding indoor plant, it does not require and special costs for its maintenance. You just need a little time and patience to wait until your room will bear fruit and lemon blossom.
The benefits of lemon
We have already discussed what should be the proper care of potted lemon. And to end the call, we want to talk about what the benefits of getting the owners of this exotic plant.
It is well known that lemon is a rich storehouse of vitamins, especially vitamin C. Lemon - it is an effective remedy for colds and tonsillitis, pharyngitis and flu. If you do you are sick, it is the first lemon tea to help. It strengthens the immune system and gives energy and improves overall health. Equally useful when lemons beriberi and rheumatism, scurvy and gout. Healing lemon juice contributes to almost instantaneously heal wounds and speeds healing of bones, improves metabolic processes. Displaying eating lemons at a fever.
It is an irreplaceable cosmetic product, which is the basis of many creams, toners and masks; yet it is excellent bleaching agent. Essential oils are obtained both from the flowers of the plant and of its bark and fruit and foliage. They are often added to the liquor in confectionery and food.
Growing lemon room, you'll notice how nice will air in the room. That's because all the citrus leaves emit volatile - special substances that help clear the air of different kinds of microbes. By the way, those who grows citrus tree house, much less likely to get sick and almost depressed because this pleasant lemon flavor tonic effect on people, as well as fatigue and increases efficiency. Having grown lemon, you make sure that this is not just a wonderful ornamental tree, and now an exotic miracle!