The infection, which may be in the form of sleeping for a long time in the human body, while reducing its protective function is activated in the form of rash called herpes.
Modern medicine distinguishes between two types of the virus: HSV-1 and HSV-2. But at the moment of his diagnosis and treatment is a serious problem, because the natural propensity of the virus to mutate makes it harder to define. A qualitative approach to the analysis of the results of research and a lack of common diagnostic system significantly constrains development in this area.
Back to contents
The cause of the infection
The division between the two types of the virus rather relative, since its diagnosis is very often a mixed type. For the first type of infection (HSV-1) include the affected area of the skin on the face and upper limbs. For the second type (HSV-2) is characterized by the appearance of rashes on the skin in the genital area.
Once infiltrating through the skin or mucous membranes in the nerve centers (ganglia), the virus remains in them forever.
In the event of a favorable background associated with decreased resistance to infections of all sorts, finds himself in an explicit form. The existence within the cell provides it with all the resources and components for the active reproduction. He subordinates all synthesizing system cells, thus causing it to produce material for the construction of new forms of the virus.
The reasons for occurrences of herpes on the lips are different. Very often, the primary infection occurs by contact, which can be direct, airborne or through household items and hygiene (shared towels, dishes, things). In addition, there are cases when there is still fetal intrauterine infection with herpes virus from the mother.
The main factors of appearance:
Hypothermia or severe overheating of the body
I spent a long time in the sun
Somatic diseases (flu, colds, diabetes mellitus)
General fatigue of the organism
The depletion of the body with prolonged illness or strict diets
Back to contents
The clinical picture of occurrence of herpes
After waking up the virus by the trigeminal plexus effluent directed to the lips, oral mucosa or other bodies, where the nerve ending processes. After infection, the incubation period for its manifestation in the form of lesions up to 21 days. In its development, herpes simplex pass 4 phases.
The first stage. At this point, feeling like a primary infected, and the permanent carriers of the virus was rapidly deteriorating. There is a weakness, chills, drowsiness, fever and muscle pain. In areas where the virus must be (skin at the corners of the mouth, the inner surface and red border of the lips, nostrils, nasolabial folds, cheeks), often itchy. The main precursors of the onset of infection - a reddening of the skin at the site of the future recurrence, pain and itching.
The second stage. Next, begin to appear on the skin of small painful blisters - vesicles, filled with murky liquid. With further development of infection, they increase in size. If treatment at this stage is not defined, herpes tends to further destruction of skin.
The third stage. Maximum saturated, the vesicle breaks, and on the surface appears colorless, cloudy liquid, which contains billions of viral particles. At this point, the carrier of the virus is extremely dangerous, as it can cause contamination through allocation to the environment a huge number of cells herpes. At the same time patients have discomfort in the ulcerated areas.
The fourth stage. At this stage the erosion areas covered crust is their drying, further healing and disappearance. To accelerate this step also requires special treatment.
The occurrence of herpes simplex virus infection is sometimes accompanied by complications. The most severe in this case may be an inflammation of the meninges. When the disease during a mild rash persist up to 2 ... 3 weeks. Return relapse with reduced immunity is from 3 to 6 times a year.
Back to contents
Diagnosis of infection gerpevirusnoy
The diagnosis is usually held on the basis of complaints and external examination of the patient based on laboratory tests. Since the virus is prone to atypical asymptomatic, it is the laboratory methods are critical in the diagnosis of herpes infection. She is currently held in the following areas:
Virologic method. To carry out this analysis will need to have the contents of the vesicles or scraping a deep erosion of the mucous membranes. The resulting material for virus isolation podsazhivayut the growing shell horionallantoidnuyu 12-day embryonic chicken or rabbit, monkey kidney tissue or a human fibroblast. After 2-3 days at a positive reaction can be seen in the characteristic appearance of infected cytopathic changes. Final identification of the virus is carried out by neutralization in chick embryos, mice or cell cultures by introducing antiherpetic immune sera.
DNA diagnostics. To determine if the virus is used polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This method helps to identify the infection only at the time of occurrence and find out which species is present in the body. To do this, take the material for analysis of the special brush erosion sites.
Serodiagnosis. The method is based on the detection of specific antibodies to virus cells located in the blood serum. The appearance of antibodies in the blood falls on the 4 ... 7 days after the initial infection, the maximum amount of up to 2 ... 3 weeks, and that amount is retained for life. To distinguish a primary episode of relapse, it is important to know the growth of antibodies, so the patient is losing blood from a vein in the determination of antibodies to HSV-1 and HSV-2. The presence of antibodies in the material IgG - recurrent herpes, and the determination of IgM antibodies says it is the primary episode.
Immunofluorescence method involves determining the nature and amount of the antibody, the intensity and scope of specific emission in the material. To obtain such material it needs to take smears and then dry them in acetone. Analysis of the research carried out under the fluorescence microscope, after having put the dried material with an aqueous or oil immersion and making the pretreatment fluorescent agent. The analysis will be positive if there are at least three morphologically altered epithelial cells having a specific fluorescence and coloring typical virus localization in the nucleus.
Cytological methods. The most accessible and technically simple method is considered, which helps to identify morphological abnormalities in infected cells. Its efficiency reaches 75%, and is more effective than virological analysis. For this smears stained by Romanovsky-Gimza or Unna then visible morphological changes in cells.
Back to contents
Treatment of herpes simplex on the lips
Treatment of recurrent herpes simplex virus emerging is immunorehabilitation patient that reduces relapses and leads to a stable remission. However, monotherapy, which includes the taking of medicines and ointments, creates a vicious circle, and stressful situations only worsen the condition. Therefore, only comprehensive treatment allows for a short period to stop the process and stabilize the patient's condition.
First of all, the treatment of herpes has five main areas:
Reduce the frequency and severity of relapses.
To eliminate the infection, which will help prevent relapse.
Reduce the duration and reduce the characteristic expression for herpes symptoms such as itching, fever, pain and lymphadenopathy.
Reduce the duration of release excretion in vesicles.
Reduce the period of healing erosions.
Once on the skin appeared affected area is required to undergo suppressors: Acyclovir, Valtrex, duration of the reception which is 5 ... 7 days, which dramatically reduces the amount of virus in the body. Simultaneously with the reception quality of medicaments for the treatment to be used on the affected area 5% acyclovir ointment for 7 days at least 5 times.
Further treatment will be directed at strengthening the immune system and consists of a reception immunotherapeutic drugs (ridostin, tsikloferon, likopid). The duration of the drugs depends on the condition of the patient and the severity of the infection. In special cases, treatment is conducted with interferon-alpha daily dose receiving 2 000 000 IU twice daily.
In severe forms of manifestation of herpes on the lips should consider vaccination. Two months after the completed complex treatment may intradermal herpes vaccine. To achieve stable remission, need to pick up an individual scheme, which will include a number of single-dose and frequency of its administration.
Preventive measures consist of herpes simplex simple recommendations that perform special difficulties will not be:
To avoid infection with the herpes virus to help personal hygiene, which includes hand washing and the use of individual household items.
Try to avoid contact with someone who has symptoms of herpes.