In summer, the owners of summer cottages and gardens weeds deliver a lot of trouble and grief. These unsightly and useless in the economy plants grow luxuriantly on any piece of land, in any weather and in any conditions, unlike most fastidious cultural crops. Weeds can turn land in impenetrable thickets. And some of them are poisonous and can cause allergic reactions.
Weeds and their control to become gardeners in a disaster. Therefore, in order to save energy and resources, we invite you to learn about the methods of dealing with them in detail. Knowledge of weed species, site specific and the ability to apply various methods of struggle helps to cope effectively with weeds.
Weeds compete with the cultural vegetation planted in the struggle for light, water, nutrients and living space. Moreover, some weeds secrete volatile that, getting into the soil, damaging the crop plants and inhibit their growth, like herbicides. Weeds are able to destroy the gardens, lawns and flower beds.
Weeds can also carry diseases and pests from one season to another. In the presence of the weeds at the site may require additional spraying of fungicides and insecticides. Create weeds and other problems associated with the landscape. Some of them may disable tracks and cover growing through them.
Some people weeds cause hay fever, skin irritation, breathing problems. Weeds can damage the bare foot and bicycle tires. May suffer from weeds and pets - they get in their ears and nostrils, causing infection and irritation. Often, veterinarians say that they have to be removed from the respiratory tract of animals weed seeds.
Classification of weeds and their biological characteristics
Classify weeds on similar grounds. And like all plants, they are grouped into families, genera and species. They are divided into a group of ground, water or herbaceous vegetation. Often, they are grouped according to the similarity of life cycle, ie the process of viable seed until the final maturation of the plant, and then from the formation of the seed to the final death of the plant. On these grounds the weeds are divided into annual, biennial and perennial.
As the name implies, they grow, live and die for one season. For long-term existence of annuals have to produce a large number of seeds. And many kinds of successfully cope with it. In addition, seeds of various weeds have a long period of rest, which contributes to their survival - it allows them to grow even many years after puberty.
Annual weeds are divided into:
- annuals, extending the life cycle from spring until autumn. These annuals are called sound. They make up most of the weeds that grow on lawns, gardens and meadows. These include a variety of amaranth and nightshade, barnyardgrass, pigweed, crabgrass blood and others.
- annuals, germinating in the fall, and then wait out the winter and spring growth resumes. They mature and die either in late spring or early summer. These weeds are called wintering annuals. The most harmful weeds are wintering fire fluffy, annual bluegrass, various kinds of mustard, and others.
Biennials for the passage of the life cycle requires two seasons. In the first year they germinate and form the usual outlets, and over the next year give a floral stem, buds, flowers, and then mature, spreading seeds and die. Biennial weeds are not as widespread in gardens as annuals. But they can appear in the border area, as well as in crops perennials. Among the common areas in the garden can be mentioned biennials burdock, clover, thistle.
Perennials live more than three years and multiply vegetative and generative (sexual) way.
Perennials that reproduce shifts, easily crushed before they are young. But if this time is not done, in a few months, or even weeks, perennials begin to grow vegetatively and get the ability to reproduce. It is this feature makes the fight against them is very difficult.
Perennials by the method of reproduction are divided into groups:
- Simple perennials. They have long thick root or fibrous root system. These perennials are propagated by seeds. But if you divide its root, that every single part can produce a new plant.
- Creeping perennials. These plants are played back or just creeping rhizomes and seeds. An illustrative example - bindweed and couch grass.
- Bulbous perennials. They multiply very quickly with the help of a nut-like bodies, bulbs and shifts. An example of bulbous perennials can serve as Poa bulbosa.
Weeds and their control are a significant headache every summer resident. Therefore, knowledge of weed species will be the first step in a successful fight against weeds. In order to correctly identify the species of weed you want to explore the flowers, leaves, stems and roots. It is necessary to know the identification of the plant. It is also useful to know in what circumstances and where there are a variety of weeds, and what measures are being taken to combat them.
The methods of weed control
Weeds and their control distract truckers from growing your favorite plants. Therefore, you should not only thoroughly know the weeds "in your face", but also to explore methods of dealing with them. Having defined a weed, you can consider and measures to combat it. Methods of influence only on a weed - a phenomenon unknown to science. The weed control most environmentally safe and effective integrated approach.
It uses a combination of physical, mechanical and cultural activities to minimize infestation area. Private landowners are six methods of controlling weeds, which include preventive, cultural and biological methods of struggle, as well as a method of mulching, chemical and mechanical methods.
This is the least expensive and most effective method in the fight against weeds. Try to avoid the appearance of weeds in your yard, carefully checking planting material used on the site.
- Thoroughly study the package with seeds and seeds themselves in them. Do not purchase seeds, which contains weed seeds. If they are present among the seeds, the seeds of return back to the vendor. Distribution and sale of weed is against the law. Keep in mind that some mixture of wildflowers unscrupulous suppliers are also very often contain weed seeds.
- Inspect plants and seedlings before buying to avoid entering with them rhizomes and roots of perennial weeds. Buy seedlings and saplings only reliable nurseries implementing 'clean' planting materials.
- Beware of the use of straw, mulch, fertilizer, compost or soil. With them you can store the seeds, stems, rhizomes, roots and bulbs of weeds. If such additives are processed, with their help, most likely, you will be able to place on your site weeds. The selection of materials clean of weeds and non-weedy give you, ultimately, saving money and energy.
- Weeds can be brought to your site by using tillers. So clean your garden tools from weed seeds, parts of plants and soil with the remains of the rhizomes. Weeds can be recorded with the help of irrigation water, if you take it out of the creeks and canals. In addition, be sure to destroy the weeds and the sources of their seeds around their garden and vegetable plots before the seeds from them will get on your site.
The biological method
This method of weed control used by other living organisms. This is not the best way to control weeds in home gardening, but all the same it can be used. Geese, for example, can help you get rid of vegetating weeds that are in the planting of strawberries, mint, asparagus, berries, fruit plantations in the state of temporary peace. Pigs dig in the field paruyuschem any succulent weeds with its root. Goats and sheep are able to destroy not only weeds but also shrubs. But the cultivated plants they feed sweetly with great pleasure.
To destroy or suppress certain weed species can use certain diseases or insects. But this method is not very effective and many gardeners frustrated applied against diseases and insects, weeds.
Cultural way to fight
These methods are beneficial and effective for backyard farming. Combining it with other methods of struggle, we can minimize the impact of weeds on crops.
- Pick up competitive plants. This will reduce duplication and weed growth, and hence the debris site. Weeds are allocated to more competitive horticultural crops, but only in the early stages of development and growth. During the first three to four weeks leading weed and causes the greatest damage to cultural plantations. Subsequently, the fast growing horticultural crops can form a canopy that shades weeds and hinders their germination and growth. Uncompetitive and slow-growing plants should be transplanted.
- It is necessary to take measures which will contribute to the vigorous growth of crops planted in the area. To do this, ensure to their roots of moisture, weeds without leaving the water. For violation of the life cycle of weeds, pests and diseases of culture change.
- For weed control, you can change the terms of cultivation, delaying planting until the first wave will descend until the weeds, you can then carry out the cultivation by removing all of their shoots. And then planted in optimal conditions culture. Seeding lawn at the junction of the summer and fall - a great example of this method. In addition, to make fertilizer locally to stimulate the growth of the most useful crops.
This method is very effective for controlling weeds around the house and in the garden. Mulching - a soil cover with straw or plastic materials that cover the supply of light to the ground. It retains moisture, mulch the soil temperature changes and climate. Mulch can be natural or artificial. Natural used against annual weeds. With it you can also reduce the competitiveness of many years. Mulch is made of artificial materials eliminate all weeds.
This method includes techniques such as weeding, hoeing, cultivation, mowing, burning. These techniques are better suited against annual weeds. And specific methods are chosen depending on the nature and type of the clogged area. Perennials and biennials may also be destroyed mechanically, but as soon as they are able to restore the mechanical ways of dealing with them are not as effective.
The chemical method of weed control
This method provides protection from weeds and saves effort expended. When used properly, the use of chemicals becomes a cheap way of controlling weeds. However, there are a number of disadvantages. While many people like herbicides, weed control their use destroys or damages and crop plants.
Using herbicides, be sure to check the label and make sure that the crop plants from your garden are in the list of allowed for the application of this preparation. Always be sure to read the instructions on the package and strictly follow it.
Herbicides may not always be used in gardens, for several reasons:
- there is no single chemical that protects everything vegetables;
- certain types of herbicides may some time be stored in soil and damaging for the next year are sensitive to culture them;
- even if you use the right herbicide is necessary to consider everything - even the weather. Because the demolition of chemical wind can spread it on the crop plants that are sensitive to it.
Herbicides are grouped based on their method of application and chemical properties. Also, they are divided on the timing of application. There are pre-emergence and post-emergence herbicides and selective herbicides and continuous action. Carefully study the effects of exposure to the herbicide on the environment - its potential danger to humans and to other plants. In studying the effects it is necessary to figure out how to move the herbicide into the soil, decomposed, vaporized and is associated with the soil as it is toxic to animals and fish. Guide contains most of the information and guidance on the use of chemicals.
Following these instructions, you can minimize the negative impact of these drugs on the environment. For more information about the interaction of the herbicide with plants and soil, toxicological properties, precautions and use of questions can be obtained from a specialist.