Prior to the commencement of commercial fruiting garden called young. Trees are in its preparatory period that PG Shittu called the period of accelerated growth. The faster the tree survives in a new place, the better and faster it will grow in the coming years, the more likely it will be passed this preparatory stage and the plant begins to bear fruit earlier. It is believed that the annual increases have apple trees in this period should be at least 50 cm.
The task of farming at a young garden -Create the most favorable conditions for the normal growth of trees (the supply of water and nutrients, protection from pests and diseases). It is also necessary in the years to form a proper, strong enough sparse crown, able to lay and carry high yields.
We must not forget, especially in the early years of care and sadozaschitnymi vetrolomnymi plantations, which have great impact on the growth and fruit trees in the garden.
System content of the soil
Very serious is the question of row crops in young orchards. On the one hand, economically disadvantageous to keep free is not yet occupied by the roots of apple aisle, and on the other a nutshell row crops require significant manual labor to the processing of not only themselves, but also tree trunks bands. Practice has shown that in most cases in large gardens row crops lead to the termination of the processing of these bands, the garden overgrown with weeds and move the mice. In the absence of cross-processing of row crops such gardens give excellent results.
The cultivation of row crops is necessary each year to reduce the width of the band occupied by them, given the growth of roots. Under no circumstances should not be allowed in the garden planting of row crops as cereals, maize and sunflower seed.
Absolutely essential elements of any content of the soil in the garden should be a young black couple, 1 -2 sowing of perennial grasses, but always intermingled, and in non-black areas and lupine for the gradual cultivation of the soil ahead of the growing roots.
In small home gardens of row crops needed. Here, among them, except for vegetables should be assigned berry bushes (except raspberries), especially strawberries.
It is clear that the fertilizer garden soil in the case of row crops should be considered and their needs.
It must be remembered also that the presence of row crops in industrial and in home gardens is very difficult to combat pests and diseases of the garden, at least in the use of modern poisons, toxic to humans and warm-blooded animals and have the property to accumulate in the body.
One of the more promising crops between the rows is the potato, especially the early varieties. When the breeding of this crop planting and tillage is possible in two directions, carrying pests and diseases and timely autumn tillage.
Before closing the roots of apple trees, usually after 5 to 6 years after planting the garden (with row widths of 8 m), planting row crops in orchards stopped since the width of tapes available from the roots of apple trees, too narrowed. Usually by this time already starting to get the industrial crops of many varieties, but it also makes stop the planting of row crops.
Works EG Bisti and other researchers found that the roots of apple trees often have to cover the whole year of planting planting hole, or even goes beyond it. In future annual increases radially roots reach 30 -50 cm. Therefore, the bandwidth occupied by the roots every year will increase by 60 -100 cm (average 80 cm). This means that the eight-meter distances between trees in 10 years, will take all the roots of apple aisle.
In this regard, with the maximum attention in the first few years after planting garden care stripes tree trunks, can not forget the aisle, which is necessary to continue and strengthen the deep cultivation of soil in front of the roots before planting the garden started.
Zjablevoj between rows are held in September at a depth of 15 to 20 cm, and the band dug tree trunks. To reduce the cost of manual labor is treated soil along and across the rows. If there plow slope or first cultured along it, from top to bottom, a depth of 12 -15 cm, and then transversely to retard the flow of water. In this treatment, the trees near the tree trunks are only small squares that are loosened by hand to a depth of no more than 10 -12 cm. In order not to damage the roots, the web has always put a shovel sideways to the tree. It is better for soil near the tree used garden forks.
It should be noted that plowing plow the garden has a number of drawbacks, the main one being -neizbezhnoe more or less serious damage to the skeletal roots.
To reduce the manual work of digging tree trunks strips or circles trying to plow the soil plow closer to the tree, so often captures plowshare plow and tear skeletal roots, which are deposited close to the surface of the soil
. The existing regulation -pahat first pass a number of smaller trees, and only then gradually increase the depth rarely observed in practice, but it does not help, especially in the parched soil where the plow is very pops up on the surface, over-deepened while tearing found towards skeletal roots up to 5 times the diameter 7 cm, and occasionally brings down the tree to the side
. Furthermore, when the plow is always moves the ground, forming a right ridges and furrows on the left, and even though the regular change directions of plowing, the soil in the garden a few years becomes uneven
. During plowing in one direction of the rows of trees are standing on the shafts, and when plowing in two transverse directions -on square mounds
By - apparently, in the Kuban region, with its heavy soils confluent first came to the idea to replace the plowing treatment heavy disc harrows and received good results. Now disk tillage spreads wider. On Rossoshanskij fruit, "Berry Experimental Station EG Beastie put the experience than the usual effect of plowing and disking, show the advantages of the latest processing method, and now it is widely introduced into the production station.
The main advantages of tillage heavy disc harrows following: do not rush to the tree roots; with the ability to drive to the closest approach trunks of trees dramatically reduced the area of rough tree trunks strips or areas, particularly when passing in two directions; the soil surface is a much more aligned than in the processing of the plow; due to less tillage driving force is much cheaper and faster.
Plowed and dug in the fall the soil in early spring harrowed heavy disc harrow to close the moisture. By the time the first harrowing Times nitrogen fertilization. Soil tree trunks or loosen rake hoes. Immediately after the first spring loosening surface mulch tree trunks manure, peat, compost, positioning them with a layer of about 10 cm. The layer of mulch retains moisture well, it supports the soil in a loose state, prevents the development of weeds and is a source of fertilizer. Mulching is an important agro -extremely, especially at a young garden.
It should, however, note that if the southern part of the middle band is not enough water in the first place, the preservation of which is mainly directed and mulching, in the north, and even the middle of the heat may not be enough. By reducing the heating of the soil in early spring, mulch material can cause a delay in the work of the roots and development of nitrifying bacteria, so mulch is advantageous to do a little later, when the ground warms up enough already.
The content of the soil between rows and tree trunks in a loose and free of weeds is essential to retain moisture in the soil, as well as strengthening the activities of beneficial soil microorganisms.
Number of loosening during the growing season depends on the type of soil and debris, the weather, but should be at least 4 -5. Depth loosening at least 6 - 8 cm. The loosened soil layer of this thickness is well retains moisture, so loosening is often called dry watering. It is especially necessary when loosening the soil crust formation after rain or irrigation. Loosening used garden tractor disc harrow (STDB - 20). In case of severe soil compaction used heavy disc harrow, while the weeds overgrown garden large -sadovy mnogolemeshny plow - Lushchilnik removed from the dumps.
Of great importance for the life of the detention of fat has melted water using furrow plow, held after the autumn plowing. These grooves must be done across the slope, the ground is always otvalivaya down. To prevent the flow of water through furrows, arrange the jumpers. In the areas of furrow lined carried along and across the rows. The distance between the grooves depends on the steepness of the slope: the steeper it is, the more frequently a furrow.
For the accumulation of moisture in the garden of a young snow retention shall be widely applied by conventional means (arrangement of panels, fences, sheaves of corn or sunflower). In large trees near the gardens make snow shafts using tractor snegopahov.
Phosphorus - potash, nitrogen, in contrast, strongly absorbed by the soil, so the usual practice of fertilization under the shallow autumn plowing and digging tree trunks strips between rows and brings very little benefit. Only a deep introduction of these fertilizers in the zone of distribution of the bulk of the roots is quite effective.
Large industrial interests are working MN Yazvitskii on the former. Moscow fruit - berries Experimental Station (now the Scientific - Research Institute of Horticulture zone the Non-). Based on their experiments, MN Yazvitskii concluded that the annual application of phosphorus - potassium fertilizers under the apple tree is not necessarily ineffective and that the best way to make them is patchy, repeated every 5 -7 years. Outbreaks have to be either in the form of holes (wells), which are located along the periphery of the crown, or in the form of grooves around the circle around-trunk. The mineral phosphorus - potassium fertilizers made in the groove, raised in his experiments apple harvest is almost 5 times. When making the same fertilizer mixed with organic their influence was even stronger -urozhay increased 8 times.
Experiments MN Yazvitskii spent on the poor podzolic soils of Moscow region, where the trees are very responsive to fertilizer, so the question arises: is it possible to fully extend the findings to the relatively rich black earth and gray forest soils of the southern half of the middle zone?
Chernozem and gray forest soils much more fertile than the sod - podzolic, so the effect of a deep focal fertilizing them will be on - apparently smaller, but it will certainly be, as the absorption capacity of the soil is much more than podzolic and introduced the use of surface phosphorus - potassium fertilizer will be here even less. Thus, the focal depth making one phosphorus - potassium fertilizers or better together with organic will be promising in the whole middle lane -and on podzols and chernozems.
In home gardens can serve as a hotbed of the best ring ditch depth and width 40 -50 cm, dug in the fall on the periphery of the crown and fill with soil, fertilized with a mixture of phosphorus - potassium fertilizers or manure with humus. In the suburbs MN Yazvitskii recommends that sapling aged 8 to 10 years to make the manure 60 kg superphosphate 1, 5 kg of potassium chloride of about 700 g and 3 kg of lime. On the black earth of lime, of course, not necessary, and even bring harm norms remaining fertilizer can not be changed.
In large industrial gardens fertilizer application process and at the same time deep cultivation should be mechanized; for this purpose there can be used a chisel grape - grape cultivator or a universal machine VUM - 60 ryhlyaschimi soil without overturning while allowing deep to make fertilizer.
The first pass chisel - cultivator or VUM - 60 should be done in the fall, the second year after planting a garden, the second -through 5 years. Each time the passage of the cultivator or VUM - 60 is done in both directions (up and down rows) in such a way that it was ahead of the growing roots and preparing in advance for them loose and tucked fertilizers soil to a depth of 40 -60 cm.
As phosphorus fertilizers often used superphosphate better granulated. On acid soils it is possible to replace phosphate flour. From potash potassium sulfate it is better, but most need to use potassium chloride contained in potassium salts. On 1 ha should be applied at each pass of superphosphate and 10 y 2 n -3 potassium chloride, or 3 to 4 p potassium salt.
At home gardens fertilizer potash well replace the furnace ash. It is very useful not only for plants are highly digestible therein phosphorus and potassium, but a substantial content of microelements. In large gardens, it is necessary to measure the existing capacity to replace at least some of potash ash.
Much easier is the case with nitrogen fertilizer apple as nitrogen fertilizers is almost absorbed by the soil, so free-flowing and even with the introduction of the surface can be rain soar on the depth of the main mass of feeder roots. There is another danger lurking -vsledstvie high mobility of nitrogen fertilizers may fall into deeper soil layers that are inaccessible to the roots. For this reason, nitrogen fertilizers with enough moisture contribute, in - the first, only the surface under cultivation or hoeing, and in - the second, in parts at different times. In young orchards, where the roots have not yet occupy the entire width between the rows, nitrogen fertilizers are applied only within the circle around-trunk.
Usually recommended to apply nitrogen fertilizer (ammonium sulfate or, better, ammonium nitrate) at a young garden in two stages: in early spring under the first loosening the soil, and in the period of intensive growth of shoots, t. E. After flowering in late May. In the 1st quarter. m circle around-trunk give for each meal 20 to 25 g of ammonium nitrate or 30 -35 g of ammonium sulfate. Such fractional application of nitrogen may actually provide its contact with the roots only when irrigation or sufficient quantity falling at the time of precipitation.
In dry conditions, more often when there is a rise of capillary water in the soil made by surface nitrogen reaches the roots and has no effect. In this connection, in such circumstances would be most effective and, moreover, once the earliest possible introduction of ammonium nitrate (ammonium sulfate is strongly absorbed by the soil, and podzolic soils also increases their acidity).
Thus, fertilization in the young garden comes down to two basic methods:
- periodic refueling of soil phosphorus - potassium (preferably using the ash) fertilizers in sufficient - deep pockets (well, grooves, furrows) ahead of the growing roots;
- annual surface, single or divided, depending on the conditions, nitrogen fertilization.
For nitrogen fertilizers can be arbitrarily assigned and manure. But the value of his much broader: its application by conventional tillage (15 -20 cm), not only enriches the soil all the nutrients, including minerals and even carbon dioxide, but also improves its physical properties-structure, moisture content, permeability, absorption capacity, which It prevents the formation of excessively high concentrations of harmful soil solution and create a buffer that supports the sustainability of soil reaction. Fertilization garden manure at least once every 3 years is highly desirable. The rate of manure from 20 to 40 tons per 1 hectare (2 to 4 kg per 1 sq. M circle around-trunk).
This is one of the most important work to care for a young tree in the garden. In the first year after planting the plants take root in the new location, restores much shorter when digging the root system and usually gives only weak gains, so essentially cut almost nothing. The following year got accustomed tree form, as a rule, strong gains, and this year should start pruning, aimed at a young garden is a continuation and completion of the formation of the crown, which began back in the kennel.
The work of many researchers found that each crop during the growth to some extent inhibits the tree weakens its growth and postpones the beginning of fruiting. Excessively severe pruning can delay the onset of fruiting young tree a few years.