Man awaits at every turn a huge number of different diseases. And one such disease is emphysema. When emphysema occurred pathological changes in their structure: the bronchial tubes dilate excessively, and the walls of the alveoli destructive change. Emphysema is one of the most common atypical lung disease.

Doctors have identified two forms of the disease:

  1. Primary emphysema. Primary pulmonary emphysema, also known as idiopathic. This form of the disease develops without any - any of the preceding common lung diseases, such as pneumonia or bronchitis.
  2. Secondary emphysema. Accordingly, as is clear from the definition of primary emphysema, secondary emphysema develops in all cases as a result of - the typical or lung disease often obstructive bronchitis or bronchitis smoker.

Depending on where localized emphysema it may be a diffusion - affecting all light and focal - affecting any - or a certain part of the lung. This factor is also very important, as it significantly affects the determination of the subsequent treatment strategy. Treatment same one, and the second emphysema rather complicated. It is very important to notice the problem in a timely manner.

Causes of pulmonary emphysema

The development of emphysema triggered by various causes. But all of these reasons, doctors attributed to two main groups:

  • Factors provoking violation of the strength and elasticity of the structural elements of the lungs.

Such violations may result from a variety of factors. For example, abnormal blood microcirculation greatly reduces the elasticity of the lung tissue. At about this same result and a chronic shortage in the body of vitamin A. The important role played by the purity of the air inhaled by man. The more it contains microparticles of dust, the higher the risk of developing emphysema. Finally, smoking. Inhalation of tobacco smoke leads to severe irritation of the lung tissue and the oppression of their normal work. Strictly speaking, almost any smoker sooner or later will certainly faced with a problem like emphysema.

All these reasons in all cases without exception, give rise to it is a diffuse system, in which the pathological modification of any and all parts of the lungs. But nevertheless, in primary pulmonary emphysema is no development of bronchial obstruction.

  • Factors that trigger an increase in pressure in the respiratory portions of the lungs.

Factors relevant to the second group results in significantly increased pressure in the lungs. The result is a hyperextension of the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli. Most often, such an outcome results in the presence of human chronic obstructive bronchitis. This disease is the main cause of secondary emphysema precisely because it creates an environment in which there is a mechanism for the formation of alveolar distension.

Symptoms of pulmonary emphysema

Of course, the disease can be asymptomatic. In patients suffering from pulmonary emphysema, there is a characteristic shortness of breath, chest expansion, weakened breathing, weakness.

Of course, this is only the main features that can detect at very sick man. However, this is not available to all the symptoms of a sick person emphysema. But most of them can detect only an experienced doctor. Therefore, at the first sign of malaise: chest pain, prolonged cough, as soon as possible, seek medical help from a physician - pulmonologist, or in the absence thereof, to the therapist.

And do not panic at the first cough panic attacks and suspected emphysema. However, remember that you must not only treat emphysema, but even ordinary bronchitis. Therefore, a timely reference to the doctor is necessary in any case.

The doctor will examine the sick person, to listen to him. After that, as a rule, sick person made X-rays of the lungs. In that case, if necessary additional diagnostics can be performed bronchoscopy - examination of the lungs using a special probe.

Based on all the data the doctor diagnoses the disease. After that, taking into account the huge number of individual characteristics of each person, the doctor will choose the tactics of treatment. Treatment of emphysema is complex and time-consuming. In addition, all treatment should be under strict medical supervision. Therefore, it is not necessary to emphasize. The main thing that people should do - is to consult a doctor promptly.

 Emphysema - an alarming sign

 affective insanity


  • Manic Depression: causes of
  • The depressive phase of the illness
  • The manic phase of the disease
  • Some peculiarities of manic - depressive syndrome
  • Symptoms of classic manic - depressive syndrome
  • Treatment for manic depression
  • Prognosis of the disease

Mental illness. The vast majority of people believe that they will not touch this issue. However, a number of us lives a huge number of people suffer from some mental illness. And not always pronounced these diseases - often, these people are quite adequate in mind. Upon receipt of the necessary treatment these people are quite able to lead a full life, work, and even to have a family and children.

However, the relatives of these people have to remember that for a normal existence and prevent worsening of the disease is necessary to create sick people, suffering those or other diseases, the most comfortable conditions and a favorable psychological climate in the family. Stress had a devastating effect on the human psyche of the patient, so such people should be protected as much as possible from them.

Manic Depression: causes of

What is manic - depressive syndrome? Or, as it is called, maniacal expression? The doctors - therapists characterize the disease as follows: mental disorders, occurring against a background of undulating psycho-emotional states: depression (depressed mood) and mania (over-excited mood). Between these two phases of mental disorders may disappear completely, the identity of the person is not suffering.

Manic-depressive illness is genetically caused disease. Genetic studies of manic depressive psychosis confirmed this fact. Simply put, a predisposition to the development of the disease can be inherited. However, please note that we are not talking about the disease, but only a predisposition to it. And it is not necessary that the manic depressive syndrome will have an effect - it is quite possible that the person will never face this disease. A lot depends on the circumstances in which the child grows and develops - the parents must bear this in mind.

Most often the disease makes itself felt after a person reaches the age of thirty. And the disease is rarely begin immediately in an acute form. As a rule, for some time himself sick person or his close relatives begin to notice certain precursors of the disease.

In the first place largely changed psycho-emotional background of the person - it becomes extremely unstable. A person can often be either too depressed, or, conversely, overly excited mood. After that, there may be a pronounced current Phase precursors - depression gives way to excited. And more often depressive phase lasts much longer than excited.

This condition can last from six months to several years. And if malaise will not be promptly identified and the sick person receives the assistance necessary precursors smoothly pass directly to the disease itself - manic - depressive psychosis.


The depressive phase of the illness

Most of the disease occurs in the depressive phase. The depressive phase has three main trait clearly characterize it:

  1. Bad mood. The man depressed mood all the time, and it is accompanied by a very real physical illness - weakness, rapid fatigue, lack of appetite.
  2. The advent of speech and physical retardation. A man is in a state of lethargy - it is greatly reduced both physical and mental reactions. The man almost all the time looks sleepy, feels indifferent to everything going on.
  3. The appearance of bright - severe intellectual retardation. Man loses its ability to focus on what - or object: on reading, writing, working at the computer. Greatly reduces performance.

Thoughts sick person becoming a very negative connotation. He has a sense of his own guilt, often completely groundless, self-abasement and self-flagellation become his favorite pastime. These depressive mood, unfortunately, very often leads to the fact that the person attempting suicide.

Depression is of two types - spiritual and physical. When a person is mental depression depressed psycho-emotional state. In the same case, if there is a bodily form of depression, depressed mood added to the problems in the cardio - vascular system.

In that case, if depression is left untreated, depression continues to progress: the psychological state of the person continues to deteriorate, speech and motor retardation increases, in severe cases may come before the stupor of this - a full silent and motionless. Man ceases to eat, drink, go to the toilet, to understand and respond to the speech addressed to him.

From the physical condition of the sick person as noticeable deterioration of material: there is a strong dilation of the pupils, the development of cardiac arrhythmia - tachycardia, bradycardia, arrhythmia. Also, these patients are often marked the development of spastic constipation, muscle spasms occurring as a result of the gastro - intestinal tract.

The manic phase of the disease

As mentioned above, if a person suffers from manic - depressive syndrome, manic depressive phase is replaced. Manic - depressive phase includes the following violations:

  • Pathologically elevated mood - the same manic passion.
  • Needless strong verbal and motor stimulation, often unwarranted.
  • Significant activation of all intellectual processes, a temporary increase in performance.

The manic phase has a number of specific features. If the depressive phase flows pronounced, the manic phase, most often flows smoothly, it is not pronounced. Sometimes notice something was wrong only by an experienced doctor - psychotherapist. However, as the disease progresses the manic phase symptoms become more pronounced.

The mood of a person to become overly optimistic, assessment of reality - over the rainbow, not corresponding to reality. The patient may experience a completely human delusions. Additionally, greatly enhanced motor activity, and the flow of speech becomes practically inexhaustible.

Some peculiarities of manic - depressive syndrome

The most common for classic manic - depressive syndrome. However, much less, but still sometimes doctors - therapists are faced with atypical forms of the disease. And sometimes this fact can significantly hamper the correct and timely diagnosis of manic - depressive syndrome.

For example, there is a mixed form of the current, in which manic depression makes itself felt otherwise. When mixed form of the disease, some symptoms of one phase are replaced by certain symptoms of the second phase. For example, depressed mood may be accompanied by excessive nervous excitability, but the typical lethargy of depression, both mental and physical, can be disabled.

Manic stage of the disease can be expressed as increased emotional lift, but at the same time with a strong mental and intellectual retardation. The behavior of the sick person can be absolutely normal, and can be completely inadequate.

Also, quite often doctors - therapists have to deal with so-called erased forms of manic - depressive syndrome. The most common form of this erased the disease as cyclothymia. By the way, according to some doctors - psychotherapists, this form of manic - depressive syndrome in varying degrees of severity present already 80% of all adults! How truthful information, it is difficult to judge, but still think there is something.

In this form of the disease the symptoms of manic - depressive syndrome lubricated so that the sick person can retain full working capacity. His relatives and colleagues are unaware of what happened to him that something was wrong. Depressive and manic phases erased so that in addition to the periodic bad mood does not make themselves felt.

In addition, sometimes obliterated manic depressive syndrome disease is a disguised form of depression. It is also virtually impossible to detect. Even the sick person may not be aware of the reasons for his bad temper, and so carefully hide it from others. It is a great danger of such hidden forms of manic - depressive syndrome is that the phase of depression goes unnoticed, and as a result the likelihood of suicide increases significantly.

 symptoms of manic depression

Symptoms of classic manic - depressive syndrome

The disease has its own peculiarities of distinguishing it from other diseases of the psyche. It is of the typical symptoms of manic - depressive syndrome will be discussed below. Indeed, the totality of all these symptoms is characterized by a single concept - anxiety - depression.

A sick person may experience strong feelings of anxiety. And most of this anxiety is not baseless. Either the base is still there, but the anxiety is too exaggerated character. And more often sick worried anxiety for their future and that of their loved ones. They fear that something can happen: someone from the family or they themselves fall under the car, lose their jobs, and the like.

Such sick people doctor - a psychiatrist immediately distinguished from those who are in a state of melancholy. They even facial expression noticeable constant anxiety: the face is tense, unblinking stare. His whole appearance expressed a strong sense of tension. And in a conversation with a doctor people suffering from increased anxiety, will not be particularly frank - rather, they will take a wait and see position. The slightest careless word can help to ensure that people just simply closes in itself.

Relatives like a sick person should remember the basic rules of conduct to establish contact and to facilitate the patient's morale. In - the first, for a start, make sure that you are dealing with the case is increased anxiety. It is enough to correct the easiest start a conversation with a man - soak some pause. And not necessarily too long a pause - just about ten seconds.

In the event that a person is in a state of simple depression, it will remain silent as long as you want. If the person really has a disturbing symptom, it can not stand a long pause, be sure to first begin the conversation.

During the call, observe the behavior of the sick person. As a rule, his eyes running around, restless, he observed the so-called "syndrome of restless hands" - a sick person constantly - that pulls: skirt, sheets. As a rule, such people is very hard for a long time to be in the same position - they get up, walk around the room.

In severe cases, people with anxiety symptoms almost completely out of control. There are two extremes to which these patients may fall. The first extreme - a stage of numbness. At this stage the patient's anxiety reaches a stage where people can only look at one point in front of him, virtually no response to any - any external stimuli.

There is also the other extreme, which is less common, but in severe cases. Man begins to frantically rush around the room, refuse to eat, non-stop screaming or sobbing. In this case, it is highly recommended to put a sick person to a specialized medical facility. You should not torment himself with guilt for the fact that you have shifted the care of their loved one on the shoulders of physicians. Believe me, this must be done in the first place for his own safety, since in this state impulsive attempt to commit suicide is very, very likely.

Treatment for manic depression

Manic - depressive syndrome in any case can not be left without attention and appropriate treatment. Moreover, it should be noted that the manic - depressive psychosis - is not an easy sleep disturbances when you can knock out a sleeping pill and sleep until morning. The treatment of manic - depressive syndrome should only doctors - therapists.

Treatment is carried out in several stages. The patient was a man appointed by pharmacological treatment. Drugs chosen strictly individually, depending on the condition of the sick person - so, in the event that there is a person physical or mental retardation, he appointed stimulating activity of the drug. In the same case, if a sick person is dominated by anxiety, he will be assigned to anti-anxiety drugs.

Prognosis of the disease

Very many people facing one way or another with the disease, are interested in - and what is the prognosis of doctors? As a rule, if he manic - depressive syndrome is not burdened with any - or comorbidities, forecasts are rather favorable - a person is able to return to a normal lifestyle.

However, the relatives of the sick person should keep in mind that the successful treatment of the disease is possible only if it is detected on time. The later start treatment, the more irreversible changes in the personality of the sick person. So it is better to play safe and seek medical advice at ordinary depression than to miss a real disaster.

 Manic depression? Solving the problem is!

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