Today, in modern society it is of great importance level of care. There are many different diseases that are dangerous to humans. This group includes infection, trauma, hereditary pathology, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases and endocrine system and, of course, neoplasms. The latter may be either benign or malignant. Notable among them are the so-called cysts, including the brain. The brain - is a central authority that coordinates the activities of all systems.
Cyst brain - is a dangerous disease, but still benign, unlike cancer. The importance of this question lies in the fact that the cysts are often found incidentally during medical examinations and surveys. Individual years may not notice any symptoms and the disease, and cysts often do not manifest externally. Great importance and difficulty of care in this case, in fact often have to resort to difficult brain surgery. Let us consider in more detail what is a cyst of the brain, the main causes of this pathology as the therapy.
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Definition and aetiology
Cyst - a cavity formed in the brain, in most cases, filled with liquid. This is a fairly common problem, affecting both adults and children at any age. Sometimes cysts arise in the meninges at their adhesion after myocardial inflammation. Cysts can be found by chance during magnetic resonance and computer tomography. A cyst may develop as a result of this illness.
It can cause meningitis (inflammation of the membranes of the brain), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), traumatic injuries or inflammatory diseases, stroke and operations.
It does not develop immediately, but gradually. Cyst brain cancer is not a disease. In most cases they grow within a few years. No symptoms, but if it is large, it may cause compression of the cerebral cortex, soft tissue, which often provokes the appearance of neurological symptoms.
Classification of brain cysts
A cyst in the head can be of several types.
Depending on the type of tissue from which it develops, its types are the following: arachnoid, colloidal, dermoid, epidermoid, and pineal.
Let us consider in more detail each of them. So, arachnoid cysts of the brain gets its name from the name of the shell of the brain, where it is developing - or arachnoid arachnoid. It occurs after myocardial hemorrhage, trauma, or inflammation. It is a danger that under high pressure may squeeze the cortex. It affects mostly children and adolescents predominantly male.
Colloid cyst unlike previous head occurs at the stage of embryogenesis during Bookmarks nervous system. At large scale, it contributes to poor drainage of cerebrospinal fluid from the brain, and developing a hydrocephalus (cerebral edema). This necessarily require surgical intervention. A cyst in the head can be a dermoid, then it grows from cells bud faces another stage of development of the fetus, often found in children under 10 years. The next type of cyst - squamous. The difference lies in the fact that the cell - its predecessor - the rudiments of hair, skin and nails. He removed it from his head surgically. And the last type - pineal. She in the pineal gland in approximately 1-4% of patients with a cyst. With the development of hydrocephalus, it can cause drowsiness, diplopia (double vision), disorientation, difficulty in raising lookup.
The main clinical symptoms
Cyst of the brain in the early stages of development, does not manifest itself. Clinical symptoms are virtually absent. The main reason for their appearance - the development of complications and the large size. Cyst can compress the surrounding tissue, thus increasing the pressure. When it becomes larger intracranial, it can cause the following symptoms: the emergence of a sense of fullness in the head, the occurrence of tinnitus, headache, increased pulsation of blood vessels, visual disturbances, especially double vision, and more serious consequences, such as paresis and paralysis of limbs , numbness.
This is possible due to infringement of the cranial nerves that are located in the brain
. Each of them is responsible for a certain part of the body, its innerviruya
. Of great importance is the fact that the cysts can grow
. There is more active when the harmful acts or traumatic factor
. Growth can be monitored using magnetic resonance and CT
. As mentioned above, the arachnoid cysts are located on the surface, that is, the meninges
. Its growth may be associated with an increase in pressure, concussion while there is an education and if the inflammation continues (arachnoiditis)
. Cyst can also affect the substance of the brain, then it is called intracerebral
. It grows with the continuing pathological or autoimmune processes (multiple sclerosis, encephalomyelitis)
. Of great importance as a provoking factor plays a poor circulation as a result of minor strokes
. All of this contributes to the destruction of the brain
Basic principles of diagnosis
Cyst brain sooner or later manifest itself, but do not need to wait if there were symptoms. The reasons for its appearance can be very different. Diagnosis of brain cysts includes mainly medical history. A special place is a history of the disease. It involves establishment of possible causes of the disease and symptoms. Important role played by the establishment of the previously transferred diseases, because the cyst could be their consequences. Special diagnostic value has a history of previous stroke, inflammatory diseases, such as encephalitis or meningitis.
The cyst may be the result of previously conducted surgical procedures, the presence of concomitant pathology of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. The next stage - the patient's complaints. They may not all be absent, and the consequences will be bad for the patient. Important data and external examination of the patient. Much attention is being paid to the nervous system and sensory organs, as very often they are affected. The most important stage - carrying out instrumental and laboratory research.
Instrumental and laboratory examination of the patient
The cyst is easily revealed by magnetic resonance and computer tomography. This method is effective and reliable. MRI will reveal itself cyst, to determine its exact size and location of the area. To distinguish it from the tumor, it can be used a method of intravenous contrast agent. It is important to remember that the tumor accumulates it, and brush - no. On the screen, she is portrayed as a dark chamber with precise contours, location may be different. Widely adopted Doppler blood vessels of the brain and neck.
Impaired blood flow, vasoconstriction, providing oxygen to the brain (arteries) - all these signs of a possible stroke and appearance of cysts. The cause of oxygen deficiency of the brain may be a violation of the cardiovascular system. To exclude it, carried ultrasound of the heart and adjacent large vessels. On symptoms and the presence of cysts can specify and laboratory data. The presence in the blood of high cholesterol, high clotting - causes clogging of blood vessels of the brain. It is recommended to monitor blood pressure. Of great importance is the definition of pressure and cerebrospinal fluid.
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Treatment of brain cysts
The cyst may require immediate treatment. In most cases this is not necessary, especially if there are no complaints, clinical symptoms and cyst is not increased in size. If it is actively growing and compresses the cerebral cortex - a testimony to medical or surgical intervention. Treatment is mainly aimed at the treatment of the underlying disease, provoked her education. If this arachnoiditis, treatment necessarily involves the use of absorbable drugs such as karipain or Longidaza.
If you have poor circulation, treatment includes reducing blood clotting due to anticoagulation, lowering cholesterol levels and normalize blood pressure (antihypertensive drug treatment). Treatment of diseases require the appointment of nootropics that contribute to the saturation of the brain cells of oxygen and glucose, which is very important. Recommended treatment including antioxidants. Recent brain cells increase resistance to high pressure. When edema and intracranial fluid outflow violation advisable to include the treatment of furosemide. If the cause of the disease in infections autoimmunnooy pathology, the treatment includes the administration of immune modulators, anti-inflammatory agents. Perhaps the surgery. This is best suited endoscopic surgery.
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Cyst of the brain in children
As mentioned above, this disease can also occur in children. But this population the disease occurs as a result of suffering a mother of infectious disease during pregnancy. Often, the reason may be birth injury. Many viral infections can cause meningitis (inflammation of the meninges), delayed treatment which leads to the development of cysts. Most forms arachnoidal type of process.
No need to exclude intracerebral cyst (cerebral). The reasons for it - an injury at birth as a result of unskilled help narrow pelvis mother, exostosis, and so on. Adolescents are also possible. Location may be different: in the cerebellum, the corpus callosum, brainstem, nuclei hemispheres. Fluid replaces lost (dead) area of the brain. In adults, the other reasons. Treatment of cysts in children are similar to adults.
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Finally, conclusions, recommendations,
Based on the above we can conclude that a cyst - a formation filled with liquid, which can be formed in any area of the head. It must be distinguished from the tumor, which is a cancer. The main causes of the disease: trauma endured disease, circulatory problems, illness of the mother during pregnancy. The symptoms are not always, only if severe, the presence of complications or when huge amounts of cystic formation.
Very dangerous complications such as hydrocephalus, paresis and paralysis of limbs, and compression of the crust and increase the threat of cysts. Diagnosis includes a medical history, physical examination, determination of the main complaints and symptoms, instrumental and laboratory examination of the patient. The optimal use of MRI or CT. Treatment in most cases not necessary. Therapy includes the treatment of the underlying disease, the exclusion of a traumatic factor, in extreme cases - the operation. Striking this pathology is mostly children and adolescents, and adults, most often men than women. Therefore, if you have the first symptoms, it is necessary to consult a doctor.