Ideal krona should be durable to withstand high yields without backwater with little or their quantity, have enough branches, which could accommodate such a harvest, and at the same time is well lit in the inner parts. In addition, it should not be too high so as not to impede the care of the trees and did not have a low-lying branches and hanging branches that hinder treatment of the soil under the canopy.
Already Gaucher notes harm the formation of all the trees by a single scheme, the pattern: "Each tree requires special care because we can not put the general rules should not be given ready-made templates. Trees provided by nature itself, are growing better than fell into the hands of poor gardener, acting on a pattern. "
Indeed, wild apple trees, from hybrid seedlings, and seedlings have cultivars that grow without pruning, crown formed very strong, with large angles of divergence of branches, located on the trunk of the tiers of different composition, then one by one. The disadvantage of this emerging natural crown is an excessive thickening, especially in young trees, and high altitudes. However, over time, there is a natural self-thinning of crowns through the gradual dying off of the weaker branches.
However, the process of natural self-thinning, in - the first, very long, in - the second is related to the formation of excess, subsequently dying branches in the formation and growth of which are spent in vain plastic materials and energy.
Disadvantages of natural crown do not allow completely abandon the crop, but some changes need to using the tree's ability to self-formation.
Timely pruning is possible and necessary to prevent thickening of the crown and make it more permeable to light. The height of the crown can and should be reduced by cutting at one time the center conductor and translating it into a strong and well-positioned in the space of the side branch. For convenience, it is desirable to develop a tree that their height does not exceed 4, -4, 5 m.
In the combined power of individuals to shape the tree crown typical of his nature, and some additional techniques and built modern system of formation of fruit trees. The most advanced of these systems are combined (PG Tipsters) and especially the sparsely - tier (PS Gelfandbeyn).
Classic bunk pyatisuchnaya krona, which the first tier is completely laid back in the nursery, consists of 5 branches grown from 5 adjacent kidney and central conductor. The advantage of this crown in a simplicity of form, the main disadvantage -in too dense arrangement of lateral branches, which are then jostle one another, do not provide a durable fusion with a trunk often suppressed and the center conductor. Trees of many varieties, especially in the fragile timber (Borovinka, Titovka,
Cinnamon striped, Wells Pendant - Kitaika et al.), Formed by the tiered system, often are broken up, particularly under the weight of harvests.
In an effort to get rid of the lack of basic tier system has been proposed by US growers bezyarusnaya krona, which has all the skeletal branches, the number of 5 to 10, arranged singly along the entire length of the barrel at distances of 15 to 25 cm.
Bezyarusnaya krone is very strong, thanks to widely spaced branches and trunk of the good of their subordination is well lit inside. A significant drawback is the relatively long period of formation.
To correct this deficiency bezyarusnoy crown and at the same time to use its advantages, NG Zhuchkova was proposed combination Krone.
In such a crown 3 lower branches make up one tier, but the distance between the boughs compared with classic tiered crown increased by 5 -20 cm. It is preferable if the two are related bitch, and a third of them will be at a greater distance. In this form, c rarefied tier of 3 branches -sazhentsy and released from the nursery. Continuing formation in the garden is laying down the barrel of single skeletal branches, as at bezyarusnoy crown. The first single females lay at a distance of 45 -50 cm from the top tier of a bitch.
Perhaps even closer to the natural is sparsely - tier krona proposed PS Gelfandbeynom. Under this system, all 5 to 10 main branches (the end of the form) are arranged in tiers 2 -3, sometimes 4, and only a few branches singly. Typically, the lower tier is made up of three branches, the others -from 2. The upper branch, which is translated at the end of the formation of the conductor must be single. The distance between the tiers PS Gelfandbeyn recommends different for the different climatic conditions in the north -20 -25 cm in the middle zone -35 -40, and in the south, where growth is stronger, up to 60 cm.
Seedlings formed in sparsely for nursery - a tiered system, have landed in the garden, except the conductor, from 3 to 5 lateral skeletal branches arranged in two tiers, each with 2 to 3 branches. Instead of the second tier may be selected 1 -2 single branch. The distance between these branches is to be 15 to 20 cm.
All branching crown must be subordinated to each other, ie. E. Branches each subsequent order can be considerably thinner branches from which they depart. GK Karpov said that subordination is good, if the diameter of the skeletal branches will be 0, 5 of the trunk diameter at the site of a discharge. PS Gelfandbeyn considers it possible to increase this ratio is to 0, 6.
It is totally unacceptable for all education systems, the formation of forks, t. E. Nesopodchinennyh, identical in strength of branches coming out of one place: the harvest at a load fork are often torn apart. Pull-ups, spacers, cutting a kidney or side shoot seek a sufficiently large angle of divergence of the branches from the trunk (not less than 45 °), which provides the strength of accretion. In acute angle of divergence often occurs breaking branches from the wind or the weight of the crop.
Some shoots appearing on the trunk or between the tiers of skeletal boughs, should not be deleted; they only suppress the systematic shortening half - one third, making a poluskeletnye, then coated fruit formations. Bare areas of the trunk between the tiers easier to undergo summer and winter burn.
The main branch of the second order in the skeletal branches formed so that they are placed more or less evenly on both sides of them. The first branching should be no closer than 40 cm from -50 bole, subsequent to a 30 -40 cm distance from each other. Of course, we can not strictly adhere to these figures. It is necessary to leave the most powerful branch, making sure that they do not oppress one another and overtook skeletal branches, and obeyed her. If you want to suppress competing with the conductor branching more strongly trimming or cutting them to the ring. All other, weaker branch, located between the main branches of the second order is converted to hard pruning overgrowing branches. The shoots growing inside crown and hanging down, which would interfere with the treatment of the soil, cut on the ring or suppress very short pruning.
Later, when pruning, formed by any system to make annual thinning light, watch over the preservation of the proper subordination of skeletal branches trunk, branches of the second order skeletal twigs to prevent any competitors and education fork. Do not allow the suppression of the lower or upper skeletal branches one branch to another tier. Too much growing branches weaken shortening.
Trunk is the main through the exchange of nutrients between the crown of the tree with its foliage and root system. Through it pass the ascending and descending currents. Any even slight damage to the trunk worsens this exchange, and stronger can cause serious eating disorders and even complete extinction of individual sections of the crown or root system. The ring is damaged trunk inevitably ends with the death of a tree, usually in the coming year. In addition, all wounded trunk can cause infection of the black tree cancer and other diseases. In this connection it is necessary to closely monitor the state of the trunk, protecting it from any damage.
The main types of injuries are trunk winter burns, nibble rabbits and mice, wound tools and machines in the processing of the soil.
Burns usually occur in late winter, when heated direct sunlight cortical tissue emerging from the forced rest. The most common burns occur in the southern and south - western side of the trunk and major skeletal branches. To protect from heat followed by a freezing of, trunks and skeletal branches in the autumn of lime whitewashed clay, mixed in a ratio of 1: 1. To whitewash kept longer in a bucket of solution is useful to add 1 - 2 liters of skimmed milk.
Very often they damage the young trees hares. To protect them shtamby tied in the late fall and early winter cane or sunflower stalks. In the northern regions of the best material for tying a spruce spruce branches which have the tips of needles down. Lapnikom scares and mice. For large snowfalls have to be protected from rabbits and bases of skeletal branches. They also tied spruce branches and straw bundles.
After strapping shtamb young trees useful to hill ground to a height of 30 cm. This is partially protect plants from mice. In the fight with them also helps vtaptyvanie snow around the trunk after each significant snowfall, especially after the thaw. If mice appear to fall a lot, it is necessary at the base of each trunk put in pits several poisoned corn. The best measure, prevents the appearance of the mice in the garden, is the content of the soil under fallow, clean of weeds.
All detected in the trunk wounds immediately heal. If the size of the wounds are small, its surface is covered with putty or clay garden with mullein and wool. With such protection, preventing them from drying out at the edges of the wound quickly formed an influx of gradually tightening it. If the size of large wounds, it can not fully tightened. In such cases, good help plastic surgery, t. E. Transfer to the wound a piece of bark taken from a tree unnecessarily. Our experience has shown that the transplantation of the cortex is very good at, especially if it is held at the beginning of sap flow. The most important thing in this operation, that it was done quickly, and the edges of the wound and the transplanted area crust came together tightly without gaps. The form of "patches" must conform to the shape of the wound after cleaning. More convenient rectangular or hexagonal shape.
The surgical procedure is as follows: over cooked cut pattern edges of the wound (to the fresh bark) and cut bark from the corresponding portion to the place badged operations branch. The cut section quickly put in place and nailed with small nails. To better fit the surface makes tight twine tying all "operational field", and then coated with clay with mullein and tied on top of the paper in several layers. Clay and Paper merges protect tissues from drying out.
Such an operation to transplant a healthy bark and possible damage to the ring. To save these trees must be immediate intervention gardener: plastic surgery, installation of bridges or truncation of the whole tree for a return to growth pereprivivki (if you wish to have another, better grade) or without it.
For bridges must be vaccinated in advance, before the swelling buds, prepare cuttings strong frost-resistant varieties and store them in the snow or in the basement (in the sand).
To insert the place of the stalk - the bridge, on a healthy crust above and below the damaged area do vaccination knife two transverse incision length of 2 cm -3. Then, under the bark of these cuts introduced on a wedge cut ends of the cuttings for a better entry that needs to be done in the bark of a tree skew -ustup cutout. Sharing should be slightly longer than the distance between the transverse incisions on both ends of the stalk make oblique slices, removing the skin from the opposite side to expose the cambium and accelerate fusion. When the stalk is in place, the ends of his nail small nails and go to the next setting. Number of cuttings - bridges at the circular circumference of the injury depends on the trunk.
So, the tree 8 to 10 years is enough to put the cutting 3, older than 10 years -5 cuttings, and sometimes more. The ends of all cuttings easier to install on the same level, in order to facilitate their subsequent tying twine. After strapping wound sites coated with clay with mullein and tied paper. It is advantageous to use as a bridge basal shoots, if any, planting only their upper end.
However, treatment of bridges has very serious flaws. In - First, the bridges of small section, especially in the year installation difficult wood meals, mainly its roots; in - the second, the complete fusion of the bridges their side surfaces can only occur in a few years, but remains at this time the exposed surface of the wound between open and may freeze slightly, or be contaminated with fungal and bacterial diseases. Rocking tree during strong winds often leads to breaking off the upper ends of the bridge. In connection with this method of grafting a ring of bark, we believe a more perfect setting than the bridges, and recommend using it where possible, especially on young trees.
If the tree is in spite of the raised bridges, begins to shrink, losing part of the crown, it has to be cut down for the return and use the resulting growth from dormant buds strong shoots, forming a crown on them again.
If a variety of little value, it should be immediately pereprivit -this in a stump or bark splitting. Can be used for pereprivivki as suckers, usually appears after the sawing wood.
Trees come into fruition, and sawed the return or pereprivitye growth, thanks to its strong root system quickly restored and within 3 to 4 years old again give yields. It is unwise to uproot damaged trees to replace them with new seedlings: it for many years to delay the recovery of the garden. Using the root system of trees damaged many times will accelerate the process of recovery. Of course, if the trees will get severely damaged during the first three years after planting, they are advantageous to replace. With any method of treatment it is necessary to remember that only a strong, well-fed plants are easily reduced, so for damaged trees need to take good care using the spring - summer feeding nitrogen, and if possible, and watering.