Broad-spectrum antibiotics - a concept so firmly into the everyday life of contemporary humanity that all of us can not imagine my life without them. However, despite this, in a society there is a lot of variety of points of view on the issue of antibiotics: how and when to apply, how they affect the human body and if he hurt?
Answers to these questions usually boil down to two diametrically opposed. According to the same group of opponents - antibiotics is none other than the extremely dangerous, chemically synthesized substance, which is extremely negative impact on the human body, causing damage to his immune system, the intestinal microflora and digestive organs. According to them, with absolutely any pathogens of various diseases of the human body must cope on their own, without outside interference, and the use of antibiotics.
The second group of opponents sure that antibiotics - it is almost a panacea, is sure to have a home "arsenal" at least several varieties of antibiotics and starting to use them at the first sign of the slightest discomfort. And if such people at the slightest rise in temperature the doctor did not prescribe antibiotics, in their eyes, he just loses all the professionalism and trust.
Of course, absolutely true in any case is neither one nor the other point of view. Absolutely true is the fact that, for example, antibiotics for colds will not bring nothing but harm. But, for example, pneumonia (pneumonia), cured without antibiotics is very difficult. Earlier when people were not known antibiotics, many diseases are now cured in a few days, then in most cases leads to death.
In addition, the choice or rejection of antibiotics should be remembered that today there are new generation of antibiotics that bring a minimum of harm to the human body. In addition, you must consider such a thing as the body's sensitivity to antibiotics and other factors. Of course, people who have no medical training, self-pick an antibiotic almost impossible, so these drugs should be prescribed only by the doctor. But still everyone should know the principle of action of antibiotics, the rules of treatment and recovery. This is what will be discussed in this material.
However, for a person to fully understand the mechanism of action of antibiotics on the body of a sick person, you must clearly understand how there develops a particular infectious or inflammatory disease. As everyone knows, all infectious diseases in humans are developed after the introduction into the body of various pathogens. All these organisms are extremely diverse, but they all stand out in three main groups:
- Bacteria. They are due to the fact that they have their own cellular structure - the DNA, the cell wall and so on. D. - Able to exist independently.
- Simple. It has the same ability as the bacteria of independent existence. A little bit different by building a cellular structure.
- And the third group - viruses. Viruses radically different bacteria and protozoa that they do not have their own cellular structure, and are only a molecule of DNA or RNA enclosed in a protein capsule. Of course, the virus is nothing less than a complete parasites are absolutely incapable of existence is someone else's body. The virus begins to manifest itself only after its introduction into the cells of a living organism.
So, how to deal with all of the above-described pathogens? If they are to be destroyed with any - any surface or even the skin, there is a fairly wide range of different products for disinfection. For example, the same alcohol or hydrogen peroxide. But they are not suitable for use inside the body, as it has on quite a strong and deleterious toxic effect.
Exactly for such cases, when the body to get rid of the impact of pathogens and are antibiotics. Very often, people confuse the two concepts - antibiotics and "antibiotics". Antibiotics - a matter exclusively of natural origin, but antibiotics - it is chemically synthesized substances, according to the principle of action is absolutely similar to antibiotics - substances of natural origin. But do not delve much into the subject of their origin and reception, as they have the same effect on the body - both positive and negative.
The principle effect of antibiotics on the human body
Most importantly, it allows doctors to successfully use antibiotics for the treatment of man - is the fact that all vital processes in human cells, are fundamentally different from those of the vital processes of any of the bacterial cell. If ethyl alcohol or hydrogen peroxide when subjected to both kinds of cells - both human and bacterial - are the same toxic effect on both groups of cells, the antibiotics are highly selective. Antibiotics affect only the processes that occur in the cell is a pathogenic microorganism, but never affecting human cells.
All antibiotics have very severe classification depending on how the impact on livelihoods is. That's it on the basis of the chemical structure and the type of exposure is carried out classification of antibiotics - some groups are designed to inhibit the synthesis of the outer membrane of the bacterial cell, which is in the human body is simply absent. This group of drugs are widespread antibiotics penicillin, cephalosporins, and a number of other drugs.
The other group of antibiotics acts completely different way - they just almost completely suppress the full protein synthesis in bacteria. Examples of these drugs include tetracycline antibiotics, for example, doxycyline, macrolide - erythromycin and aminoglycosides - streptomycin.
Moreover, the list of antibiotics is divided not only by the principle influence on the pathogens, but also on such factors as the antibacterial activity. Probably everyone who at least once in their lives faced with the need to use antibiotics, drew attention to the annotation to the drug, which necessarily always shows the spectrum of activity of the antibiotic.
Some antibiotics are broad-spectrum, which is very active against many bacteria, while others, on the contrary, are narrowly focused on what - or a certain group of bacteria. In some microorganisms - such as a virus, an antibiotic, unfortunately, can not provide at least some - or effect. It is often possible to hear the question of why this is happening. The answer is very simple - bacteria and viruses have a fundamentally different not only the structure but also the operation, so that causes the death of the bacteria does not affect the virus. And despite the high level of development of modern medicine has not yet created any sufficiently effective antiviral drug, and all known groups of antibiotics to fight viruses are not able to.
However, doctors are often faced with a situation where the previously successfully acting antibiotics do not bring a sick person absolutely no relief. Why is this happening? All living organisms, and bacteria in the same number, have a remarkable ability to adapt to new environmental conditions, including the most its adverse factors. A striking example of this adaptation - is the development of bacteria resistant to certain types of resistance to antibiotics. Scientifically proven fact that absolutely any kind of bacteria eventually acquire resistance to any, even the most powerful antibiotics.
And more than the dosage of the drug to be administered, and the more - the more quickly develop into this stability. And pharmacology simply faced with the need to create all new antibiotics. Currently, among the doctors - pharmacists there is an assumption that, if in our time is still pediatricians as polls as now, will prescribe antibiotics for bronchitis or antibiotics for sore throat, not even trying to do without their use, the 20 years mankind is simply nothing to treat serious diseases. But often antibiotics for children with serious diseases are a real salvation.
It is important to assign the use of antibiotics. Of course, if a sick person is in terms of inpatient treatment with a sufficiently serious disease, such as pneumonia or meningitis - an inflammatory disease that affects the brain membrane - the use of an antibiotic is simply not necessary and should not be subject to any doubts and discussions. However, it should be appreciated that in the hospital a lot more opportunities for continuous monitoring of the condition of the sick person - from specific laboratory tests, finishing elementary clock medical supervision.
But if the situation is opposite - slightly unwell, and treatment takes place in the home, almost entirely the responsibility fall on the shoulders of the patient or his parents, if we are talking about a child. Very often it happens that parents are asked to appoint a doctor to the child antibiotics for the flu or colds. Of course, the competent doctor would never do it, but, unfortunately, more often there are cases when the doctor, knowing about the inadmissibility of such treatment, prescribes antibiotics crumbs. It is easier to agree with the parents than for a long time to explain to them why it should not do.
However, if the doctor did not prescribe an antibiotic to a child who really need it, simple bronchitis may result in serious bilateral pneumonia, cystitis and easy - a serious inflammation of the bladder. That is why parents must have at least a general idea of the cases in which the use of antibiotics is necessary, and in which undesirable.
Various respiratory tract infections. In this disease, antibiotics are appointed often, but it always justified? As the average statistical data, the average child of preschool age transfers - 6 - 7 respiratory infections per year. If every disease treatment will be carried out with the help of antibiotics, the load on the body of the child would be prohibitively large and very negative impact on his health.
Currently, there is no reliable method for the diagnosis of what is the nature of the origin of respiratory tract infections - viral or bacterial yet. However, the doctor is certain that acute bronchitis (inflammation affecting the bronchial mucosa), as well as acute rhinitis (runny nose), 90% of cases are caused precisely by viruses of different origins, the inflammation of the tonsils (tonsillitis), the mucous membranes of the mouth (stomatitis) , otitis media, most often caused by pathogenic bacteria.
That is why the first thing you look at prescribing doctors - is the fact what kind of infection. For example, viral bronchitis, doctors prescribe antibiotics not in a hurry, but if the child has sore throats, and treatment involves antibiotics fail. However, unfortunately, life is often possible to observe the following situation: the baby fever, a cough. The first few days, the parents try to cope without antibiotics. However, most parents are afraid that will result in severe bronchitis with pneumonia.
As a rule, under the yoke of their own fears, and on the advice of relatives and friends of the parents start a few days to give antibiotics. Just how justified such a measure? The widespread misconception is that if the temperature is kept for 3 days in the fourth antibiotics should be prescribed. In fact, this is not the case. When any viral infection temperature is kept for about 5 days, and in some cases the temperature can be kept small and a long time. In any case, give your child antibiotics as antipyretic, and just like that, "just in case." Antibiotics are absolutely not designed to calm the nerves of parents - for this there is valerian.
In the same case, if a child's parents notice signs of deterioration, such as a significant increase in body temperature (up to 39 - 40 degrees), the appearance of shortness of breath, pronounced weakness, they should be alerted. But even in this case it is not necessary to go to the pharmacy for antibiotics, and you should immediately call a doctor, who can objectively assess the state of health of the child and to develop further tactics of treatment.
In addition, parents should be aware that antibiotics are not antitussives, but only reduces inflammation, destroying pathogens. Himself cough is a protective reaction of the organism. And, as a rule, it coughs disappear last. To eliminate the need for special cough cold preparations that must also appoint a doctor is based on the individual characteristics of the child and the disease. However, if after two - three weeks after the child has a cough persists, parents should begin to worry and to see a doctor, who can help find the cause of this.
The second most frequent case of the use of antibiotics in children - is acute otitis media. As a rule, otitis is almost always doctors prescribe antibiotics. This happens because, in about 80% of all cases of otitis disease is the culprit is a bacterial infection. Of course, having such data, it makes more sense to start antibiotic treatment immediately and not wait for the deterioration of the sick child.
If the patient has sinusitis, antibiotic therapy is also quite quickly lead to significant improvement. However, there is one thing - antibiotics for sinusitis is advisable to apply only in the acute stage of the disease. Beyond the acute stage of sinusitis treated by other methods.
Next in frequency disease, during which an antibiotic is prescribed for treatment - a cystitis. As is known to suffer from cystitis more often by women. And very often it happens, when the first symptoms of cystitis woman begins to take the first comer antibiotic in one - two days cystitis symptoms disappear. The woman immediately stops receiving antibiotics, but at the slightest supercooling symptoms appear again and again. However, antibiotics for cystitis should be selected strictly individually in each case.
Such self antibiotics may caused a lot of troubles, so at the first sign of cystitis should consult a doctor who will prescribe a specific survey in order to identify the sensitivity of microflora to antibiotics urine. And only after the doctor will be the results of urine, he can choose the most optimal treatment, which not only relieve the symptoms of the disease, and kill pathogens, and that was the cause of the disease.
Antibiotics and other factors
Antibiotics during pregnancy causes a lot of questions and disputes. It is widely believed that antibiotics leads to the development of fetal malformations and birth of sick children. And whether antibiotics are harmful during pregnancy, really?
However, to date there are the newest generation of antibiotics that do not cause birth defects and other complications of a normal pregnancy. In addition, considerable importance is and gestational age at which women are being treated with antibacterial drugs.
Most adverse effects of antibiotics on the fetus - is in the first trimester of pregnancy.
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