breast cancer


  • The clinical picture of breast cancer
  • Symptoms that signal employees to access mammologu

Not only women, but men can find at the main symptoms of breast cancer. It is especially important to get acquainted with the clinical picture of the disease and symptoms ladies who have reached 40 years of age and do not have, for whatever reasons, children.
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The clinical picture of breast cancer

Depending on the disease, breast cancer differentiated into 5 main groups. The earlier a woman to turn to professional mammologu, the greater the chance of identifying disease at an early stage of the cancer process.

Oncology breast cancer: early stage of the disease

0 stage - at this stage of the disease in the walls of duct cancer reveal the presence of abnormal cells. This non-invasive form of cancer, as cancer cells do not go beyond the wall and do not penetrate the healthy tissue. Sometimes 0th stage not considered as oncologic process. However, there is a strong possibility that under the influence of unfavorable conditions or in the absence of proper treatment of damaged cells continue to change and cause cancer growth. Stage asymptomatic.

Stage 1 - considered the beginning of interventional oncology. Cancer cells form a small tumor, whose dimensions do not exceed 2 cm in diameter. Nevertheless, the tumor remains within the body. When probing cancer can detect small painless seal. It should be remembered that cancer is most successfully treated at this stage. Full recovery occurs without excision of the breast. Therefore, the woman retains not only the breast, but also the possibility of breastfeeding.

Step 2 - This step develops Oncology 4 directions.

  • Size of the tumor can remain unchanged, but the cancer cells are detected in the lymph nodes located at the underarm area.
  • Malignant neoplasm able to grow up to 5 cm, single cancer cells in the axillary lymph nodes are not detected.
  • Formation is equal to the diameter of 2-5 cm, note the appearance of cancer cells in the lymph nodes located at the underarm area.
  • Single cancer cells in lymph nodes no tumor diameter becomes larger than 5 cm.

Probing cancer helps detect small seal. Other symptoms are generally not observed.

0th, 1st and 2nd stage breast cancer considered early forms of the process.

In the early stages you can use gentle treatment methods, help to preserve the natural shape of the breast and breast functionality.

With further development of the disease with the transition into late stage it will require complete excision of the prostate. You should not despair, because modern medicine has ways of surgical treatment with simultaneous breast augmentation surgery. In the absence of contraindications plastic held immediately after excision of tissue.

 signs and symptoms of breast cancer

Oncology Breast Cancer: late stage of the disease

In the early stages of the disease can remain invisible to the woman, because it has no pronounced. Therefore, you must not neglect preventive examinations and check-ups at the mammalogy about once during the year. With the development of symptoms becomes severe.

Stage 3 - This form relates to the category of locally advanced cancer and differentiated into 3 types.

Stage IIIA is characterized by the presence of a tumor with a diameter of no more than 5 cm. The continued spread of metastases in the lymph nodes. It is possible the defeat of chest lymph nodes. By increasing the size of the tumor, cancer cells affect welded or separately located lymph nodes.

Stage IIIB is diagnosed when a tumor of any size grows in the skin cancer or in the chest. Distinct signs of breast cancer in this case - the appearance of swollen tissue and small nodules on the skin surface. Sometimes a breast becomes reddish and pronounced swelling due to blockage of lymph vessels.

Stage IIIC is a tumor of any size, germinating in the surrounding tissue. The lesions may be subject to the lymph nodes in the armpit, retrosternal, as well as a supraclavicular approach.

Step 4 - metastasis occurs other internal organs such as the liver or the bone tissue. This degree is called metastatic cancer. Sometimes the process is irreversible. In this case, treatment is intended to reduce disease symptoms, but can not eliminate its cause.

Cancer - insidious disease that can recur with full, seemingly curing. Often relapse occurs due to the presence of single cancerous cells without treatment of destroyed or metastases that are in inaccessible places. Optional re-development of cancer in the breast. Relapse can affect the lungs, bones, brain or liver.

 surgical treatment of breast cancer
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Symptoms that signal employees to access mammologu

As the cancer gradually outward signs of breast cancer. If any of these symptoms should immediately seek antenatal care and undergo a thorough examination. Because of the lack of symptoms in the early stages of the disease, breast cancer is most often detected at advanced stage .

Women should pay attention to any change in the contour of cancer, wrinkling of the skin or nipple retraction. The surface of the skin can peel off, acquiring a reddish hue. There is a constant burning sensation. It is possible that these symptoms are symptoms usually allergic reaction. However, make sure this is possible only after consultation with a specialist.

Later Cancer process is with a sense of discomfort and pain in the affected gland, swelling of the underarm area or shoulder, enlarged lymph nodes in the armpit. Changes observed by the patient of breast cancer. On the skin surface can be formed dimples. On the nipple there is the wound of the nipple of the possible separation of bloody fluid. Germination of cancer on the skin leads to ulcers.

According to statistics, in Russia every 16th woman is exposed to breast cancer. To prevent the occurrence of a disease or the development of advanced cancers, you must take good care of their own health.

 Breast cancer: early warning signs

 proper oral hygiene


  • What constitutes proper hygienic measures?
  • Plaque - the reason for the formation of dental caries

Healthy teeth are an invariable attribute of beauty. That they always remained so for them it is necessary to carefully monitor and care, respecting the rules of oral hygiene, which has long been a measure of human culture. Oral hygiene performed regularly and properly is the best preventive measure various dental diseases, providing more than 90% of dental health.

With regard to dentistry as a branch of medicine, oral hygiene is the science and practice, which is designed to create a number of dental plaque, in which there is no danger for teeth and gums. It is divided into professional and individual. Individual involves self-care, performed by a human home. Professional oral hygiene is a scientific system of specially designed events: both curative and preventive. They are directed to the treatment of tissue and organs of the mouth, as well as to prevention of dental diseases. Such procedures are performed only in hospitals by qualified medical personnel.

 hygienic measures
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What constitutes proper hygienic measures?

Gums and teeth are constantly in contact with food are subject to its influence. Not performing regular hygiene, they become very vulnerable and can not withstand such an impact on their own. Properly performed procedures help to successfully combat this problem. They include the following:

  • cleaning of the teeth by the toothbrush and toothpaste, performed very carefully;
  • rinsing the mouth after every meal;
  • care gaps between the teeth.

It is desirable every time after eating to brush your teeth. If this is not possible, rinse the mouth with cool water or specially designed for this purpose rinse aid, which can be purchased in a pharmacy or shop. If there is no such possibility, it is possible to use chewing gum.

Eat the food is poor today, natural products, vitamins and are usually subjected to cooking. Moreover, it includes a large number of preservatives and various additives which adversely affect the body as a whole and on the state of organs and tissues of the mouth, in particular. Such food may not contribute to cleanse the mouth, as the very small load on the teeth and the tissue adjacent.

Consequently, the task of man to provide such measures that will contribute to the removal of residues of food and destruction of microorganisms and bacteria that promote decay and formation of plaque and calculus.

 causes of plaque

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Plaque - the reason for the formation of dental caries

Plaque is formed in those areas in which there is an accumulation of food debris. Accumulating, it eventually begins to conduct microbial attack against the gums and tooth enamel. Therefore, it is necessary to constantly clean. Particularly active plaque appears in places close contact of teeth, on the site of opening of the salivary duct, between the teeth and gums. Active dissemination of plaque occurs in depressions and pits of molars, canines and incisors in the cervical area of ​​the tooth.

Where the occurrence of plaque especially deep and closely adjacent the tooth enamel, is the emergence of so-called plaque, which merges with the tissue, leading to the formation of cavities underneath. Bacteria rapidly develop and grow in food residues. Released during this process result in acid demineralization, destroying and excreted are useful for dental substances such as phosphorus, calcium and other minerals.

As a result, enamel becomes thinner, leading to the formation of cavities and then to decay, which is very dangerous for the body. He can carry on a blood infection that is particularly dangerous for pregnant women. Therefore, during pregnancy visit to the dentist is a must.

To the mouth has always been in good condition, ensuring the health of teeth and gums, you need a regular oral hygiene.

Start of hygiene

It is important for the health of the oral cavity is accustom the child from an early age to care for her. Dentists believe that the personal hygiene is necessary since the age of two years, starting with the simplest: mouthwash after meals, especially after eating sweet (candy, chocolates, pastries). Gradually, the baby should be accustomed to the procedure of cleaning teeth, teach him to do it right. It is necessary to convince a child that the procedure is useful and vital. Parents should set an example for children. After all, they are respected for their baby, and he tries to imitate them.

Brushing teeth should be correct. Ideally - after every meal or even if this is not possible, two times a day, morning and evening, before going to bed at least 3 minutes. The process of cleaning the upper teeth there is a movement from top to bottom, and the bottom - from the bottom up. It is also necessary to clean the reverse side of the teeth.

Since the principal role in this process plays a brush, need special attention paid to its selection and changed every 2 - 3 months. Professionals advise to buy a toothbrush made of synthetic bristle. For ease of manipulation in the mouth, it must have a small size. Not recommended after she was brought out of the store, pour over it boiling water before use. It is enough to wash it with ordinary water.

The efficiency of the use of electric toothbrushes. It rotates at a high speed (3000 rev / min), therefore, special methods of dentifrice during use there is no need to adhere. Of course, at a cost it is superior to conventional toothbrushes, but have a much longer life.

Pasta in the hygiene procedures plays a major role, and is used as an additional tool, has a deodorizing, antibacterial and refreshing effect. It is not necessary to use it in large quantities. For children it is recommended to select a special children's toothpaste with low abrasiveness. For a dentifrice paste sufficiently small amount. By its terms it should be the size of a pea.

Mouthwashes in any case not a substitute for brushing teeth treatments, and children under school age are prohibited due to the high content of fluorine.

 the right choice of the toothbrush

Toothbrush: the selection rules

Toothbrushes belongs to the leading role in the implementation of preventive hygiene. The modern market offers a wide variety of species that perform different functions. But often, choosing a toothbrush, people are guided by the advertising, which are full of television programs. The right choice can be made based on the recommendations of health authorities, which are not advised to use a brush with natural bristles due to the accumulation of bacteria in their villi. The best are synthetic bristle brushes of different length, located in the 3 series. Such a rational layout helps clean teeth in all areas and massage the gums. For the most easy slip sometimes bristles perform a serrated edge.

To make it easy to clean hard to reach areas in the mouth, use a flexible tip. The design of some models, provides for a platform under the thumb, which has an anti-slip effect. The handle of the toothbrush should be as long and comfortable to ensure a comfortable dental cleaning in all areas, including distant.

Toothbrushes are 3 types of hardness: soft, medium and hard. Dentists recommend to use medium, purging confident movements forcefully. If this occur pain in the gums, or bleeding from them, you need to replace the brush with a soft middle. The toothbrush should be properly stored and carefully take care of it, do not forget that it should be time to change. Performing tooth brushing, brush should be well washed with soap and water and allow it to dry completely. In addition to regular toothbrushes, dental floss can be used, balms and rinses.

 the right choice of toothpaste

Features choice of toothpaste

Hygiene measures are not possible without the use of toothpaste or powder, which, although they do not play a dominant role, but increase the effectiveness of preventive procedures produced. They include a variety of useful components that are to be mandatory on the package.

The modern market offers a huge variety of species toothpastes various purposes: disinfectants, bleaches, protect against the appearance of plaque. But they are, in one way or another abrasive and contain silicates, calcium carbonate or other substances having the same action. Delete leftover food more efficiently in tight spaces help foaming. Virtually all toothpastes contain fluoride as calcium fluoride, sodium fluoride and the like.

These toothpastes are the most popular, and therefore demand, accelerating the process of transition of calcium from saliva in enamel. Dentists call for careful study of the composition of the paste, especially its content of fluorine. If it exceeds 1500 mcg, use a toothpaste for daily use is strictly contraindicated. For children, the use of such pastes is very dangerous, so they should use only children's toothpaste.

To his teeth were always white and shiny, we recommend the use whitening toothpaste. They are especially popular among smokers and tea and coffee lovers. These pastes in its composition containing polymers, phosphate and silica, and with regular use can remove stains on teeth. However, the use of toothpastes have whitening effect, is possible only after consultation with the doctor and with great care. People who want to have white teeth, can undergo the procedure of teeth whitening in the dental clinic.

Good preventive effect can be achieved by applying medicated paste containing various useful components. They not only help to remove plaque and freshen breath.

Oral hygiene should be observed when using dentures. Although its basic rules are the same for both artificial and natural teeth.

 Regular hygiene - a pledge of healthy teeth