Biedermeier - twisty word, besides many strangers. However, this word refers to the concept of just plain and ordinary. The art style Biedermeier - style simple, devoid of pretentiousness and gentility. Very often we organize and legalize their house according to the rules of this particular style. Because Biedermeier - a style of home comfort, worldly unassuming and simple earthly pleasures. It is also called petty-bourgeois or philistine. Just do not immediately give a negative assessment of this style. Let's first look at what it represents, what the advantages and disadvantages and is suitable for any home.
History of style
Biedermeier style originated in the early 19th century in Germany. And his name shall name Gottlieb Biedermeier (alias German poet Ludwig Ayhrodta). One of the characters in his ironic works was a provincial schoolteacher, whose distinguished philistine tastes, narrow-minded interests and complete satisfaction with their lives. This style is very quickly established itself in Germany and Austria. And not only at home but also in the arts. And here is the paradox: it is in Europe this style were treated and continue to treat ironically, considering the Biedermeier style of the middle class and people with low aesthetic demands.
The Russian Biedermeier came in Pushkin's time. Although the bourgeois philosophy of this style a little comply with the general mood of the era in Russian Biedermeier style perfectly fit into the interiors of the noble houses, manor houses and even royal villas. Biedermeier was replaced by pathos Empire and established by domestic comfort, comfort and convenience. Strictly speaking, this style appeared just as a result of the search of simple truths and values, peace and tranquility. But later he became a good example of how using modest means to solve the problem succinctly and stylish interior.
Philosophy of style
A characteristic and even the hallmark of the Biedermeier period can be called a kind of poetization world of things, reflecting petty-bourgeois ideology. And at the same time - the simplicity and unpretentiousness. By the way, the literal translation of the word «bieder» - simple-minded, philistine. Historically, the interior in this style is asymmetric and disproportionate. The main motto - the warmth and comfort, the main motive - flowers and stripes.
The main emphasis of style aims to create a cozy and relaxed atmosphere at home, where life flows slowly and pleasantly. However, the desire for a quiet and measured life, formed the basis of this style, it is quite understandable. A series of wars and revolutions simply forced people to seek peace in everyday life and in the dispensation of life.
Biedermeier, first of all, style residential (domestic) interior. That is why he is the most responsible to vital human needs: convenience, practicality, functionality. This style - a vivid example of how there is a spiritual unity of the objective world and the people.
Biedermeier sometimes called simplified Empire style. At the heart of his artistic expression are ancient motifs. But unlike the Empire, he abolishes the imperial pathos of palace columns and prefers soft and rounded forms. We can say that all of the Biedermeier style of interior selects exactly what congenial middle class and the common man.
The modern incarnation of the style
The overwhelming majority of apartments in our homes does not differ large areas and big space, but meets the needs of the Biedermeier period is the best. So now, this style is very popular, but, unfortunately, it is in Europe. We have it still do not accept or understand, disparagingly calling philistine or German style.
However, assume that Biedermeier is of no artistic value is fundamentally wrong. Biedermeier is not only shy and neutrality, it's also the stability (and what's wrong with this feeling?). Biedermeier style is not tasteless philistine, lacking aesthetic component, it creates and modern designers and artists. Biedermeier drawn not only accommodation (apartments and houses), but also hotels, restaurants and cafes. Together with Biedermeier modesty brings the atmosphere comfort and allows you to make any room a "living" and the home.
Biedermeier very democratic - no requirements to the size of rooms, ceiling height and shape of windows and doors. The interior, designed in the Biedermeier style, there is no luxury. They are characterized by accuracy and brevity, intimacy and balance of proportions, soft forms and soothing colors. Minimum decor, maximum simplicity, space and light - all this creates an atmosphere of psychological comfort and physical well-being.
Typical solutions for the interior of the Biedermeier period are as follows:
- Use warm and bright colors (yellow, pink, blue);
- Decorations can any color, but always with a monotonous background;
- drawing on the walls - a simple pattern or a thin strip;
- emphasis on furniture and bright (but few) color elements;
- wooden floors often, self-colored carpeted floors.
Furniture from the Biedermeier period to be most suitable for their intended use. Practicality, functionality and comfort - that these properties it must have first of all. During the emergence and spread of this style all the pieces of furniture are even and perfect quality carpentry work (which is not true of modern furniture). The beauty of the texture and color of wood furniture makers emphasized skilful veneer (in today's performance - veneer).
In the epoch of the Biedermeier period the most popular pieces of furniture have been all sorts of chests of drawers, cabinets, desks and wash basins are characterized by simple shapes, smooth lines and the lack of decor. A very common at the time and was multifunctional furniture - sliding tables or desks with hinged tops, desks with drawers, folding chairs. The most popular items of upholstered furniture that time began sofa bed (sofa) and fashionable interior elements - glass windows, which were exhibited curiosities family.
Furniture manufacturers from today is consistent with the requirements of the Biedermeier period, as its main motto - practicality. Highlight any special distinguishing features of such furniture is simply impossible - a common feature, and it is precisely the mix of styles and simple styling. And dignity bidermeyerovskoy furniture can be called the combination of different styles with aesthetic demands and comfort. In fact, all modern stylized furniture - this is the furniture in the Biedermeier style.
Also special finishes and practical furniture, the hallmark of the Biedermeier period are a few decorative elements. Most often it is plain watercolors, statuettes and souvenirs. It is characteristic for this style, and a large number of pictures hung on walls and displayed in frames on the chest of drawers and shelves.
Velvet curtains, a fireplace and plenty of indoor plants also form an integral part of the interior in the style of Biedermeier. By the way, this era of style gave us the fashion of flower boxes (special stand) for houseplants. And yet, Biedermeier rejects any excesses in the decoration of the interior.
The integrity of style
Interiors Biedermeier style, must give the impression of integrity and completeness. Therefore, this style is appropriate to issue the entire apartment or floor of the house (cottage) in its entirety. The room should be bright and spacious (spacious does not mean large). In some corner, you can draw a circular niche with plants. Furniture is desirable to select a diverse and multi-function: cabinets, chests of drawers, sliding tables, sofas, dressing table. All this should be evenly spaced throughout the room.
The walls neutral colors, plain or patterned with flowers and stripes. The floors are wooden or coated, imitating the color and grain of wood. The windows - Air curtains and on the walls - hanging miniatures and photographs. And here before us in all its glory Biedermeier - style German comfort.
It is in these rooms lived and worked Beethoven, Goethe, Schumann. So why, until recently, this style was driven? Why it is a symbol of home vulgarity and commercialism? For certain historians, art historians and sociologists know the answers to these questions. But it all comes back "full circle" and Biedermeier once again in favor. For comfort, practicality and stability - the main motto of this artistic style. And this is what we all aspire to, and!