asthma symptoms


  • Asthma from childhood: the first signs of the disease
  • The causes of the disease
  • Symptoms of asthma in adults
  • Diagnosis of asthma
  • Classification of asthma
  • Methods of treatment of bronchial asthma

The term "asthma" is translated from Greek means "shortness of breath", "heavy breathing". Today it is a chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory tract is the most common in adults, but the first symptoms of asthma appear many more in early childhood.

Asthma from childhood: the first signs of the disease

Asthma in children occurs due to many factors. It can be hereditary, frequent colds, susceptibility to allergies, underweight, tobacco smoke, which inhales a small child, and so on. The largest percentage of asthma seen in boys, children from low-income families and children with black skin color.

Symptoms of asthma in children has the following:

  • Frequent bouts of coughing. They may appear during play or sleep, when the child laughs.
  • Reduced activity in the game, fast fatigue, weakness.
  • Difficulty breathing child, complaints of chest pain.
  • The characteristic whistle and wheezing when exhaling and inhaling.
  • Interruptions in breathing, his interception.
  • Shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, chest in which the reciprocating movement.
  • Caught muscles of the chest and neck.

These symptoms may vary in different attacks and look different. If a child has trouble breathing, it should immediately see a doctor. The specialist should thoroughly investigate the child and examine his medical history to determine the presence in it of factors that contribute to addiction to baby asthma. It can be an allergy in his medical history (or parents), frequent colds, lung disease, skin eczema. Parents should describe in detail the child's doctor manifesting symptoms, he, in turn, should carefully examine the baby, listening to the work of the lungs and heart. If you suspect the disease in a child take a blood test and send it to the chest x-ray. In some cases, do a skin test for allergies.

If asthma is confirmed, on the basis of severity of the disease the child is prescribed medication. It is of special application bronchodilators and drugs that should always be at hand in the parents. The physician should develop a treatment plan. The disease can be considered controlled in the event that a child is active and live a full life. He shows no signs of fatigue quickly and does not have pronounced symptoms. It is assumed that parents will very rarely go to the doctor and service "First aid" for acute attacks of asthma. Furthermore, the child should not be taken from the side effects of their medication.

If time does not sound the alarm about the baby appeared cough, fatigue, shortness of breath and other symptoms, do not treat the child and run a disease, then develop into asthma and chronic form will be accompanied by an adult throughout his life.

 asthma symptoms

The causes of the disease

Experts note that asthma can be caused by both environmental and genetic factors that influence the severity of disease and successful treatment. However, this complex relationship to the end has not yet been studied.

Thanks to research conducted by scientists regarding the prevalence of asthma and other related diseases (eczema, allergies), there is information about some of the risk factors. Thus, the most significant of which is the presence of atopic disease, which increases the risk of asthma in three or four times, and allergic rhinitis - five. Increased IgE and positive allergy test in children -chetyrnadtsati thirteen years, as well as in adults, are also risk factors.

Due to the fact that asthma is largely due to increased sensitivity to environmental allergens, they paid close attention to a child - it allows you as soon as possible to diagnose the disease. Conducted scientific studies of primary prevention, which were aimed at actively reducing the content of external stimuli, that is, aeroallergens, in the room where the child lives, showed different data. For example, a complete relief of allergens such as house dust mites, reduces the risk of allergic sensitization and asthma development before reaching the age of eight baby. But at the same time it was found that exposure to allergens of cats and dogs have quite the opposite effect - their presence in the lives year-old child in the future significantly reduces the appearance of his allergies and asthma.

Inconsistent findings prompted researchers to explore other aspects of human life. One was the relationship of obesity and asthmatic reactions. In the United States and the United Kingdom increase the incidence of asthma has become a reflection of the growing number of people experiencing problems with excess weight. In Taiwan, where the body mass index of each resident of the country in recent years has increased by about 20%, also recorded an increase in the frequency of allergic symptoms and airway hyperresponsiveness.

Some obesity-related factors may influence the pathogenesis of asthma. Thus, respiratory function is reduced due to accumulation of adipose tissue, which in turn leads to inflammatory conditions, due to which develops neezofilnaya asthma.

Some scientists have linked the disease with Churg-Strauss syndrome. In addition, extrinsic asthma may result from periocular ksantogranulomy. People with immune-mediated urticaria also experience symptoms such as rash, rhino-konyuktevit, problems with the digestive tract, asthmatic symptoms, with the worst outcome occurs anaphylaxis.

Symptoms of asthma in adults

Asthma symptoms may appear in early childhood and in the case of delayed or improper treatment develop into a chronic form. Today, however, very often the first signs of the disease are diagnosed in young people over 20 years old. In this case, asthma considered an adult.

Most often it occurs among women and is usually associated with allergies. Almost half of adults with asthma, observed allergic reactions to various external stimuli and substance. The cause of the disease can become familiar working environment (in this case, asthma is considered a professional) or the atmosphere in the apartment (the presence of smokers and animals). Symptoms worsen in contact with a person in certain conditions.

Thus, asthma - a violation of the lungs, which may result from such causes:

  • inflammation or swelling of the airways;
  • the formation of too much mucus, which exceeds the norm;
  • airway narrowing due to compression or contraction of muscle tissue surrounding them.

The main symptoms of the disease in adults specialists include:

  • severe shortness of breath;
  • the feeling that you are missing the air;
  • very frequent cough, especially "gaining momentum" in the night;
  • during breathing person may make characteristic sounds like a whistle.

Unlike adults, children have asthma symptoms can appear and disappear, while boys and girls over 20 years old they are present on a regular basis and last for quite some time. Therefore, in such cases, daily use of special medicines is becoming a necessity, and allows you to control the disease.

Lung capacity of an adult, that is, the amount of air inhaled and exhaled them for one second, gradually decreases with age. It is directly linked to changes in the muscle tissue, and lack of flexibility of the chest. Due to the reduction of the above indicators to determine the onset of the disease in an adult is hard enough.

K-risk predisposition to asthma include:

  • Women in the body which at present are hormonal changes - this could be, for example, pregnancy, or menopause;
  • ladies taking estrogen for more than ten years;
  • people who have recently had any viral illness (flu, sore throat, colds, etc.);
  • predisposed to obesity;
  • men and women with allergies (to risk specialists is particularly true of those who are allergic to cat fur);
  • people who, because of household or work-related conditions are forced to reside in an environment such irritants like tobacco smoke, feathers, dust, odor of paint or a strong perfume and eau de toilette.

 asthma symptoms

Diagnosis of asthma

Of course, none of us is immune from this or that disease, but scientists have isolated the main categories of persons subject to the emergence of asthma more than others:

  • those who have observed genetic predisposition;
  • there are different forms of allergy;
  • people who live with smokers or ex officio forced to reside in a smoky room;
  • those who live in an industrial area.

Today, even in our developed world so far there are no precise histological, physiological or immunological test for the detection of bronchial asthma. Often, the doctor makes a diagnosis based on the presence of model symptoms (hypersensitivity, difficulty breathing, and so on), or response to therapy after a certain period of time (full or partial recovery).

So let's take a closer look at what characteristics drew the attention of a specialist before a diagnosis:

  • The first studied the history of the disease, is heard breathing, identifies the main symptoms (frequent cough, shortness of breath, feeling of tightness in the chest, wheezing, etc.).
  • A study of lung function. It uses a special device called a spirometer. It measures the amount and speed of exhaled after a deep breath of air. After conducting the survey doctor may recommend a bronchodilator or a bronchodilator - medications to help clear the lungs of excess mucus, as well as expanding the airways by relaxing muscles, which compresses them.
  • Sometimes, if the survey using a spirometer not give accurate results, carried out another test. It is as follows: The patient inhales the aerosol via a special substance (methacholine) which causes asthma patient airway constriction and spasm. If after the completion of this procedure, light efficiency is reduced more than 20%, the test results are considered positive, i.e. confirmed the presence of asthma. To neutralize the effect of methacholine, you must use the bronchodilator.
  • Identify asthma can use the chest X-ray. After seeing the light, a specialist with more precision determine what diseases are your symptoms. Despite the fact that today this method of diagnosis has become widespread, though documented cases when a patient with asthma X-ray results were completely normal.

Keep in mind that symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath, fatigue, common among people of retirement age, may be wrongly attributed to COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), heart failure, or to the aging process. Therefore, before the diagnosis of asthma is always recommended bronchoconstrictors, causing narrowing of the airways.

Classification of asthma

Depending on the frequency of manifestation of certain symptoms, spirometry results and other objective indicators, asthma is divided into four categories:

  1. Easy intermittent form of the disease characterized by too frequent exacerbations of symptoms - no more than twice a week, at night - no more than twice a month. Besides asthma attacks last from one to several days.
  2. In mild form of constant aggravation occurs more than three times a week but not every day. This lung function test results - more than 80%.
  3. In moderate persistent asthma observed daily exacerbation of symptoms, a decrease in lung function (is 60-80%).
  4. The most serious form of the disease - severe persistent asthma. In this case, a person every minute (and at night and in the daytime) suffers from occurrence of coughing, wheezing, asthma attacks. The body is weakened, there is fatigue, physical activity is very limited, lung function is less than 60%.

Category asthma determined by a physician, after which the patient is assigned to an appropriate treatment regimen. Note, however, that each person the disease one or another category can be manifested in different ways.

 asthma symptoms

Methods of treatment of bronchial asthma

To date, some of the most effective treatment for this disease in adults does not exist. But to live a full life, to prevent the development of chronic symptoms, are in good condition and stop the constant calls an ambulance, a complex of measures to reduce the symptoms of asthma and prevent its further development. In this process, the main role is played by the correct reception of the patient assigned him drugs, as well as the avoidance of contact with external stimuli that cause seizures.

Today, for the prophylaxis and treatment of asthma are two main types of medications: anti-inflammatory agents and bronchodilators. First used in most cases aimed at reducing inflammation and reduction of mucus, which is formed in the human airway. In order to achieve good results and reduce the occurrence of symptoms, such drugs must be taken daily during the specified time. These drugs reduce the severity of attacks, are beneficial to the passage of oxygen on the respiratory tract, reduces sensitivity and damage, and therefore the symptoms are less and less. Thus, following the doctor's recommendations and taking anti-inflammatory drugs prescribed to them, it is possible not only to control the course of the disease, but also to prevent its further development.

The second type of medicines that are used to control asthma include bronchodilators, help to relax the compressive airway muscle tissue. These means instant action immediately after their application normalize breathing, providing oxygen to freely enter the human body. In addition, they allow you to clear the airways of mucus, which is due to them easily expectorated.

There are also short-acting drugs aimed at alleviating and eliminating the symptoms of the disease manifest themselves in the form of a sudden attack. Also used are bronchodilators that can be used not only for control of asthma, but also to prevent recurrence of symptoms in the future. They belong to the category of long-acting.

The patient can be treated in two ways: by inhalation drugs (atomizer, metered dry powder inhaler yl) and / or by use of oral agents (e.g., tablets and liquid syrups). Many of these medicines are not compatible with each other, so before you take them, you should always consult a doctor.

In addition, the most effective treatment to date is also considered the definition of the initiating factors - it may be a smoke or pet hair, possibly an aspirin - and limiting contact with them. If avoidance of irritants, and helps, conducted medical treatment

Remember that asthma symptoms will be able to correctly identify only qualified via a series of surveys. Based on the medical history and the severity of symptoms, will be made a special mode - the program of treatment of bronchial asthma.