causes of incontinence in children


  • What should parents do if a child wets the bed more often than every 3 weeks
  • What not to do

Urinary incontinence (enuresis) - a problem with which the deal about 80% of parents of preschool children and 10% of the parents of those children who have attained the age of 7-10.

Views of pediatricians in this regard agree on one thing: incontinence in children 5-6 years old - is not a disease, but the result of an immature work of the brain that is responsible for "inclusion" function of bladder control. It has been observed that children often wet the bed in 3-5 hours in the morning, because at this time of the human sleep is deepest. If a child wets at night, it is simply not aware of the processes that occur in his body, and up to 6 years of talking about the problems of a physiological nature is not necessary.

97% of all cases of urinary incontinence in children of preschool age have taken on a strictly psychological reasons.

Only 3% of the children can not delay the urine of organic causes (inflammation of the sphincter, etc.). This means that parents need to pay attention to the psychological atmosphere in the family, find out whether the little man is experiencing stress among peers, not any lurking inside him jealous (for example, due to the emergence of new family members).

 doctor visit
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What should parents do if a child wets the bed more often than every 3 weeks

  1. Do not drink before going to bed. If the baby will drink tea 3 hours before bedtime - this will be the normal time to bedtime to go to the bathroom and stay dry at night.
  2. If doshkolenok night worrying about urinary incontinence, then support him, explain what mom and dad, being his age, too, is sometimes described.
  3. Tell me, what in the world there are many people who are experiencing bedwetting.
  4. Ask your toddler to hold urine in the daytime. If you can tolerate a little man, the night incontinence - the result of inner feelings.
  5. If a child complains of pain, burning sensation when urinating - show it to the pediatrician - he will tell you what to do if bedwetting not only cause trouble.
  6. Talk to a kindergarten teacher that your child needs a special approach in the organization of daytime sleep. Mentor in any case should not publicize the problem of urinary incontinence the other guys, obscure mattress oilcloth for other pupils. If the actions of the teacher will be an additional stress point - feel free to go to the manager, complain to the district education department.

 Do not give your child plenty of fluids before bedtime

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What not to do

  1. In no case can not be shamed child. Children who are worried about incontinence, experiencing enormous stress, and if also the closest people are they blame and shame for what they can not control, you guys can even fall into a deep depression and for many years to lose confidence in their native language.
  2. No need to share experiences about bedwetting with friends in the presence of children themselves experiencing such a problem - it is very hurt them and cause worry. Speak Better problem enuresis where children will not hear your conversation.
  3. Do not talk about the problem of urinary incontinence in the presence of other children who may tease the child then, and mocked him.
  4. Do not delay visit to the doctor if you have something disturbing behavior, mood and well-being of your children.

Remember! Urinary incontinence - is often a psychological aspect, which is plagued by both children and parents. Only love, mutual trust and good relations can solve the situation with the "Night puddles." If you will support the children in their quest to wake up dry, then for your common endeavor, you will surely achieve this goal!

 What to do with urinary incontinence in children

 causes of whooping cough


  • Whooping cough: symptoms of the disease each period
  • Complications of pertussis
  • Treatment for whooping cough in children
  • Preventive measures

Whooping cough - an acute infectious disease, with severe attacks of spasmodic cough.

If this disease is very important to determine the exact diagnosis. Diagnosing pertussis from the first day of the disease is almost impossible, and children are usually long treated for bronchitis, tracheitis and SARS.

The source of the infection is the only man - the children who become ill with atypical and typical forms of pertussis, and healthy bacillicarriers. The most dangerous are patients in the early stages of the disease.

The infection is only transmitted by airborne droplets. In susceptible people in contact with patients developing the disease at a frequency of up to 90%. More often ill children of preschool age. More than half of cases in young children is due to the lack of maternal immunity and lack of transplacental transfer of specific antibodies. In addition, there was some increase in the incidence in autumn and winter.

Pertussis coli got into the body by airborne droplets, is attached to the walls of the airways, causing the first light there inflammation (runny nose, red and sore throat, slight cough). But the basic and more severe symptoms of pertussis occur only after 10-14 days, when bacteria are released into the lumen of the bronchi and the blood of a large number of its toxin. This leads to irritation, not only the airway mucosa, but also of the central nervous system. That is why children who become ill with pertussis become very cranky, sleep poorly, have disturbed appetite.

 Symptoms of whooping cough
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Whooping cough: symptoms of the disease each period

The period from the date of entry into the body of infection before the onset of symptoms (incubation period) can be from 6 to 20 days, but is usually 7 days. The disease usually occurs within 6-8 weeks.

There are the following periods of the disease: catarrhal period, paroxysmal (or spastic) during the period of the return (or permits) and the period of recovery.

Catarrhal period

Usually it lasts 1-2 weeks. It occurs in different ways and does not have any specific features. The symptoms of this period are: a weak cough, runny nose and a slight fever. The child may experience heavy viscous nasal mucous character. The body temperature can rise or slightly or remain normal, but in severe cases may rise to 38-39ºS.

From the severity of the disease it depends also on the severity of intoxication - from minor ailments, irritability, anxiety and loss of appetite to a significant breach of the general health of the patient. During this period, the main symptom is cough pertussis. The cough is dry and when receiving symptomatic treatment is not reduced, the evening is enhanced and acquires the character attacks.

Catarrhal period in mild cases lasts 11-14 days, and in the most severe course - up to 8 days.

 medical examination

Paroxysmal (spasmodic) period

Cough worse and becomes more frequent. A characteristic feature of this period is the emergence of a series of repeated shocks 5-10 cough during one exhalation, followed by a sudden and intense breath, which is accompanied by a whistling sound. There are other features of this period: the baby's face reddens or becomes cyanotic, the tongue hangs down, his eyes are rolled out, there salivation, swollen veins in the neck.

Some children during attacks occurs involuntary eruption of urine and feces, can be observed cramps and fainting. Ends attack release of large amounts of thick, sticky mucus, sometimes with vomiting. Severe bouts of coughing can continue for as long as the child does not stand out the viscous mucus that violates the airway. Vomiting in this case refers to the typical signs of the disease.

At this stage of the disease the combination of coughing with vomiting is so characteristic that pertussis is necessary to suspect in these cases is always, even if there is no whistling breath after coughing. Cough is very exhausting child, he becomes frightened and wary. The cough can cause sneezing, swallowing, exercise, offer a drink or food, as well as the harsh light, strong sudden noise, excitement or fear the child. In between fits of coughing children do not give the impression of seriously ill and feel quite well. They can play safely, interested in others.

All children feel an attack coming on cough: seniors complain of chest scrapes, sore throat, lower start to cry, lose interest in toys, running to his mother, become restless.

Number of coughing depends on the severity of the disease. Thus, in mild pertussis number of seizures is 8-10 times a day, with no vomiting. The general health of the child with the good.

When the number of whooping cough moderately severe attacks of coughing up to 15 times a day, they are usually accompanied by vomiting. Between bouts of child well-being is improved, but not completely normal: the child refuses to eat, remains sluggish, trouble sleeping, become moody. The face becomes puffy, swollen eyelids, appear hemorrhages on the conjunctiva.

When the number of whooping cough severe coughing spells may exceed 20-25 times a day. Develops oxygen deficiency, the skin becomes pale, appears bluish tint nasolabial triangle. You may see anguish and ulcer on the tongue-tie due to the stress and trauma of the lower incisors. In very severe cases can cause stroke, loss of consciousness, convulsions, respiratory rate, which usually take place during the recovery period.

In the absence of timely treatment of spasmodic period lasts from 2 to 8 weeks or even more. By the end of this period the amount of coughing is reduced, they become softer, and the disease goes into the next period.

Period of return (resolution) and recovery

Lasts 2 to 4 weeks. Coughing fits become rare, without vomiting. The child brings them much easier, it improves overall health and condition.

The recovery period can last from 2 to 6 months. At that time still retained a weakness, irritability, anxiety, children's susceptibility to other infections. When the disease other respiratory infections, such as SARS, cough can be resumed.

 Complications of pertussis
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Complications of pertussis

In young children, pertussis occurs much harder than in older children. The incubation period is reduced, and lasts less catarrhal and convulsive becomes longer. Whooping cough, in many cases there is no, but there are anxiety attacks, crying, sneezing. The child may pose the fetus.

Often there are delays of breath, which can last from 30 seconds to 2 minutes, or even stop breathing. They can occur outside the attack, during the attack, and even in his sleep. In very young children instead of vomiting may be regurgitation.

Very frequent complications of pertussis in young children are a cerebrovascular accident with paralysis, psychomotor development disorders, bronchitis.

The most common complication of pertussis is pneumonia, which is caused by pertussis stick or secondary bacterial infection. 90% of deaths among children under 3 years due to pneumonia is. There may come and worsening tuberculosis. Other complications of pertussis can be acute laryngitis with stenosis of the larynx, bronchiolitis, encephalopathy, rupture of the diaphragm, inguinal or umbilical hernia, prolapse of the rectum. In adults, complications are rare.

Vaccinated children the disease is only mild, without complications and consequences, most often in the erased (SARS) form.

 treatment of whooping cough in children
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Treatment for whooping cough in children

Children with moderate to severe disease should be treated only in a hospital.

It is important to respect the content and nutrition of sick children. It should remove all external stimuli, to ensure the child a calm environment, to enable him to engage in quiet play. The room was a sick child should be frequently and well ventilated, install it in a humidifier. Or at least to place containers with water, hang wet towels.

If a child has a normal body temperature, then it is possible to walk, but be sure to avoid contact with other children. In the summer you can walk at any time, in the winter - with no wind and an air temperature not lower than 12 ° C.

Power of the child shall be a full, fractional and gentle on the preparation. Infants important to keep breast feeding, increasing the number of feedings and reduce the one-time amount of milk. The same should be done and when artificial feeding. Child after vomiting need to finish feeding. During the illness need to provide the child plenty of fluids. In addition, the food cold food should be deleted, as it provokes coughing, irritating the back of the throat.

Treatment at the initial stage of pertussis is the use of antibiotics, since at this stage they still can suppress the development of the pathogen, and may occur even a complete cure without a transition to the next stage of the disease. If the next stage already occurred and there was spasmodic cough, antibiotics will not be able to effectively influence the pertussis wand. That is why antibiotics are not administered in the second period of the disease.

Treatment pertussis fresh air and the use of antibiotics is not limited. There are many drugs that help when you cough, but because they have no one that can greatly facilitate the course of the disease. Selection of a particular drug in the treatment of whooping cough - it is the doctor.

Please be aware that if the medication prescribed by the doctor does not help in terms of the parents of a sick child, it does not mean it inappropriate reception. Most expectorants phlegm. Coughing baby, maybe less will not, but the likelihood of complications of the disease significantly reduced, since it is a thick, viscous mucus violates the patency of the bronchi, causing the development of inflammation of the lungs.

Pertussis toxin and cause sensitization of the whole body of the child, so the treatment can be used allergy medications. Your doctor may prescribe antihistamines and calcium supplements, which also have anti-allergic effect.

To liquefy thick mucus can be assigned to the inhalation of proteolytic enzymes, but only for children from 3 years.

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Preventive measures

The most reliable preventive measure is the creation of pertussis immunity by vaccination. Vaccination calendar for compulsory vaccinations of DTP vaccine. Vaccinations begin to make children with age of three months, along with diphtheria and tetanus. Moved vaccine is quite difficult, the child experiences after vaccination fever, malaise, loss of appetite. Vaccinated children also suffer from whooping cough, but it is much easier, so the diagnosis of whooping cough is put in the tens of times less than the disease actually occurs.

Whooping cough isolated for 25 days. Children in contact with pertussis patients, especially in the first year and up to 2 years old unvaccinated introduced donor normal immunoglobulin. The child care center during registration on children sick with whooping cough imposed quarantine for 14 days after the isolation of the patient.

The doctor must attend a sick child at home 1-2 times per week for suspected whooping cough, and when confirmation - depending on the patient's condition. In every case of the disease reported in child care, the child is attending, and SES. Children under 7 are in contact with the sick, and children under one year of coming into contact with sick RELEASE 14 days of isolation. If the patient is not isolated, then the duration of the quarantine is increased to 25 days from the occurrence of the first signs of the disease ill.

Children older than 7 years (whooping cough) and children older than 1 year (when parakoklyushe), adults can not be divisive, but for them to be installed under medical surveillance for 14 days and if they continue to deal with an infected person, the observation can last more longer.

Feature pertussis - the complete absence of innate immunity to it, so sick of this disease can even newborns. But after the treatment produced a very strong immunity that persists throughout life.

Thus, whooping cough - a rather dangerous infectious diseases that can get sick every person. And if the above symptoms appear, treatment should begin as soon as possible. But do not self-medicate. If you suspect pertussis should immediately consult a doctor, who, after laboratory tests can confirm the diagnosis and or eliminate pertussis. Symptoms characteristic of whooping cough can be a symptom of other diseases.

Therefore, only a doctor can make a correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment. In time prescribed treatment can prevent the development of various complications that often arise in whooping cough. And, of course, do not forget about preventive measures in time to make children vaccinated.

 Symptoms of whooping cough, depending on the period of the disease