After a hot day is always nice to relax in the shade of the pond. But what about the owners of gardens, close to the natural water bodies which do not? There is a way, and quite obvious - to create a pond in the country with their own hands. To do this, of course, you will need to make some effort to spend time and money, but the result is worth it, because the mini-pond will delight you and then for many years.
Select the shape of the reservoir
The form of decorative ponds should overlap with the overall composition of the landscape area. If the layout of the site of many curved shapes smooth outlines, then the pond should have a free form - oval or teardrop, with a rough coast line, which can be designed with decorative stones, pebbles or plants. If on the contrary, the whole organization of the site is subject to a strict decision with regular geometric shape, and the body of water should be square or rectangular.
Create a pond of small size of the power of each, you just buy a relatively inexpensive plastic cup. For the construction of the reservoir larger size will require much more effort and the process of its creation will include a larger number of stages. Post will need to dig a big pit, removal of soil from the site, then it will require concreting bottom and walls. It is best to trust the process to professionals in this business, that is landscape firms with experience in similar works.
Choosing a place for the reservoir
How to build a pond in the country where he must find a place among the fruit trees, flower beds and vegetable beds? When deciding where to position the pond should be guided by a few very important rules. Firstly, next to the pond should be trees, as their roots can eventually cause damage to the pond bottom thereof and waterproofing. Therefore, the distance from the pond to a nearby tree, should be equal to the height of its stem. If some of the trees, then be guided by the length of the barrel of the highest of them.
Secondly, it is necessary to take into account such factors as the location relative to the sun. The ideal would be the place that lit the summer sun in the morning until about half of the 11 th, and from 11 to 15 hours is in partial shade. This is important because the midday heat affects the quality of water. An important point is also free access to the pond around its perimeter - so you will be easier to take care of the pond. To do this, you can build around a track or path.
Mini-pools and ponds may build on level ground and at a fairly steep terrain, with a reservoir built into the base of the terrace. It is possible to arrange effective cascade of several reservoirs so that the water flows smoothly from one to another.
Determine the size of the reservoir
It would seem that the pond in the country with their own hands to do is very simple. Some are tempted by the possibility of using the old conventional bath or finished cup store-bought. However, the construction of reservoirs area of less than 3, 5 sq.m. and a depth of less than 80 cm is not considered appropriate, since the water is warming up very quickly, resulting in algal blooms. But due to lack of oxygen to the water begins to rot and give off an unpleasant odor. This can be avoided if the device deeper bowl or pond protection from overheating by shading the plants or the construction of a pergola on the south side of it.
Unfortunately, just to avoid the care of the small size of the pond is unlikely. This is necessary to periodically clean the pond, only then will he be able to function normally. Life in a small pond should be maintained by filtering the water by artificial means.
Live as full and independent ecosystems, requires no special care and interfering with their ability to live, can only ponds larger than 100 sq.m. But because of their enormous size, such ponds rarely are used in relatively small plots of land.
Another significant problem of a small pond in the garden is the water freezing in the winter, resulting in the death of the inhabitants of the pond. To avoid this, you must provide sufficient depth and in the winter to compensate for the missing oxygen necessary to arrange a small hole in it. In winter you need to move plants and fish from the pond into a warm room.
We select plants for the pond
Pond and its coastline is often planted ornamental plants to give it a more natural look. Plants used for this purpose, are divided into three groups:
Coastal, which grow along the shore in shallow water (reeds, marsh marigold, arrowhead, calla);
Water, which grow under water (algae);
plants that float on the surface of the water (lily, duckweed, lily).
Riparian and aquatic plants are used to improve water quality and reduce it contains nutrients, a large number of which can lead to algae. For planting aquatic plants using special baskets, consisting of small cells. They are filled with a nutrient mixture, and are installed in the pond, so the containers do not float to the surface of the water and are easily dismantled in winter.
Creating a pond with his hands
How to make a pond in the country on their own? Be prepared for the fact that the construction of the pond on the site require you to considerable financial costs and considerable physical effort. The preparation process includes geological surveys to determine the type of soil and the groundwater level. Drainage is arranged in the case, if it exceeds the level of 2 m. This is accomplished by placing the bottom of trench drains, by means of which removed excess water that was formed during the rains.
At the beginning of the creation of the reservoir must be selected or even specifically to release a place for him in the garden. Then you need to mark the outlines on the ground, which you can use a long rope. After that you need to dig in a certain depth contours pit with sloping walls. To maintain a constant level in the pond water at its bottom and side walls laid waterproofing materials. For these purposes, it is more expedient to use PVC - tape or special polyethylene.
Once you have managed to dig a pit, you can begin the process of leveling and compaction of its bottom and sides. It is necessary that the angle of the walls relative to the bottom was not steeper than 45 degrees. After that you need to put at the bottom of the pit of wet sand layer thickness of about 10 cm, lay on top of the protective pad and the film so that the edges of the contours of the pond were 30-50 cm. The film on the bottom you need to pin down the stone and formed around folds neatly spread .
Then, slowly filling with water pit, wherein the film is stretched, adhering to the walls and bottom. After complete filling the bowl with water, the excess part of the film is uniformly distributed in the folds along the entire coast. Those edges of the material that has been previously folded, trimmed with a margin of 20-30 cm and fixed pins of metal in several places. The pond at the edge decorated with tile or stone and turf layers. In some cases, the use of waterproofing material mats of glass fibers in three layers. They must be positioned in such a way that each successive layer slightly overlaps the previous.
More capital, but also more expensive and energy-consuming is the reservoir of reinforced concrete bowl. They are usually made for ponds sufficiently large dimensions as regular geometric shapes. The bottom wall of the pit and covered with a layer of tar paper, which then is used as a waterproofing. Along the edges of the pond edge roofing need to bend and press the stones. Then you need to put successive layers of gravel and sand. Thereafter, the sand mixture is laid on top of the concrete, and it is placed on a metal grid. After hardening of concrete laid out the start of the next layer.
To pond please you for a long time for its beautiful appearance, it is necessary to periodically clean the contaminated water. This can be done mechanically, using a net ordinary or a special device - a skimmer, is mounted directly on the pond.
To clean the walls of the pond and the bottom of the build-up of algae and sludge will have to purchase "underwater vacuum cleaner" that has the ability to suck the dirty water and algae, and return the already purified water. Cleansing water is also produced by means of mechanical filters provided with pumps.
In order to restore the level of acidity, and the normalization of control growth of algae using various biological products that are completely harmless to fish, plants and humans. Water can also be purified with ultraviolet radiation destroy viruses and bacteria in the water.
The purification process of the reservoir is usually carried out in several stages and in different ways, as the use of only one of them is almost ineffective. For example destroyed using UV algae are removed from the water by mechanical means.
Landscape design of the pond in the garden of hard to imagine without decoration of any body of water - the fountain, creating a special mood and making your splash in the perception of the dynamics of the surface water body as a whole. In addition, the fountain is able to increase the amount of oxygen in the water and thus improve the ecological conditions for plant growth and activity of the inhabitants of the pond.
Fountains, available on the market and intended for installation in ponds, equipped with a pump, which is designed for continuous long-term operation. With a huge variety of attachments, you can set the direction and even the shape of the water flow. By varying the pressure, you can achieve a height adjustment range and the jet.
By the way, a fountain will be a great alternative to a decorative pond on a very small area or in the shady garden. As we have said, to create a full pond of small size is very problematic. It is the small size of the water body does not allow to form a closed ecosystem, so such ponds very quickly turn into the best in the swamp, and at worst - in the foul-smelling muddy puddles.
The fountain, the bowl is not filled with water plants, and not the bottom is lined with soil, water remains clean all the time. For the device, you can dig a small fountain pit and put it with decorative stone. And you can use ready-made bowls, which also dig in the ground or mounted on its surface. And decorate a body of water can be artificial plants or sculptures, and near the fountain is always possible to plant beautiful flowers.
To decorate the fountain (and pond too!) You can use a special landscape lighting, and then it will please you and at night. Lighting used for ponds, can be floating and underwater, and they can be installed either permanently or in the floating lamp at different depths. For the diffusion of light, they are equipped with reflectors, and the materials from which they are produced, resistant to temperature changes and to precipitation.
In short, build a fountain, dug a pond in the country with their own hands or hire professionals to do - it's you. It is important to remember that once dug and planted the plants pond requires you to constant attention and care.
If you are ready not only to the construction of the pond, but also to the further care of it, then choose a place to create projects, procuring the necessary materials and proceed. Pond at the site with his own hands to make difficult, but it is possible! As they say, there is a will, there will be a possibility. Good luck!