Have you ever been in a greenhouse, where melon grows? An unforgettable impression! It's just a magical forest and the fairy kingdom, or both together. Of course, we're talking about the moment when the melon is already started to pace himself. Imagine this: a lot of light, lace green vines hung from the ceiling and golden lanterns. And what is the flavor! No, I imagine it is very difficult. It need only see and smell ... And! Because the smell of melons, so that even a pity to eat them.
But, of course, to create such a fabulous splendor only with his own hands in the own garden. And then enjoy the fruits of their labor in the literal and figurative sense. Thus, the cultivation of melons in the greenhouse - it's just a journey into a fairy tale. Go?
Let's start with the most that neither is prosaic: learn a little bit about this garden crops. In general, melons - melon plants. Their next of kin - cucumbers, squash, pumpkins and squash. The family of plants, which include melon, and is called Pumpkin, and the genus is called Gherkin, and of the official botanical name Melon - Cucumis melo.
And what is the fruit of the melon, you know? It is called the melon fruit, and can be round or oblong yellow, green, orange, brown and even white color. Known melon with a very long time (even in the Bible), and civilize it in Northern India. Although people grew and ate melon even several centuries before our era, in the Russian lands of the Lower Volga she settled only in the fifteenth century.
But five hundred years of years of history - it is also something so mean. By the way, the hot South Russian cantaloupe melons quickly moved to cooler regions, and in greenhouses it started to grow already in the seventeenth century. The first greenhouses melons have appeared in the Moscow Izmailovo under Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich. So Russian history melon cultivation in the open ground is not much older than the history of its cultivation in greenhouses. And I must say, it is not too difficult exercise, as it may seem at first glance. Although, of course, to grow a good crop is only possible with good care.
Choosing and preparing the greenhouse
For melons fit any greenhouse in which to grow cucumbers. And if you have such an experience, the issue with the selection at greenhouse should arise. If you are just starting to equip their greenhouse farming, keep in mind that the melon can be grown in heated and cold greenhouse. Greenhouse must necessarily be ventilated and film it, or glass - it does not matter. The decisive factor is the choice of the greenhouse height. Melon - a vine, and she needs a vertical greenhouse space.
For the cultivation of melons in the greenhouse is prepared steam beds (elevated or depth) with a thickness of biofuels least twenty-five centimeters. For equipment such ridges on the ground poured a layer of biofuel (manure, weed weeds or grass clippings), and when it is well warmed up, the top layer of soil poured pyatnadtsatisantimetrovy. By the way, although melon and cucumber - the next of kin (close just does not happen), put them in a greenhouse, you can not. With close proximity to the plants pereopylilis and lose their natural taste, and cantaloupe and all can become inedible.
For growing seedlings need pots with a diameter of eight centimeters and a conventional primer for vegetable crops. For planting selected largest seeds and their first soaked in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for half an hour, and then in a one percent solution of baking soda for twelve hours. Thereafter, the seeds were germinated and planted one seed into the pot.
In order to successfully grow seedlings should be maintained at not less than sixteen degrees and shoots provide good lighting. After the appearance of the third or fifth leaf seedlings pinch, causing branches. Watering germs need a moderate, where the water does not fall on the stems and leaves. Mineral feeding is required twice (for the entire period of seedling). If it becomes necessary, the seedlings are transplanted to larger pots as they grow, and by pulling the whip substitute support. Samu planting seeds is carried out at the beginning or in the middle of April.
In greenhouses transplanted sufficiently grown plants became strong and planting them in the holes spaced forty-five centimeters from each other. Plants are planted directly with a lump of land, in any case, not buried him, and then well watered with warm water and pour on the sides of dry ground. The first five to seven days after planting the plants are not watered, do not loosen and no spud, but only aired greenhouse.
A week later, spend watering warm water and fertilizer nitrogen fertilizers. At the same time, plants tie to the supports in the form of bars or tension grids. Tied up and left to grow only the main stem and an ode or two side whip, the other side shoots pluck.
Since the first flowers begin to feed melon universal liquid fertilizer. Fertilizing is carried out once a week, and after the first of the ovaries - twice a week. As soon begin to form the first fruits, melon fertilize fertilizer for tomatoes (also liquid and also twice a week). The tops of side shoots pinch out two sheets after the fruit and do not leave on the same bush for more than six fetuses.
Pour melon only when necessary. Remember that this is a drought-resistant plant that react very badly to waterlogging. A moisture on the leaves and stems in general can cause fungal diseases. Therefore, water plants in the furrow, have done next to the hole.
To ensure receipt of the melon crop needed to pollinate artificially. To do this, operate bee and, armed with a brush, collect pollen from flowers and walk around several of the brush on all other colors.
And now comes the most pleasant and the most fabulous time. Melons ripen begin breathtakingly smell spreading across the specific greenhouse melon flavor. Usually melons ripen in late summer. But there is more early varieties, and there are late-ripening melons. It is the latter left in storage, removing still immature. Store melons in wooden crates or in limbo at a temperature of about zero degrees. However, only suitable for storing fruits undamaged without dents and cracks.
Maturity melon determined, and the smell, and color. But the surest way to determine the degree of ripeness of a melon - probing. If you gently press on the base of the fruit have ripened melon is a little selling. Basically melon eaten fresh, but they also prepare salads, cook jam and candied fruits. Store fresh fruits in the refrigerator (separate from other products). Incidentally, it is chilled melon are the most delicious.
Treat yourself and loved ones personally grown fragrant melons! Even if you live in unfavorable conditions for growing melons, greenhouse and proper care will provide you with a fabulous harvest of southern plants. I wish you success and a good harvest!
We recommend that read: Melons: Growing
Optimal growing conditions
The basic rules of cultivation
Growing in open ground in unusual conditions
Cultivation in the greenhouse
Growing watermelons and cantaloupes - employment troublesome and simple at the same time. This melons and melon smashed centuries in the southern arid areas. Therefore, for the middle band and the other (not southern) regions of Russia melons are peculiar exoticism. However, the ability to grow non-traditional for a particular zone or vegetable garden plants has always been considered an indicator of a particular skill. That's gardeners are trying to hone this skill, landing on their various areas of exotics.
Melons and watermelons are ideally suited for such experiments. This annual crops, which are not afraid of the harsh winter, and grow them, in general, quite easily. Let's look at the basic rules for growing watermelons and cantaloupes, and learn characteristics of farming of these crops in unusual conditions for them.
Optimal growing conditions
Why in the southern regions of these crops grow without any problems? The fact is, melons plant - thermal and light-loving culture. For germination of seeds requires a temperature not lower than seventeen degrees, and is considered the most suitable temperature of from twenty five to thirty five degrees. Optimum temperature for growth - from twenty-seven to thirty degrees during the day and not less than eighteen degrees at night.
In addition, the melon plant drought-resistant and do not respond well to high humidity, which causes the development of fungal diseases. The optimum humidity for the successful growth of these crops should not be higher than seventy percent. It is these conditions could not be better corresponds to the climate of the Lower Volga region and bottom (Astrakhan, Volgograd, Rostov region), where melons and watermelons are grown without any problems. However, just to sow the seeds in the ground and safely forget about them - is not a method of farming. These crops require care.
The basic rules of cultivation
Two - three-year seeds are sown in open ground as soon as the set the appropriate weather. For a better yield can be pre-germinate the seeds, soak for a day and rejected "Dummy." The site, designed for growing watermelons and cantaloupes, be sure to dig, and plowing should be deep. Sow these cultures hill method: five or six seeds in wells located at a distance of one and a half to two meters for watermelons and one to one and a half meters for melons. Watermelon seeds buried in the soil for five to six centimeters, the depth of planting melon seeds - three or four centimeters.
Seeds germinate in about eight days, after which they thin out, leaving one or two strong germ. Once the seedlings appear in the second pair of true leaves, spend the first hoeing between rows and hilling plants. The second hoeing and earthing up should be done before starting to travel along the stems. At the same time, and you need to weed crops.
Important! Weeding, hoeing and earthing up should be carried out only after drying the dew.
Watering melons and watermelons can only be made before ripening, and only when absolutely necessary. Watering the plants are not at the root, and not on the sheet, and in the furrows dug between the rows. Absolutely contraindicated these cultures soil moisture. Firstly, the plants themselves react poorly to it, and secondly, it promotes anthracnose (fungal disease).
Growing in open ground in unusual conditions
In central Russia, too, melons can be grown in open ground. True, it is necessary to choose the early- and middle-class. Recommended varieties (F1) watermelons: Podmoskovny Charleston, Gift North, Krimstar, pink champagne. Of all the varieties of melons is better to opt for a grade of Cinderella, which gives a fairly sweet fruit, but less capricious.
In unusual circumstances melons are grown seedling method, and a film under the temporary shelter. Seeds (two pieces) sown in pots with a diameter not less than ten centimeters. Before sowing the seeds are soaked, and for them to provide friendly shoots at not less than twenty-seven degrees. Planting seedlings is carried out at about the middle of April, so the more it does not need backlighting. The seedling period melons twice fed with chemical fertilizers and watch, that sprouts in the neighboring pots do not touch the leaves.
Planted plants in the open ground until mid-May, when the shoots will give three to five true leaves. A week before transplanting hardened, gradually reducing the temperature and ventilation spending. And another important point: the need to melon seedlings prischipnut on the third or fifth leaf.
After transplanting the plants covered with a film tent and do not remove cover until about the middle of June. Tidy up the film can only be for the purpose of ventilation and only in the daytime. After the film is completely removed, weed crops and loosen and lash evenly distributed on a bed. After the first three (but no more) all the other fruits of the ovaries are removed, and the top lashes pinch. In a humid climate under the formed fruits enclose boards, and the plants themselves in the rain sheltering, protecting them from excess moisture.
Cultivation in the greenhouse
For greenhouse cultivation of melons and watermelons can use any sufficiently large greenhouse. Seedlings are grown as well as for open ground, and planted it in a greenhouse, with its wells at a distance of half a meter, and the ranks of the wells making seventy centimeters. Planting seedlings in each well are making about half a kilogram of humus, watered with warm water, and the resulting thick slurry plants are planted. Then cover each well (the sides), dry ground that there was no crust.
Important! When landing in any case can not bury the seedlings. Clod of earth on the roots must protrude above the soil surface for one or two centimeters.
In the first week after planting seedlings in the greenhouse plants do not need any treatment. It is only necessary to ventilate the greenhouse in warm sunny weather, opening the vents or tucking the film. A week later, the plants watered with warm water and fed nitrogen fertilizer. With this tie up plants (like cucumbers).
Watermelons are grown in a stem, removing all sprouts without ovaries, and whip with fruit pinch out over three leaves after ovary. When the whip grow to the end of support, they can also pinch. In melon tie the main stem and one or two side shoots. For the cultivation of melons leave only the strongest "marginalia", the rest of the whip is removed without regret.
Prior to the beginning of fruit ripening in greenhouse conditions the plants watered only once a week in the furrow beside the hole and also conduct one or two more complex feeding. For ovary fruit melons must be pollinated. And if the greenhouse does not fly insects, it is necessary to carry out artificial pollination by transferring pollen from the male flowers to the female. By growing melons in the greenhouse, it is necessary not only to tie up the whip, but the fruits. When they reach the size of a large apple, they are placed in the mesh (available with a frame), and grid tie itself to the support.
These are the simple rules of cultivation of melons. So wrong climate gardeners not a hindrance. Melons can be grown easily on your own site, only armed with the necessary knowledge and observing certain rules. Have a good harvest!