Who among us has not dreamed of their own lemon tree? A perennial evergreen plant attracts and fascinates growers, despite the demanding care and waiting time of the first fruits. The lush spreading crown, fancy pearl flowers, fragrant and healthy fruits - all this does not leave you indifferent to the chance to stay at a choice of lemon citrus. In our country, the most common varieties such as "Pavlovsky", "Maikop", "Novogruzinsky." Also adapted for cultivation in the home grade "Genoa", "Lisbon," "Lunar". Choice grade is up to you, but here's what to look for when buying and how to care for a lemon at home, we will describe in this article.
The main recommendations in choosing a lemon tree
Homeland lemon are the warm, India, China, the Pacific tropical islands. Therefore, the plant is very, very fond of light, heat and humidity. Note which side of your windows are located, and according to the right to select suitable varieties of lemons. In most cases, even on the south side of the lemon tree requires additional lighting. But there are varieties that can be kept perfectly on the northern windows, and with a strong desire to grow a healthy plant can, of course, ensuring that artificial light and meticulous care.
Buying seedlings potted lemons, focuses on the roots: it is enough if they are developed in good faith whether the trunks grafted on seedlings of lemon. The roots of the tree in any case should not be dry, otherwise perish mycorrhiza (specific fungal attack on the roots). It is necessary that they were covered with dust or soil.
To distinguish the old from the young shoots can be color. Old leaves - dark green, thick and leathery, but young plants have light-green, they are gentle on the look and feel. The best option would be to purchase seedlings from this amateur lemon tree. He will share with you how to care and talk on the conditions of the plant: its lighting, temperature, composition of the soil. And if you can create with care as close to the required conditions, your tree will continue to develop well.
Buy ready-made copy of a store or a hand - the easiest way of buying. But to grow a lemon tree from seeds and cuttings - a fascinating and painstaking task. Sharing with time to grow into a mature tree, bloom and give the fruits of the parent class. Harder is the case with stones. At first he grow up to "wilding", it is recommended to instill a piece of stem needed fruit trees. Unvaccinated sapling, of course, also be able to bloom and even bear fruit, but there is no guarantee the quality of these lemons. Especially as the first fruits you can get only through 8-10 years. However, plants grown in this manner are stable and easier to adapt to changes in the environment - caring for them easier.
Conditions of detention
Like the rest of the culture of citrus, lemon better to develop a sufficiently bright ambient light. Direct sunlight is also harmful to the tree, as well as a lack of lighting. In case of intensive sun in spring and summer the plant should be pritenyat, otherwise likely sunburn. Keep in mind: the growth shoots favorably influences the long daylight hours, but the shortest day contributes to fruiting.
The important condition for the content of the lemon tree is to maintain the correct temperature. In the spring when the plant begins to grow vigorously and form buds should be particularly attentive to the temperature regime. The ideal would be for the development of flower buds in the temperature range of +14 ... +18 degrees. At higher rates of the ovary may dry out and crumble. Not bad will make home a lemon on the balcony or in the garden, but do not forget to take cover or tree with sharp temperature changes, which is characteristic of nature in spring. Being on the street, your plant is hardened and accustomed to the bright sunlight.
During the summer, the plant will feel comfortable and at room temperature, and the outdoors. But do not forget to shade the tree away from direct sunlight. With the onset of the autumn lemon desirable to bring into the room early. If it's already cool, the house warm tree can blossom and autumn is quite undesirable. The procedure for moving from the balcony of home, too, should be gradual, in a week or two.
For wintering lemon ensure the air temperature does not exceed 12-14 ° C with moderate humidity. Such conditions are the most comfort for the leaves and fruit in winter. Many plants die or cease to bear fruit due to improper temperature in winter. Do not forget to ventilate the room, but take care of plants from drafts.
In addition, watering a tree in winter, when it is already in a state of rest, and rarely need to very carefully. You can not pour the ground, otherwise the roots may rot and the plant dies. In the spring, with vigorous growth rate and increases the volume of irrigation; should begin to fertilize the soil. For the roots of the important factor is breathing, so you must periodically to loosen the top layer of soil. For irrigation use warm water.
Significant Conditions of the lemon tree - humidity. Improper humidity - one of the main causes of death of the plant. To create the necessary humidity as much as possible from an atomizer spray the tree, especially in the winter in a heated room. It is also possible to use a special tray with water. Another way - put a pot with lemon tree in the pan with a wet expanded clay or moss.
From time to time you need to replant the lemons. If you notice that the soil in the pot quickly began to dry out and get out of the lower opening of the roots - it is time for the transplantation of lemon. It would be best if repeating this spring before shoot growth. If the moment is missed, better leave the plant alone. Root stems are very thin and delicate, and adapt them to the new ground will be difficult, there is no need to repeat the procedure every year. Sloppy transplantation may lead to fall off the leaves and branches, so be careful not to damage the earth com.
An important prerequisite for the proper care of potted lemon is the selection of the pot. Any suitable opaque ceramic or earthenware container with a hole at the bottom. The new pot should always be 2-3 fingers more than the previous. It is important to keep track of repeated transplanting that the root collar was always immersed in the soil at the same level, and the base of the trunk should not be above the pot. It is also necessary to use a good drainage.
Ground for the young plants is made up of an equal number of humus, turf, leaf soil and compost. Lemon tree after transplantation it is necessary abundantly watered, but with supplementary feeding is to wait. Fertilize plants can be 2-3 weeks and only after the irrigation water. Top dressing of lemon 2-3 times per month in the first half of the summer fruits and sweets contributes significantly reduces the bitter taste. In winter, when artificial light is necessary to fertilize lemon 1 time per week. As a dressing use the mineral and organic fertilizers.
Since lemon - herb moody and often exposed to many vegetable ailments, knowledge in this matter you are simply necessary. Let us examine the possible causes of diseases of the indoor lemon.
Illiterate Plant Care
It seemingly healthy leaves may fall in for the following reasons: poor lighting in winter, the heat content, the use of cold water for irrigation, or vice versa marshy soil dehydrated.
Inadequate complementary feeding fertilizers
Note that if the old leaves covered with mottling and gradually turn yellow, then they lack nitrogen. If the leaves are dull, the ends have dried up rust-colored - is a lack of phosphorus. For a small amount of potassium indicate folds between the veins. But the need for iron, manganese or zinc expressed well-marked grid of dark veins on a light sheet. It can also be linked with acidification of the soil in the pot. Showered ovaries - insufficient content of manganese, boron. But if the dried ends of the leaves - it means you are overfed lemon.
The defeat of the small pests
Most affected Lemon scale insects, scale insects and mites.
On the leaves of lemon often appear below the round brown balls - this is the adult parasites, cling tightly to the leaf veins. They have a hard shell which is resistant to chemicals. In the case of small lesions scale insects must be removed with a cotton disk with soap and wipe the surface with alcohol. However, this does not relieve the plant from microscopic larvae. For a complete healing of lemon you need to use insecticides. Tree in an advanced stage to save is likely to fail, scale insects multiply quickly, and lemon gradually shrinks.
A similar pest, but is able to destroy the plant more quickly. Methods of dealing with the scale insects are the same as in the scale insects. To begin with recommended to clean leaves from mealybugs or scale insects, soapy water several times, then spray the affected plants with a solution of soap (4 g) and anabasine-sulphate (2g). The procedure must be repeated after a week.
In case of defeat lemon tree aphids or scale insects, you can use the infusion of garlic. Peeled garlic is necessary to grind and push in the water for 24 hours. Leaves of the plant or washed or sprayed from a spray with a soap solution.
Sometimes lemon can stick round and muravi.V this case you should sprinkle topsoil insecticide "DDT dust" and the barrel chalk whitewash.
Barely noticeable red spider. In the advanced stage of noticeable cobwebs. It affects mostly with lemon little humidity and high temperature. On leaves appear yellow, then brown spots. The main method of combating mites - spraying sulfur. With an excess of sulfur on the surface of moist soil can appear jumping pests - Padura. You can eliminate them from the Persian chamomile powder.
Not often, but there are earthworms in the soil. This occurs when the abundant irrigation and soil acidification. Change care: proryhlit primer for better air circulation and pour water with potassium permanganate. After the worms crawl out to the surface, they must be removed.
Keep in mind that using insecticide spraying, the soil surface is necessary to cover with paper or cloth. And, of course, it is impossible to spray poisons buds, flowers and fruits.
Usually the illness is manifested in over-wetting the soil used for watering the cold water, an excess of nitrogen and planting too deep lemon. Crack is formed in the bottom of the barrel, which implies a dark viscous liquid - gum. The rift is gradually increasing and rotting bark dies. What to do? Typically, a tree can not be cured. You can try to clean the cracks from rot, treat with a solution of copper sulphate and transplanted into a new soil.
Leaves and branches and then envelops the dark musty plaque. Particularly rapidly affected leaves, already covered with secretions mealybug and scale insects. It is necessary to wipe the raid on the leaves and stem with a cloth dampened with copper sulfate or Bordeaux mixture. And do not forget to ventilate the room.
Of course, no secret that prevention - the best cure for the disease:
It is strongly recommended that every week to arrange a water shower indoor lemons, covering pre-film pot with soil. Do not be amiss to alternate processing with plain water and soap.
New, young plants are carefully examined for disease and destruction by pests. Never place right next to the other colors. Quarantine - 2-3 weeks.
Inspect daily care of your pet, look under leaves, inspect the soil.
Periodically, every 1.5-2 months spray tree manganese solution or Bordeaux mixture.
Right growing lemon, take care of the aesthetic beauty of wood. Initially, form a beautiful crown. Avoid odnostebelnogo species. Even at an early stage pinch out the tops of the seedlings to promote the growth of lateral branches.
If your goal is to provide useful fruit, activate the flowering Gadgets: fitolampy, humidifiers, etc.
In the places of origin of the lemon - tropical island - trees begin to bear fruit after 5-6 years. In the same room conditions all depends on the conditions of detention. The more you create approximate terms, the sooner you will get the real home of lemons.
Now you have a general idea of how to care for a lemon house, and finally another important and the most important condition - it is your love and interest in the plant. And the reward you would be a real lemon garden with exotic flowers and useful fruit.