cervical colposcopy


  • Types of colposcopy
  • Preparing for a colposcopy

Colposcopy - a modern highly effective and safe method of investigation of the cervix and vaginal walls to diagnose various diseases at an early stage.

Colposcopy of the cervix is ​​carried out using a special tool called a colposcope. It is a medical optical instrument equipped with special illuminators and allows significantly increase the image of the object of research, which makes it possible to identify and study in detail the place of localization of the pathological process.

With this method it is possible to diagnose benign and malignant tumors in the initial stage, diseases such as endometriosis and leykoplaziya reveal inflammation, as well as erosion and cervical cancer. Colposcopy may be used to assess the effectiveness of the prescribed treatment.

The procedure is not painful colposcopy. During it possible mild discomfort as normal inspection, but no more than that. Colposcopy in the gynecological chair, takes about 10-20 minutes. For exposure of the cervix using a mirror, then use a colposcope gynecologist examines in detail the cervix and vaginal walls.

 kinds of colposcopy
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Types of colposcopy

There are 2 main types of colposcopy: simple and advanced. During a simple procedure is usually carried out inspection, determines the nature and type of discharge. Next release gently removes dry cotton swab, and using a colposcope examination carried cervix.

Extended colposcopy involves the use of diagnostic tests that help to more clearly limit and explore the pathology of the cervix to determine the nature of violation, rule out or confirm cervical cancer, cervical dysplasia (a precancerous condition). The most popular is a sample: tests using acetic acid with Lugol (Schiller), the sample chrobak. The last trial held under suspicion of malignancy, for its use of the mother probe. Extended colposcopy is also painless.

It is worth noting that for the definitive diagnosis of colposcopy alone are not enough. After all, it is aimed only at identifying and studying the primary zone of the greatest defeats. For the final conclusions and confirming the initial conclusions it is necessary to conduct additional studies: cytological studies aiming biopsy, Pap test.

Besides the main, there are also the following types of colposcopy: ferrous and non-fluorescent. Color assumes the same procedure as extended. The difference is that used other dyes. The cervix is ​​painted in green or blue, which helps to examine in more detail lesions and vascular net.

Fluorescent used for the study and detection of cancer cells in the epithelium. The cervix is ​​processed fluorochromes and illuminated with UV light. Thus malignancies color different from normal cells.

 Preparation for colposcopy
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Preparing for a colposcopy

Prior to colposcopy is recommended for at least 2 days to avoid sexual intercourse. Do not use vaginal suppositories and creams, use of tampons, douching conduct. It is impossible to conduct a survey during menstruation, for that is any day of the menstrual cycle. Some experts recommend to carry out the study for 2-3 days after menstruation.

To whom and how often should undergo colposcopy?

Every woman should be inspected at least 1 gynecologist once a year. Colposcopy procedure may be performed during a routine inspection by a physician.

Colposcopy is recommended for women who are planning a pregnancy soon in order to avoid problems related to difficulties in pregnancy and premature birth. On the recommendation of a doctor, this examination can be carried out during pregnancy.

It is strongly recommended to go through the procedure of colposcopy for women after 45 years. During menopausal changes most likely cancers. It is important to timely detection of problems.

Following the procedure of colposcopy may experience slight vaginal discharge. This may be due to the use of medical dyes. Therefore it is recommended to grab a viewing sanitary napkin. Other consequences of this survey should not be. Colposcopy - a procedure harmless and safe. However, if you have marked heavy bleeding, pain in the abdomen, fever, should seek immediate medical attention.

 Examination of the cervix by colposcopy

 female gynecological disease


  • Diseases of the female genital organs: Causes
  • Causes and consequences of inflammatory diseases
  • Inflammatory diseases of female external genitalia
  • Inflammatory diseases of female internal sex organs
  • Adhesions - cause of infertility

Women's disease - a disease of the genital organs of women, ie gynecological.

It is important to note at the time of the pathology and consult a gynecologist as soon as possible to make a diagnosis and start treatment. Women's disease in gynecology is divided into types: sexually transmitted diseases (candidiasis, gonorrhea, bacterial vaginosis, and others.), Inflammation (adnexitis, bartholinitis, vulva, etc.), Erosion, tumors, hormonal disorders (fibroids, cysts, breast, and others. ), menstrual disorders, menopause, infertility, and others.

Gynecologists say that the first place among all women's gynecological problems occupy exactly pelvic inflammatory disease. Every woman should know the symptoms of disease during the notice to the pathology and consult a gynecologist at the initial stage of the disease.
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Diseases of the female genital organs: Causes

Pelvic inflammatory disease may develop due to various reasons. The most common of these are:

  • incorrect placement of female internal sex organs (eg, uterus and ovaries), their abnormal development;
  • infections (including those which are sexually transmitted);
  • hormonal disorders, disruption of the endocrine glands;
  • tumor;
  • Complications of pregnancy, childbirth or postrodovoy period;
  • a weakened immune system, stress, fatigue;
  • hypothermia.

In any case, women's diseases rarely occur out of the blue: it usually helps to determine the conditions and a favorable background for the development of the disease.

Typically, gynecological diseases have expressed signs (symptoms). As a rule, they are accompanied by belyami (excessive amount or unusual nature of the discharge from the genitals, often with an unpleasant odor), the menstrual cycle spotting or bleeding, rash, burning, itching in the external and internal genitalia, abdominal pain ( they may be mild and transient, and can be pronounced).

However, more and more gynecologists said that currently gynecological diseases in women are asymptomatic or the symptoms are so mild that women do not pay attention to them. And it turns out that the woman go to the doctor at the time when the disease brings severe discomfort: accompanied by pain, fever. Often it is difficult to treat and have irreparable consequences for women's health. Therefore it is very important to be able to determine the occurrence of pathological signs, to recognize the disease at the beginning of and during contact a gynecologist.

 causes inflammatory diseases
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Causes and consequences of inflammatory diseases

Insidiously inflammatory processes consists precisely in the fact that these diseases are asymptomatic, so it is easy to overlook the onset of disease. However, these are the diseases most frequently cause complications, because usually they begin to heal when they are already in a state of neglect. That is why it is important to at least twice yearly checkups at the gynecologist, to prevent the development of disease.

The inflammatory process in women may develop in the external and internal genital organs. To inflammatory processes in the external genital organs include bartholinitis, vaginitis and vulvitis. Inflammation of internal genital organs: endometritis, cervicitis, salpingitis, oophoritis, adnexitis, pelvioperitonit.

The cause of inflammatory diseases are infections in women. Symptoms of inflammation bit: abdominal pain, abnormal vaginal discharge, which are uncharacteristic texture, color and odor, swelling of tissues. If you notice at any of the symptoms, you should seek medical advice.

Pelvic inflammatory disease may be chronic and acute. If the disease is in the acute stage, symptoms are pronounced: there may be severe abdominal pain, a fever. However, the disease can be avoided, and an acute stage and develop directly with chronic. Then the symptoms are transient, that is, will vary in strength: severe pain will be replaced by a lull, and then back again, and so on. D. The disease may progress to a chronic stage and if not cure the disease completely or not to start treatment.

Inflammation not only gives a woman a lot of discomfort - all the more serious because these diseases can have very unfortunate consequences: they destroy the reproductive and sexual function, affect the nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular and other systems of the body. Furthermore, they can lead to more serious gynecological diseases: adhesions in the fallopian tubes which result in infertility.

 different causes of inflammatory diseases
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Inflammatory diseases of female external genitalia

Below we consider the main inflammatory disease of the vulva and their symptoms. As we have said previously, these include bartholinitis, vaginitis, vulvitis.

Remember: when it detects at least one symptom, refer to the gynecologist, it is always easier to cure the disease at the beginning of its development, rather than later, when it will become advanced. In addition, do not put yourself diagnosed on the basis of reading and do not exercise, and self-medicate. Diagnosis and prescription of treatment deals exclusively gynecologist. So now consider what inflammatory diseases may threaten the woman's genital area.

Bartolini - an inflammation of the Bartholin gland (it is a large gland vestibule). Arises as a result of poor hygiene, infections are sexually transmitted. The disease is asymptomatic.

Vaginitis (colpitis) - inflammation of the vaginal mucosa. The disease is accompanied by copious purulent, mucous or mucous-purulent vaginal discharge, burning, itching, pain and hyperemia of the vaginal mucosa. Waging may be different in nature, depend upon it, and the symptoms. Thus, when trichomonas vaginitis observed abundant foam and purulent discharge, burning, itching. Fungal (Candida) coleitis - whites, cheesy discharge, burning and itching in the vagina. It is common for women of childbearing age.

In girls, the disease is accompanied by inflammation of the external genitalia. If colpitis hit in the vagina caused by a foreign object, the selection may contain an admixture of blood. Bacterial vaginitis in girls observed a scant discharge, itching of the external genitalia.

Vulvitis - an inflammation of the vulva, the external genital organs: the pubic area, small and large labia, vestibule, the clitoris and hymen. Usually the disease is typical for girls and older women. The reason can serve as scratches, cracks or injuries epithelium of the vulva, the girls - pinworms. It can be acute and chronic. In acute vulvitis marked burning, severe itching of the vulva, pain, redness and swelling of the external genitalia, a raid on them. In the chronic stage of the symptoms usually disappear, but returned periodically and pronounced. However, the chronic phase may go back to the island and the aggravation will be more frequent and harder to treat.

Vulvovaginitis - is the simultaneous inflammation of the vulva (vulva) and the vagina (vaginitis). Very common is this form of the disease.

 Diagnosis of the disease
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Inflammatory diseases of female internal sex organs

As we have seen above, these diseases include: adnexitis, endocervicitis (cervicitis), endometritis. Consider each of the diseases in more detail.

Adnexitis - inflammation of the uterus, ie the ovaries (oophoritis), or fallopian tubes (salpingitis). Inflammation can cause negative staphylococci, mycoplasma, gonorrhea, chlamydia and other pathogens. The pathogen can get into the ovaries or fallopian tubes, along with the blood of the outer or other reproductive organs, which originally developed the inflammatory process. Adnexitis may develop as a result of childbirth, abortion, infections that are transmitted through sexual contact, improper personal hygiene and because of the weakened immune system. The disease is asymptomatic.

Endocervicitis (cervicitis) - inflammation of the mucous of the cervix. The cause of the disease are Escherichia coli, gonococci, staphylococci, streptococci infections that are sexually transmitted, ruptures during childbirth, cervical erosion, incorrect use of pills.

Even in acute stage of the disease symptoms may be expressed very weakly. Usually this selection (whites), itching, increased vaginal discharge, redness of the mucous of the uterus rarely may be pain in the lower abdomen. The disease can take a chronic form, if you do not treat it. Symptoms of chronic disease, as a rule, almost imperceptible.

Dysmenorrhea - is an inflammatory process in the mucosa of the uterus. The reason can serve as fungal, bacterial or viral infection. The first symptoms usually appear 3-4 days after infection. The disease can occur in an acute and chronic form.

In the acute form of inflammation observed: fatigue, fever, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate index, abdominal pain, pus-like liquid discharge (sometimes with ichor), palpation uterus is enlarged and dense, and there are painful sensations. The acute stage lasts 10 days. If during treatment initiation, then quickly comes a full recovery. If the treatment is carried out properly, endometritis becomes chronic. The main danger of this is that it can lead to menstrual irregularities, development of bleeding, a miscarriage, aching pain in the abdomen, intrauterine adhesions.

 causes of infertility
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Adhesions - cause of infertility

In gynecology this disease have a separate entry.

Adhesions (adhesive disease) - a kind of constriction in the fallopian tube, resulting from surgery or inflammation. The original function of adhesion - does not give the inflammatory process spread throughout the body. However, by performing a positive function, they cause great harm to the woman's body: do not give the pelvic organs work properly and can lead to infertility. There are three stages of the disease:

  • 1st stage: soldering located around the ovaries, fallopian tubes or other area without interfering with the capture of the egg;
  • 2nd stage: the spikes are between the ovaries and fallopian tubes or other organs and may interfere with the capture of the egg;
  • 3rd stage: there is torsion of the fallopian tube, the violation of patency or completely blocked by the capture of the egg.

Proceeds disease symptoms. Perhaps the only manifestation of the disease is the inability of women to conceive. As a rule, this problem patients were treated to gynecologists, resulting adhesive disease is found.

 Inflammatory disease in women