male infertility

Almost every married couple will sooner or later come to the decision that it was time to have a baby. But, unfortunately, sometimes so desired pregnancy does not occur - a month, second, third. Of course, the couple begins to sound the alarm and call for help to doctors.

Most often, of course, the couple believes that there is a problem with women's health and, therefore, go to the doctor - a gynecologist. However, not always it can help couples conceive. The explanation is very simple - about 40% of infertility cases are the milestones of his culprit is just a man, not a woman, as is commonly believed. Male factor infertility is very common. Causes of male infertility can be varied.

It is about male infertility and will be discussed in this article. However, before you start the conversation, you must have a clear idea of ​​what is true infertility. In that case, if a couple has sex without using any means of protection against pregnancy, but pregnancy does not occur within one year, we can talk about infertility. Please note - if the pregnancy does not occur within a few months, or even six months, it is still not a true infertility.

Male infertility is a disease of the reproductive system, characterized by impaired testicular generative function. Doctors also call this phenomenon infertile state. Simply put, in the case if an adult, mature man can not conceive a child for a year, doctors say about infertility, although, of course, there are other indirect signs of male infertility. But remember that only doctors reliably know how to identify male infertility.

Male infertility, as well as women, have many different causes. It depends on the reasons for the way to treat male infertility. Listed below are the most common ones are:

  • The presence of male diseases such as varicocele, in which a man has markedly expanded veins of the spermatic cord.
  • A man suffering from a chronic course of infection - inflammatory diseases of the urinary organs.
  • A man diagnosed patozoospermiya, the origin of which is unclear.
  • The man there exists a violation of the seminal fluid.
  • Man suffers from immunological infertility.
  • The man in there are birth defects of the genitals - epispadias, hypospadias, cryptorchidism, monorchism.
  • Diseases associated with the work of the vital systems of the body - liver cirrhosis, tuberculosis, kidney failure, and other infectious mumps.
  • Available in the past surgery on the hydrocele, inguinal hernia, other urogenital disorders.
  • Conducting a man of certain treatments other diseases of internal organs, such as chemotherapy or hormonal treatment, drugs and antihypertensive drugs.
  • Various sexual dysfunctions: impotence, abnormal ejaculation.
  • Azoospermia wearing obstructive in nature.
  • Disruption of the normal functioning of the endocrine system.
  • Various chromosomal abnormalities.
  • Various scrotal trauma.
  • Chronic alcohol or drug intoxication male body.
  • Hazardous working conditions - ionizing radiation, exposure to toxic substances.
  • Needless to prolonged exposure to the scrotum too warm environment - either working in extremely hot conditions, or abuse of the sauna and baths, or prolonged illness, which was accompanied by a high fever.

In addition to all these reasons, there are many other factors that can lead to male infertility, however, list all of them makes no sense, since most of them will be understood only by physicians. To diagnose the pathology also has a doctor, as well as prescribe treatment. Under no circumstances is unacceptable to use folk remedies for male infertility - self-medication can lead to unpredictable consequences. Doctors often encounter cases where the treatment of male infertility folk remedies led to the fact that infertility is becoming irreversible.

However, doctors have noticed, in most cases, the cause of male infertility is a pathological hormonal changes men, due to congenital anomalies (primary infertility) or else received as a result of - or a man suffering the disease (secondary infertility).

If infertility is the secretory nature, in this case, necessarily present a particular negative impact on the male testicles. With this type of infertility has been a violation of the normal full-fledged production of sperm. Most often, this pathology is caused by varicose veins in the testicles. The disease is manifested by the presence of excessive expansion of testicular veins that can not ensure the normal outflow of blood from the testes. Because of this pathological process occurs congestion, ovarian tissue stopped fully supplied with blood, and as a result, his work is oppressed.

Most often, there are advanced testicular vein on the left side. However, if not immediately begin the necessary treatment, varicocele starts to progress and spread to the other side. Thus, in the pathological process involved and the second egg. If at this stage to start the necessary treatment, begin to join additional pathological processes that greatly reduce the level of full-fledged sperm produced, causing the secretory form of infertility.

Around the same principle is observed lesions of the reproductive function and hydrocele. In that case, if the male scrotum accumulates a quantity of liquid, doctors say edema. If not treated dropsy, prolonged presence of eggs in a choked condition also leads to disruption of normal blood flow and tissue nutrition. This complication with very high probability may cause secondary male infertility. By the way, the pathological process that occurs when an inguinal hernia, is built on a similar scheme with dropsy.

Much less, but still found male infertility caused by cryptorchidism. Doctors called cryptorchidism undescended testes in the scrotum cavity. Ten years ago, this kind of violation does not treated. The modern medicine offers unique treatments with which the disease can be cured entirely by about the age of seven boys. In the same case, if for some - any reason parents do not notice the problem in time, very high probability of infertility in boys in the future.

Another children's disease, which often gives a future complications like infertility - is mumps, or as it is called colloquially "pig." The virus that is the causative agent of the disease tends to hit various glands of the body. Primarily a sick man swollen salivary glands, which is why a person acquires round shape. That's it for its rounded forms of the disease, and was popularly known as "pig."

As the disease progresses to an inflammatory process involved and other glands, including sex. Especially highly susceptible to defeat the testicles in boys. And then the most important thing is dependent on doctors. The earlier detected orchitis (testicular inflammation) and begin the necessary anti-inflammatory therapy, the lower the risk of future infertility.

Risk factors

The most difficult to identify the cause of problems if disrupted spermatogenic epithelium. Its deterioration may be caused by many different external factors. For example, exposure to ionizing radiation for a long time not only causes damage to the various organs of the body and radiation sickness, but also greatly affect the integrity of seminiferous epithelium of the testes themselves. Of course, that such destruction will inevitably lead to a deterioration in the quality of sperm and sperm viability.

By the way, men should be aware that a similar result - infertility - may cause another factor. Electromagnetic oscillations, for a long time and regularly acting on the man's body, and can significantly damage the spermatogenic epithelium and reduce the quality of sperm.

The impact on the function of the testes to high temperatures and a very negative and can lead to disruption of the normal functioning of the reproductive system. And do not think that this issue is relevant only for firemen and welders. Those men who love to bathe in the bath and sauna, also must be mindful of the harmful effects of high temperatures and avoid overheating, especially in the case in the next few years, they are planning to have a baby. If you absolutely can not give up the bath or hot tub, at least follow two simple rules to significantly reduce the negative effects of high temperatures:

  • After the bath, the sauna or hot tub take a cool shower. But do not go to extremes and become a cold shower - you run the risk of catching cold.
  • Do not dress immediately after the exit of the soul - let the body cool down at least for a few minutes. Otherwise hot body under the clothes will cool down much longer and the negative impact of high temperatures would at times stronger.

Incidentally, in some cases, may result in overheating of the testicles too close underwear, this is especially true in relation to the popular thermal underwear today.

Another very unfavorable factor affecting male reproductive system, is cycling, especially if you are a professional cycling training or regular amateur character. Very high risk of disruption of ovarian function as a result of the constant squeezing and crotch punches. In that case, if you are a man preparing to become a father, he needs at least at the time to give up cycling.

There is also some, albeit not leading to infertility, but significantly reduces sperm quality and quantity of sperm. Here are the main ones:

  • A state of chronic fatigue and chronic stress.
  • Incorrectly compiled diet. Lack of vitamins, trace elements and, most importantly, the protein negatively affect the male reproductive system.
  • Insufficient sleep. Remember that an adult should sleep at least eight hours per day.
  • Too much alcohol and nicotine.

Surveying men

As mentioned above, if within one year of regular sexual intercourse without the use of any means of protection was no pregnancy, the couple should undergo a medical examination in order to identify the causes of infertility.

Experienced family assistants in this case recommend a visit to the doctor - a gynecologist to wait, and to start to be examined is the man. Examination of male infertility is much cheaper and faster than searching disorders of the female reproductive system. As a general rule, to detect pathologies simply be tested for the study of sperm, called spermogrammoj.

At its core, semen analysis is nothing but a complete and expanded analysis of semen. During its studies set cell and its chemical composition, physical properties and the like figures. And based on the results of semen doctor will assess the ability of the male reproductive system to conceive.

Tragically, a very large number of men refuse to hand over the analysis. They erroneously believe that if they have an erection in normal, it is conclusive evidence of their ability to fertilize. However, in reality the situation is completely different. The ability of a man to fertilize an egg depends not only on the fact of the presence of sperm, but also on its quality. Normally, 1 milliliter of semen should contain about 20 million sperm. And the fewer, the less the chances of fertilization.

To readers were more clear about what will be discussed a little lower, we remind them exactly how the male reproductive system functions. Male germ cells, which is necessary to fertilize an egg is called sperm. Spermatozoon consists of a head and a tail, connected by a neck. It is located in the head of that genetic information, which will be transferred from the father to his child. Well, the tail of the sperm is simply necessary for the sperm was independently mobile and able to reach the egg, which is stationary.

Developing sperm occurs in the testes, in their sinuous channels that sent seminiferous epithelium, which, strictly speaking, is responsible for the production of sperm. Reformulate the sperm, in order that they finally matured and acquired the ability to fertilize an egg, they have to pass through the winding channels of the testes.

After that mature sperm cells enter the epididymis, and then - in the vas deferens. Ejaculatory ducts pass through the inguinal canal, abdominal cavity, and then enter the bladder located behind the seminal vesicles. The seminal vesicles is an accumulation of mature sperm, there are mixed with a special secret, produced their walls. This secret is simply necessary for sperm successfully overcame all his hard way to the egg.

From the seminal vesicles depart special ejaculatory ducts passing through the prostate gland. The sperm is mixed well with her secret. As a result, going all their way, sperm output is a unique substance containing in its composition directly Summit sperm, different nutrients and substances that create sperm for their vital alkaline environment. It is this substance called semen. During intercourse ejaculatory ducts open into the urethra, where, in turn, erupting at the time of ejaculation.

 treatment of male infertility

Types of male infertility

Doctors are two types of male infertility - obstructive and secretory. In general, these forms of the disease can be described as follows: a secretory form of the disease characterized by impaired sperm production in the testes channels, while obstructive form of full-fledged sperm can not freely enter the urethra.

Each form has its own characteristics fertility trends and manifestations:

  • The secretory form of infertility.

As already mentioned, in this form of infertility testicles or produces too small for fertilization by sperm, or the sperm have too low mobility and, therefore, can not get to the egg, or, finally, the sperm have any - or pathology structure .

In order to reliably diagnose secretory form of infertility, semen analysis should be done to the man. In particularly difficult cases, it may also need to conduct this method of diagnosis, biopsy of the testicles. A similar study in most cases can not only adequately assess the condition of the tissues of the testicles, and even determine the true root cause that caused the disease.

It is also important to bear in mind that in the process of spermatogenesis is responsible organism male hormones, so conducting a survey on male infertility, competent and experienced physician often will send a man to donate blood to determine the level of necessary hormones in it. And if the hormones will have any - any deviation from the normal man will be appointed immediately necessary in his case, hormone therapy. It is often with the help of hormone therapy doctors can restore men's health and fertility.

Also, since the treatment of male infertility, wearing a secretory form, it is necessary to identify and, if necessary, to eliminate diseases such as mumps, hydrocele, varicocele. The sooner this is done, the better the chances for a successful elimination of male infertility.

Not at all.