Surely, all expectant mothers have heard about the phenomenon of Rh conflict during pregnancy. However, very few people have an accurate idea of what it is and what it eats. As a brief preface is worth recalling that, where did the notion come from all Rh - conflict. If the string up and remember the school curriculum in biology, we can remember that Rh - the name of the breed monkeys. It is the first time scientists have found a definite factor in the blood, which got its name is in honor of these monkeys.
And if expectant mothers in biology at school was "five", they are sure to remember that Rh - factor - it is a certain type of proteins that are located on the surface of red blood cells - a specific group of blood cells. However, these proteins are present not all people. In the event that they are - human Rh - the factor is positive, and if no - Rh - negative factor.
By the way, most Rh - positive group meets at representatives of Caucasoid ("white") race - approximately 87% of all people. And only 13% - a negative Rh - factor. From about the tenth week of fetal development, he begins to develop Rh antigen system. It was at this point, and it becomes clear to the child Rh - positive or Rh is - a negative factor in the blood.
At what point is developing Rh conflict?
In the event that a future mother Rh - factor differs from Rh - factor of blood during pregnancy is very high risk that the pregnancy will develop Rh conflict. And doctors have established the following rule: in the event that the child's blood is Rh - positive factor, the risk of Rh - conflict is much higher than if the carrier Rh - positive factor is the mother.
And the consequences of such a rhesus - conflict can not be serious example. That is why in almost all cases, mention the Rh conflict involve a combination of doctors' Rh - positive blood group and Rh in a child - negative blood Mom. "
As a rule, such a combination of "Mother + Baby" occurs if the child's mother Rh - negative blood factor, but the father - a positive. Rhesus conflict in this case is observed in about 80% of all pregnancies.
What is the danger of Rhesus - conflict?
Let's try to understand - what is so dangerous that the Rhesus - conflict and why it rises around this hype? Actually explanation simple enough - in the event that a human body having Rh - negative blood factor, a fall in his blood erythrocytes Rh - positive blood, the body treats them as foreign agents.
The human immune system will not be slow to start immediate production of antibodies that are designed to eliminate these alien agents. And as you can guess, in the event that such antibodies get into the body of a pregnant woman, her body starts to fight future baby. And it is very, very dangerous for both the mother's body and for the body of the fetus.
This occurs as follows. Almost instantly antibodies produced by the mother's body, through the placenta to enter the circulatory system the child's body. Penetrating into it, the antibodies immediately begin to destroy red blood cells of the child, and, consequently, entails a number of very serious consequences.
Red blood cells cease to perform its function in full - full disrupted transport of oxygen to the cells of the tissues of the child. This abnormal condition of the child, which develops as a result of penetration in his blood Rh - antibodies obtained in the name of hemolytic disease of the medicine, which has several forms of the course:
- Anemic form. This form of the disease is the most easy. The first symptom that appears in the first week after the birth of the child - a pronounced pale bluish sheets. In addition, the child is slightly increased the size of the liver and spleen. The general health of the child is suffering is not particularly strong.
- Icteric. This form of the flow of hemolytic disease occurs most often. It shows a significant increase in the size of the liver and spleen, jaundice primary appearance. With the collapse of the child's condition worsens bilirubin, is developing quite severe anemia.
- Edematous form. If the conflict Rh factor is very strong for the most serious diseases. Thus, in the early stages of pregnancy such spontaneously aborted. But even if we manage to keep the pregnancy, the baby will be born in a very serious condition. Fabric body is very swollen in the abdominal and thoracic cavities is an accumulation of fluids. These kids are very sluggish, their reflexes and the overall tone is very depressed. In addition, the majority of children is a serious cardio - pulmonary insufficiency.
Factors that trigger the production of antibodies
However, not all cases of Rhesus - conflict pregnancy is the development of the above Rh - conflict of mother and baby. Sometimes, in such pregnancies, the number of antibodies produced by the female body is so small that they can not bring even how - any significant harm to the child's body. And sometimes they are not produced at all.
So why, in some cases, the antibodies are produced in large numbers, and pose a danger to the body of the child, and the other - or produced in small quantities or not available at all? This is what will be discussed below:
- Penetration children's blood into the circulatory system of the maternal organism
In the event that any blood baby - either way has penetrated into the bloodstream mother starts rough antibody production. This can happen in a number of cases, such as spontaneous abortion in the early timing of it, or a surgical abortion, childbirth, during amniocentesis - puncture of the abdominal wall and uterus, with the purpose of sampling the amniotic fluid.
In addition, the probability of hitting the children's blood in the mother's circulatory system greatly increases the availability of the future mother of various infectious diseases, which at times increase the permeability of the placenta and its minor injuries, such as bleeding.
- Previously developed antibodies
In some cases, the woman has a negative Rh - blood factor, antibodies develop long before the onset of pregnancy, sometimes for many years before him. This can happen in a number of cases, for example, in the case where - the woman produced without transfusion of Rhesus - factor.
Many wonder how developed years ago antibodies can influence the course of rhesus - conflict pregnancy. In fact, everything is very, very simple - just only one time in a woman's body to get a foreign red blood cells, like, an active development of not only antibodies, but also a kind of memory cells, which, unlike the antibodies remain in the body of women in the rest of her life . And subsequently the erythrocytes enough only one to get into the bloodstream of an organism, in order to begin the process of active antibody production.
Incidentally, this is why Rhesus - conflict situations so rare in the case of first pregnancy - up to 70% less than in the case of re waiting child. It is necessary to consider and to take certain preventive methods. Otherwise, during subsequent pregnancies in the case of Rh - conflict, serious problems can not be avoided, because during birth the baby's blood contact with a positive Rh - factor will inevitably fall into the mother's body with a negative Rh - factor in the blood. The same applies to those cases, if the first pregnancy ends in miscarriage or induced abortion.
What to do in such a situation?
But very often it happens that a woman is still there is a very high probability of Rh - conflict during pregnancy. What do you do in this situation? Really it is impossible to avoid the tragedy? However, doctors give very favorable forecast for this pregnancy. Of course, if you approach this issue with the utmost seriousness and responsibility.
And the first thing to do - is to very carefully approach the issue of pregnancy planning. Knowing about the characteristics of the organism, the expectant mother should be careful to avoid all situations in which that can happen getting Rh - incompatible blood in her body. As a rule, this can happen in the following cases: abortion, miscarriage, a blood transfusion. In all these cases you need as quickly as possible to enter the woman's body in a special drug that prevents the production of the female body antibodies to Rh - factor.
Once a woman becomes aware of her pregnancy, she should try to be registered to the doctor - a gynecologist as soon as possible. Moreover, it should in the first to put his visit to the doctor aware of this particular his body. The doctor will treat your pregnancy with the utmost care. In particular, you will have regular blood tests to detect the presence of antibodies in it - in the first trimester of pregnancy - once every two weeks during the second trimester - once a week, and in the third - two times a week.
In the event that everything will run smoothly and without complications - an antibody in the blood of the expectant mother will not be detected, about 28 weeks of pregnancy the doctor can decide whether to introduce a special Rh immunoglobulin. This so-called "vaccination", which binds red blood cells kid trapped in the mother's bloodstream. With this virtually eliminates the possibility that the mother's body in response to the penetration starts to produce antibodies and develop Rh conflict.
In the same case, if a blood test shows an increased antibody titer, need urgent hospitalization in a specialized hospital or perinatal centers, which specialize in conducting these Rh - conflict pregnancy, or at least in the hospital, where there are doctors who are familiar with this problem. This hospitalization is just vital for both the mother and for the baby. In the perinatal center doctors will be able to provide all necessary assistance to the woman. In addition, the mother and the baby will be under the constant supervision of doctors carefully. They will control:
- Changes - increase or decrease the level of antibodies in the blood of pregnant women.
- Dimensions of the liver unborn baby, the placenta of its thickness, the presence of polyhydramnios.
- Condition amniotic fluid and cord blood, if necessary.
In that case, if the efforts of the doctors will be able to inform women of their baby to term, delivery is to be made using a planned caesarean section. In the same case, if the situation becomes critical, and gestational age still does not allow the child to survive outside the mother's body, doctors resort to blood transfusions. This allows you to extend the pregnancy. Natural delivery, usually, doctors try to avoid, since Rh - conflict pregnancy is very important as soon as possible to exclude the possibility of penetration into the body of the child of maternal antibodies.
In the same case, if everything goes the most favorable, and during pregnancy did not happen the production of antibodies, despite the fact that my mother Rh - factor is negative and the baby - positive in the first few days after birth is necessary to introduce a special stab anti- -rezus immunoglobulin, which will link Rh - positive red blood cells, thus not allowing the production of antibodies by the female body.
This measure will help reduce the risk of possible problems in future pregnancies. Therefore, do not let the matter take its course, and be sure to check it, despite the fact that it's any hospital doctors have to do without something, it is useful to remind them about it. And do it before the onset of labor, because after you will be completely absorbed by your baby, which may well themselves to forget about it. Moreover - the most reasonable is to buy the drug on their own and take it with you to the maternity hospital.
In that case, if your first Rh - incompatible pregnancy ended happily, while she did not develop antibodies, and the injection is made in a timely manner, the second pregnancy practically will not differ from the first - the risk that develop Rh conflict, will not exceed 10%.
And remember the most important thing - the possibility that the conflict will develop Rh by itself in any case should not be a reason not to get pregnant, as well as the presence of antibodies in the body. Of course, pregnancy, during which there is a risk that the conflict will develop Rh, requires a much more serious and responsible approach, but it is very favorable outcome is probable. Just be sure to find literate and competent in the matter of the doctor. And, of course, carefully follow all his recommendations.