cervical cancer

About this disease, such as cancer of the cervix, heard, perhaps, everything. Unfortunately, the disease is one of the most frequent pathologies of cancer in women. In order to best protect themselves, women should have the fullest possible information about this disease, such as cancer of the cervix. You need to know all of the features - the reasons which cause the disease, the symptoms and warning signs of his presence, all the principles and methods of diagnosis and treatment.

As mentioned above, cervical cancer - a disease of the female reproductive system, is characterized by the development of cervix cancer. Recall - the cervix is ​​located between the very body of the uterus and the vagina. In virtually all cases of cervical cancer occur as a consequence of human infection with the human papilloma virus.

The main symptoms of this disease are pain and uterine bleeding, and in some cases there are no symptoms at all. In such cases, the disease is diagnosed absolutely by chance during a routine checkup a woman doctor - a gynecologist. For more information about the symptoms of cervical cancer and the diagnostic methods will be written a little lower.

The causes of cervical cancer and types

Modern science has reliably demonstrated that cervical cancer occurs due to the presence in women with human papillomavirus. Of course, this does not mean that absolutely any woman who is sick HPV should face the cervical cancer. As a rule, to the development of cancer of the presence of human papillomavirus 16, 18 and 31 type.

Incidentally, it is this act was the basis for the theory that cervical cancer can be transmitted sexually. The fact is that during unprotected intercourse and can be transmitted to human papilloma virus, including the type, which can lead to cervical cancer. That's why those women who are sexually active with frequently changing sexual partners are much more likely than the rest.

Doctors - gynecologists and oncologists today is known two kinds of cervical cancer. In most cases - about 80% - cancerous malignancy develops from the lining the cervix squamous cells. The remaining 20% ​​of all cases of cervical cancer malignancy develops from the cells that are responsible for the production of cervical mucus. This phenomenon is known as adenocarcinoma of the cervix.

How is the pathology of the cervix

Cervical cancer is one characteristic feature - essential for his development of the disease prior to the cervix, a woman with a healthy neck malignancy not develop ever. By the way, the best means of preventing the development of cervical cancer today - is prevention of various gynecological diseases. There are several diseases of the cervix, which are most often lead to the development of cancer:

  • Cervical erosion. The disease is one of the most frequent diseases of the cervix. Fortunately, this pathology is rarely leads to cervical cancer. However, if the erosion can not treat some risk still exists.
  • Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Shorten the disease among physicians is called CIN. This term is called doctors her condition in which the cervix are abnormal cells, which begin to divide uncontrollably, resulting in a very great risk that with time they transform into a malignant tumor.

Doctors are three stages of the disease. The first two stages amenable to treatment very well - which is why it is so important in time to see a doctor - a gynecologist. If time is lost, the disease enters the third stage, which in its essence is already nothing more than the initial stage of cervical cancer. After the three stages have been completed precancerous condition, a malignant tumor will begin to proliferate deep cervical, gradually affecting its new area.

If a malignancy of the cervix is ​​not diagnosed in a timely manner, the tumor will continue to grow, sprouting in adjacent organs - most commonly in the rectum and bladder. But that's not all the dangers - the cancer cells tend to penetrate into the blood, and its current spread around the body. Thus metastases can occur almost anywhere in the body, depending on the place oblyubuyut cancer cells.

Of course, this whole process is not a week, not for a month - usually it takes a few years, though, of course, sometimes there are exceptions. But even in these cases, from the initial stage to cervical cancer takes at least six months. That is why the best way to protect your health is regular checkups at the doctor - a gynecologist.

This measure will help to detect this pathology at the earliest stages of its development, and it means that the chances for a full recovery and a woman will be very very high. After all, early diagnosis and timely treatment are loyal allies in the fight doctor with cancer.

 Symptoms of cervical cancer

Symptoms of cervical pathology

Often, malignant tumors of the cervix occurs without any external signs and symptoms of the disease for a very long time. At this stage reveal malignancy fails accidentally during routine inspection or if the woman went to the doctor - a gynecologist on what - or other occasion. However, if the disease is not diagnosed for a long time, cancer continues to increase in size and hence already largely interferes with the normal functioning of the reproductive system and the woman's body as a whole. And women appear following cervical cancer symptoms are as follows:

  • Bloody discharge from the genitals

One of the first symptoms that a woman's body has a malignant neoplasm of the cervix - is the appearance of bleeding from the vagina. And note - this is not about uterine secretions, and the so-called contact. Blood is released after sexual intercourse, due to injury to the cervix, the tissue is malignant tumor amazed and very sensitive to the slightest touch. However, in some very rare cases, bleeding from the genitals of the woman may begin suddenly, without any - any outside influences. However, in this case, they are almost never too abundant.

  • Specific vaginal discharge

In addition to spotting cervical cancer can appear very specific selection, with a clear yellow color. The main part of the fluid levels up white blood cells that are produced by the body of women to fight cancerous cells. In fairness it should be noted that a woman is unlikely to be able to distinguish them from normal vaginal discharge, but for a doctor - a gynecologist to recognize them will have no difficulty.

  • Pain

In some cases, women who have a malignancy of the cervix, noted pain in the sacrum and spine in the lower abdomen. In addition, very strong pain during intercourse say almost all the patients are women. However itself pain can not serve as a major symptom of cervical cancer, as it accompanies a great number of other diseases, and sometimes not even with a gynecological relationship.

  • Swelling of the external genitalia, and extremities

In that case, if the disease continues to progress, often a woman complains of the doctor on a regular swelling of the lower extremities and external genitalia. There are those swelling due to the fact that malignant tumors metastasize to settle in the pelvic lymph nodes and major blood vessels and block major blood vessels of the lower extremities.

  • Fistulas

As the disease progresses often formed fistulas - openings between the bladder, vagina and rectum, communicating among themselves. This pathology at times deteriorates the functioning of all the pelvic organs.

  • The delay of the normal flow of urine

In the case of cancer metastasis and ureters compress large lymph nodes can be partially or completely shut down operation of the kidneys, thereby developing hydronephrosis. Because of this disease in the absence of emergency medical services is growing rapidly general poisoning of the body waste products are not removed from the body of the sick woman.

  • Purulent infections of the urinary tract

In addition to the above urinary retention often lead to complications that the patient woman develops severe bacterial infection of the urinary tract. The patient in the blood of an admixture of blood and pus. Given the fact that at this stage of the disease the immune system of women is practically suppressed in the absence of immediate medical attention is very high risk of death of women.

  • Swelling of a limb

In some cases there is a swelling of the lower limb with one hand. It occurs in the latter stages of the disease, due to the presence of metastases in the lymph nodes of small pelvis, which compress the major blood vessels.

Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer

As has been mentioned above, the most commonly diagnosed cancer of the cervix or during a scheduled scan, or if the woman turned to the doctor - a gynecologist with complaints of the above symptoms. For the diagnosis of cervical cancer, doctors use the following methods of diagnosis:

  • Gynecological examination with the use of mirrors

Typically, a physician first drew attention to the change of state of endometrium that is typical of cancer, during the inspection of the cervix using mirrors. In fact, this method of diagnosis most simple and painless, moreover, it is accessible to each physician, even if the cabinet is not equipped with additional equipment.

  • Pap Test

Another term that has active diagnostic method - a pap test. It consists in the study under a microscope swabs taken from the two zones - of the cervical canal and cervical mucosa. This test is very popular due to its informational content - it allows to reveal not only the presence or absence of cancer cells in the cervix, and even precancerous condition - cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, which has already been explained above.

This test relates to the screening group, and so it must be done for all women, without exception, no matter what the reason for going to the doctor - a gynecologist. Therefore, in no case should not give up its implementation, if a doctor offers it. No painful and even just discomfort when taking smears a woman does not feel.

  • Colposcopy

In that case, if the doctor will have - any doubt, he is likely to hold a further examination of the mucous membranes of the vagina and cervix using a special optical device - a colposcope. This type of study is called colposcopy. During the examination, the doctor will carefully examine the condition of the mucous membrane of the cervix, with particular attention to those areas which seem suspicious to him the most.

  • A biopsy of the cervix

Last, the final stage of diagnosis of cervical cancer - a biopsy. The bottom line of this study is collecting a small amount of cervical tissue, which subsequently scrutinized under a microscope. This study is conducted without exception women whose doctor suspects cervical cancer.

  • Intravenous urography

Intravenous urography given to women who are suffering from cancer of the cervix in order to determine the full functioning of the urinary system, and especially of the kidneys. Malignant tumors of the cervix as their proliferation often heavily compresses the ureters. As a result of this compression may impair kidney function.

  • Rectoscopy and cystoscopy

These kinds of studies of the rectum and bladder are needed to further investigate the state of the rectum and bladder, which are most commonly affected metastasis.

Stages of cervical cancer

So, in the process of initial diagnosis the doctor has determined the presence of a woman's cervical malignancy. After that, in order to select the optimal treatment regimen, the physician should ascertain the stage of cervical cancer. This will require a number of additional studies, such as X-rays of the chest, ultrasound organs located in the abdominal and pelvic cavity. In some cases, you may need computed tomography.

Doctors classify cancer of the cervix mother's degree of development of the disease in several stages:

  1. The first stage of the disease. In the first stage of cervical cancer malignancy is localized exclusively within the woman's cervix. Treatment is initiated at this stage of the disease, the most effective. It allows for a five-year survival threshold is approximately 90% of all female patients.
  2. The second stage of the disease. In the second stage of cervical cancer malignancy is larger than the first, but the walls of the pelvis, it has not yet reached. In this stage of the disease treatment is also quite effective, but of course, the chances of the five-year survival rate slightly below the threshold - about 60% of all infected women.
  3. The third stage of the disease. This stage of cancer characterized by the presence of a malignant tumor, which affects not only the uterine cervix but also the lower third of the vagina. At this stage of the disease there is a five-year survival of all 35% of all women.
  4. The fourth stage of the disease. This stage cervical cancer is the latest and most severe. At this stage of development of malignant disease leaves the area of ​​a small basin, affecting the rectum or bladder. Furthermore, at this stage of disease are not uncommon metastases affecting other organs of the body, located at a considerable distance from the immediate hearth - cervix. Tragically, if the treatment of the disease begins only at this stage, the five-year survival threshold is minimal - no more than 10% of all women.

Above repeatedly mentioned such a thing as a "five-year survival." This term used by doctors oncologists. He refers to the treatment of cancer prognosis. This forecast is based on a well established, that in the event that for five years after the end of treatment for the sick person will not relapse, it has all the chances to never face a repetition of this cancer. At the expiration of this period, the sick person is considered fully recovered.

 cervical cancer symptoms

Methods of treatment of cervical cancer

The methods and techniques of treatment of cervical cancer depends upon several key factors. Firstly, a lot depends on the individual condition of the body and health characteristics of each specific diseased women. The patient must be prepared for the fact that only a visit to the doctor - oncologist do unlikely.

In addition to gynecological examination diseased woman will have to undergo a series of examinations and tests that will give doctors the most complete and accurate picture of the overall health, availability and extent of damage other internal organs. Without a complete picture to find a suitable and effective treatment, which also will be the most restrictive of other organs.

And, secondly, very much in the determination method of treatment depends on what stage of development is a malignant tumor. The first two stages of cervical cancer is most often limited to the complete removal of the doctors, both the body of the uterus and its appendages, and cervix. Often, this measure enough to completely eliminate the disease.