All the parents, without exception, know how difficult it is to raise the baby. At every step pipsqueak can face the phenomenon of children's infectious diseases, which are very widespread. Experienced parents who are raising is not the first child, know well what to do in a given situation. For example, if their child has chickenpox, the treatment will not be any work for them. But the newly made mothers and fathers, faced with the slightest ailment, let alone the children viral diseases, are very, very scared, often losing the ability to think straight.
It is for young parents and designed information in this article. Below are detailed the main childhood diseases, which in the process of growth experienced by most children. As a rule, the majority of childhood infectious diseases begins in a very acute form, with a significant increase in body temperature. In addition, all children's infectious diseases are highly contagious - is very easily transmitted from one person to another child. That is why, as a rule, in a single village isolated cases of childhood diseases are extremely rare - usually they are of epidemic proportions.
The most widely used today received such children and other skin diseases, such as:
- Chickenpox or, colloquially, chickenpox
- Whooping cough and other
The epidemic of these diseases frequently occur in child care centers. Generally, the detection of the kindergarten child to the children's infectious diseases, health workers garden and clinics to which the kindergarten, proceed as follows: diseased crumbs isolated or on the home mode, or, less commonly, in the hospital, depending on the state of health of the baby. And the kids who have been in contact with them, are quarantined and doctors monitor their condition.
Although, frankly, all of these methods are usually very ineffective - because during the incubation period, the child looks very healthy, but successfully carry infection. And so if we in the group of sick child, the sick and all the other kids. However, parents should not be afraid and, especially, to abandon the kindergarten only because of the fear that their child may be infected infant infection. During the outbreak in the city a child can become infected infant infection in many other ways - when traveling in public transport, a hike in the supermarket. In the end, pathogens can bring home the adult, on clothing and footwear.
Although the focus of this article goes on intestinal diseases, for them not to mention at least briefly. The most widespread intestinal disease get it in the summer. One of the most common causes of the disease bowel disorders of children is a basic failure to observe basic rules of hygiene.
Pathogen intestinal infection can get into the child's body in various ways - through food, water, dirty hands. Also, very often the cause of the disease is not enough heat-treated meat. For similar intestinal infections characterized by a sudden onset of acute m - child complains of pain in the abdomen, he begins exhausting vomiting and diarrhea. Children intestinal infections are extremely dangerous, as young children rapidly develop severe dehydration, which could lead to the most tragic consequences. At the first sign of the disease should immediately seek medical help.
What should pay attention to their parents?
There are some signs that parents should pay special attention. So, parents should seek medical advice in case they notice:
Rash always makes parents sounded the alarm. In most cases, summer rash is just a manifestation of prickly heat. However, the rash is also a faithful companion of diseases such as scarlet fever, rubella, chickenpox. Furthermore, a rash may also accompany various allergic reactions. In this case, the rash appears and spreads very quickly in appearance resembling nettle burns.
- Increasing the size of lymph nodes
Usually enlarged lymph nodes in the child indicate the presence of inflammation in the body, which can be both local and general. In very rare cases, inflammation and swollen lymph nodes in a child can indicate the presence of a child's blood disorders. In that case, if the parents discovered that their crumbs inflamed lymph node, they should immediately seek medical help. Very often, parents make the same mistake - are beginning to warm sites. However, this can not be done in any case, as you can cause lymph node abscess.
- The emergence of hyperthermia - fever in the child
Rising temperatures often accompany almost all known children's infectious diseases. In some cases the temperature can be increased only slightly, while in other cases - up to critical levels. However, parents need to remember that a slight increase in body temperature can also be connected with increased physical activity and crumbs on it too warm clothes. However, of course, the temperature will be increased slightly, up to about 37 readings, 2 - 37, 5 degrees.
In case your pipsqueak shows a clear concern, you should try to find out if he had a sore tummy. Very often the child because of their age just can not express my feelings in words. But stomach pain can be quite severe symptoms of disease. In that case, if the child complains of pain in the abdomen, it is necessary to lay, not feed and do not drink before the arrival of the doctor. In no case can not be applied to the abdomen warm crumbs!
A young child, loss of consciousness may indicate the following problems: intracranial pressure, infectious diseases, heat stroke. Sometimes loss of consciousness accompanied by pyrexia (fever). In any case, what would have been caused by a loss of consciousness of the child, this is a serious indication of an immediate call brigade "first aid".
The most common infectious disease of childhood - a chicken pox or as it is popularly called, chickenpox. Ill with chicken pox person can only once in a lifetime, after which the body produces lifelong immunity to the pathogen-resistant varicella. Most often suffer from the disease is in childhood, and the proceeds of chickenpox in children is much easier than adults. Parents should be aware of that is the causative agent of the disease, as the disease progresses and what the consequences for the child's body can result.
The causative agent of chicken pox is transmitted by airborne - droplets, that is, the upper respiratory tract and mucous membranes, including the eyes and through the mucous. It is because of their way to spread the disease got its name varicella or chickenpox. Most often suffer from chickenpox young children attending kindergartens. Chickenpox is a highly contagious disease, so the sick child should be immediately isolated from other children.
Symptoms of chickenpox
The first signs of chickenpox occur no earlier than 14 - 20 days after the first contact with a sick person. That's how much is the incubation period of the disease, during which the body of the child is in the pathogen does not manifest itself. The minimum incubation period, when - ever recorded by physicians, accounted for only 7 days. After the expiration of the incubation period, the child rapidly and significantly raised the body temperature - about 39 degrees.
In that case, if the temperature rise is not accompanied by the appearance of rash onset of the disease could be taken for a banal respiratory infection - a child complains of a headache and malaise.
Immediately after the fever in a child begin to appear on the skin rashes. First, there are flat pink spots, which a few hours later poured the liquid contents and take the form of bubbles. Many parents try to squeeze them, believing that the disease will be faster. However, this is not so - squeezing bubbles can only worsen the condition of the child and lead to numerous scars.
The first few days of rash in children with chickenpox, are very abundant. And they are located not only on the skin but also in mucosa - in the mouth, genital. The rash is almost always accompanied by a very strong sense of itching and the child is constantly trying to scratch it. In no case do not allow the child to comb rash, as this could lead to penetration into the wound infection.
The course of the disease in children in waves - some bubbles disappear, new ones appear. The appearance of the rash usually occurs within the first 4 days of the disease, followed by a decline. In place of the crust bubbles appear, which gradually disappear completely on their own without a trace.
Treatment of varicella
If chicken pox in children, treatment should be started immediately. The next question, which is necessary to understand this treatment of chickenpox. The first and most common mistake parents - self-prescription of antibiotics. This is fundamentally the wrong approach to the treatment of chicken pox. The causative agent of chicken pox is a virus, so antibiotics are absolutely useless. The only case where the use of antibiotics is justified, it is attached to a bacterial infection. But in this case, the antibiotic should appoint a doctor. Methods of treatment of chickenpox, in spite of the community, in each case may be different.
Bacterial infection joins often because the child combing rashes and introduction of infection. That is why it is so important for parents to ensure that children are not scratched itchy blisters. Of course, if the child is very small, exhortations and prohibitions can not be achieved nothing. Parents bear a tremendous burden - almost around the clock to monitor your baby, distracting him from scratching bubbles.
On the treatment of the disease, pediatricians advise the child to comply with bed rest - especially in the first few days of illness. Be sure to change the daily bedding and underwear baby. This measure will significantly reduce the number and rate of new lesions. Also, the period of treatment should be abandoned water treatment. The only thing you can do - is to take short baths with pale - pink manganese. Duration baths should not exceed 3 minutes.
Specific treatment of chickenpox does not exist, just as there is no cure chickenpox. However, there is still a definite strategy to facilitate the state of a sick child. Listed below are the main ones:
- Therapeutic diets. During the illness of a child must observe a sparing diet - from the child's diet is necessary to exclude all of the products that may be allergens. The menu of the child must include more plant and dairy food.
- Drinking regime. A child should receive plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration. Very often children because of rash in the mouth not only refuse to eat, and to drink - parents have to show the wonders of ingenuity and cleverness to water remains.
- Antipyretic drugs. In that case, if the child has long held high body temperature, the parents have to resort to pharmacological antipyretic drugs. Remember that doctors are advised not to shoot down the temperature below 38, 5 degrees. The exceptions are children under one year and those kids who have already been in the cases of seizure against a high temperature.
- Processing bubbles. Probably all seen repeatedly "leopard" crumbs, which is easy to detect the presence of chickenpox characteristic green spots on the body. The solution of brilliant green does not cure the rash, but has a disinfecting effect, reducing the risk of secondary bacterial infection. In addition, Zelenka largely dries wounds and slightly relieves itching. A similar effect has and the solution of potassium permanganate - but be very careful - too strong a solution of manganese can cause a burn tender baby skin. Water should be pink, but purple.
- Oral treatment. If your child has chickenpox in the mouth, oral treatment should be to rinse with a weak solution furatsilina. Rinse your mouth is necessary about every two hours.
Effects of chickenpox
Very many parents worried about the question of what the consequences might be postponed child chickenpox. Externally, chickenpox can leave marks on the skin in the form of small scars on the spot where they were bubbles. Typically, this occurs when a child and raised combed wound infection, resulting took place to be festering rash.
The serious negative consequences for the health of the child causes chickenpox are rare. In very rare cases there is a complication of diseases such as encephalomyelitis - inflammation of the membranes of the brain.
Also, some danger is the so-called congenital chickenpox. It occurs in a child if the woman contracted chickenpox during pregnancy. In that case, if a pregnant woman, previously without a history of varicella, is in contact with a sick child, she must immediately consult a doctor. If in the first 48 hours after exposure to a woman vaccinated, it will help prevent the development of disease in women.
But parents whose kids are sick with chickenpox, do not worry - in most cases the disease chickenpox passes without any complications and trace, provided that the child receives proper treatment and care.
Next in frequency childhood infectious diseases - is rubella. The following will be considered rubella - symptoms, treatment. The susceptibility of children to the disease is very, very high. This disease are children of all ages - like infants, and older kids. Especially dangerous is the disease for the unborn baby - rubella if a pregnant woman is sick, it is likely that the fetus will develop severe malformations.
The causative agent of rubella virus is a filter. This virus is resistant to various environmental effects and quickly dies. The source of infection is a sick child, and the way of transmission - airborne - drop a pin - on contact of the skin healthy and sick person. The greatest danger to others is a child in the third - the fourth day after the onset of the disease.
The symptoms of rubella
The incubation period of the disease is about two - three weeks. After this time, the child's body temperature rises significantly - up to 39 - 39, 5 degrees. Within hours, the child nodes swell different groups - cervical, submandibular, axillary, and inguinal. Even a day to the above manifestations of disease associated cough, runny nose, sore throat. On the third day the child may complain of headache, photophobia, and lacrimation.
Also on the third day the child has rashes on the skin that are red - brown color. Begin rash face and scalp, gradually spreading across the surface of the skin. Between a rash merge into one is not, and a few days later disappear, leaving no trace. In some cases, the course of rubella is possible at all without the rash. Quite rare, but still rubella can cause complications such as arthritis and rubella encephalitis.
If the child has measles, treatment will only symptomatic:
- Compliance with bed rest and relaxation.
- Light diet - rich in vitamins, and easily digestible food.
- A sufficient amount of liquid.
- Admission antivirus and antipyretic pharmaceutical products.
Remember that drugs should be prescribed only child pediatrician, taking into account the course of the disease and the individual characteristics of the child's body. Treatment of measles in children takes about 10 days, and all the children's diseases of the skin.