Skin diseases are often found in both adults and children. In children the most common atopic dermatitis. Typically, atopic dermatitis occurs in younger children. However, in the absence of timely adequate treatment of atopic dermatitis will then escalate it to subside, giving itself felt all my life. It is therefore important to recognize the problem and to make all the necessary steps to eliminate it. Atopic dermatitis in children requires immediate treatment.
In no case is impermissible self-diagnose and treat crumbs. The feature of atopic dermatitis is that it can masquerade as various other types of skin disease. For example, atopic dermatitis, rash sometimes resemble allergic skin reaction - "hives" or fungal diseases - for example, lichen. Improper treatment, not only will not bring the child relief, but also aggravate the disease. In children, the disease is easier than atopic dermatitis in adults, treatment is also easier and more efficient.
When any skin disease in a child parents should seek help from a doctor - a dermatologist, and in its absence - to the doctor - a pediatrician. The doctor will conduct all necessary investigations, including immunological tests - skin tests and studies. And on the basis of the results the doctor reliably diagnose disease and prescribe adequate effective treatment. Remember that if your child has atopic dermatitis, treatment of folk remedies is unacceptable. If the baby atopic dermatitis, herbal treatment will only aggravate the situation.
The causes of atopic dermatitis
As we know, none of the disease does not come from nowhere, with no predisposition and provoking factors. The same goes for atopic dermatitis. Below are the main causes of this disease:
Atopic dermatitis is an allergic skin disease. That is why the child's genetic predisposition to allergic diseases can serve as a precipitating factor for the development of atopic dermatitis. It increased production of the immune system cells that are responsible for causing allergic reactions, give the child from one parent, often becomes a fertile ground for the development of atopic dermatitis.
More often than not, when examining a sick child, the doctors discover that his family in the immediate family (mother, father, grandmother, grandfather, aunts and uncles, brothers and sisters), there are a variety of allergic diseases. Moreover, these diseases are not always skin - it can be, and allergic rhinitis (hay fever) and asthma. If your family one of the family suffers from allergies, you should be particularly attentive to the health of your children.
No less often provoking the strongest factor driving the development of atopic dermatitis, is located on the skin of the child Staphylococcus aureus. During their livelihoods Staphylococcus aureus highlights various decay products, which provoke the development of a variety of allergic reactions in the body of the baby.
About the same similar to provoke allergic reactions and have the effect of being on the skin and mucous membranes child fungi. For example, the fungus Candida, the causative agent of seborrhea and some other fungi are often the true culprits of severe allergic reactions in the baby.
Some complications that await a pregnant woman can also be a precipitating factor for the child, leading to the development of all sorts of allergic reactions. Most often such complications provoke a variety of viral diseases such as SARS and influenza, as well as taking certain pharmacological agents.
- Violation of the right algorithm for infant feeding
Very, very often parents unknowingly own hands to create a huge number of different provoking allergic reactions factors. More often it happens banal error in the feeding of infants. For example, prior to the first attachment to the breast crumbs deprives him of the necessary antibodies, which provide powerful protection to the child and activates the normal operation of the immune system. And these immunoglobulins contained in human colostrum only during the first few hours. Of course, then they will be replaced by other immunoglobulins, but one of the most important and essential parts of successful breastfeeding will be irretrievably lost.
Also, very often for various allergic reactions in your child, including atopic dermatitis and complain about those parents whose babies are bottle-fed. The reason is simple - even in a very good mixture no substances that are found in breast milk and protect the child from all kinds of allergic reactions. It is also extremely important to consider when deciding on the transfer of the child to artificial feeding. If you for some - any reason nevertheless can not continue breastfeeding, do not buy their own blend, choosing it empirically. Similar experiments carried out permissible only under the supervision of the attending physician, who will help you to choose the crumbs for the optimal mix, given its needs and peculiarities of development, thereby greatly reducing the risk of allergic reactions.
- Violation of a nursing mother diet
As everyone knows, a woman nursing her child, must comply with a certain diet. All substances falling together with food in a woman's body, penetrate into breast milk. That is why the nursing mother should very carefully monitor their diet. A woman should not eat fried, salty and spicy food, a variety of semi-finished products that contain dyes, sodas.
- Violation of the introduction of complementary foods
Sometimes completely healthy before the crumbs of a sudden there is a strong allergic reaction, often skin. And it happens, as a rule, during the introduction of complementary foods diet crumbs. This occurs most often on a number of reasons. Too early introduction of complementary foods is fraught with the development of atopic dermatitis. This happens because the digestive system is not mature child, and as a consequence, does not produce the necessary enzymes that cleave must lure. As a result, the child's immune system encounters unfamiliar to her complex substances and responsible development of allergic skin reactions. Also, very often the cause of allergic reactions becomes a low-quality complementary feeding.
Very often, doctors say the presence of atopic dermatitis in children of those who are sick. Provokes allergic reactions can be a factor in diseases such as acute respiratory disease, SARS, sore throat, runny nose, bronchitis. All these diseases have placed a certain strain on the baby's immune system. And if the load is too large, the immune system may have a certain failure and, consequently, the development of a variety of allergic reactions, and in particular a topical dermatitis.
Age disease atopic dermatitis
Very many parents are interested in the question of at what age the most common disease of atopic dermatitis. As mentioned above, the disease can occur at any age, even in adults. Although, of course, such is the exception rather the rule than the rule. The most common cases of true atopic dermatitis occur in children under the age group - in newborns and nursing babies, in some cases - in children of the first five years of life.
Atopic dermatitis has two periods of flow - the initial and secondary. Or, to put it simply, the acute phase of the disease and the stage of remission (disappearance of the main symptoms of the disease). As a rule, the acute phase occurs suddenly, it appears quite rapidly and with pronounced symptoms.
After some time, the acute stage passes, pronounced symptoms of the disease disappear. However, the disease is not passed completely, but only "hides" in the body, waiting for the next suitable opportunity to intensify. As a rule, this second stage occurs when the parents did not notice the problem in time and did not seek medical attention.
In that case, if the parents for some - any reason will ignore atopic dermatitis in their child, they face the risk of various complications, until the development of a child's asthma, and even angioedema pose a serious threat not only to the baby's health, but even for his life. In addition, the disease will haunt the child for many years, the sharpening, then subsided, thereby bringing a lot of inconvenience and discomfort to the child. That is why it is so important at the first symptoms of disease seek medical assistance from a qualified specialist.
Symptoms of atopic dermatitis
As discussed a little above, atopic dermatitis is very insidious disease, which can be very successfully masquerade as a variety of other diseases. Symptoms may depend on the degree of severity of atopic dermatitis, of its causes, the age of the sick child's living conditions, the nature of power and the individual characteristics of each individual child.
However, of course, despite the variety of species of atopic dermatitis, nevertheless there are certain common symptoms for all cases. It is on these grounds, in addition to laboratory tests, doctors diagnosed with atopic dermatitis. The following are the main features, the presence of which the baby can be suspected atopic dermatitis:
- Itching of the skin of the sick child
Skin lesions in areas of atopic dermatitis itch. The child is constantly trying to scratch them, often combing blood. This phenomenon is highly undesirable, as by breakage of the skin there is the risk of secondary bacterial infection. Simply put, combing the skin to the blood, the child may enter into the wound infection, causing inflammation there and the wound begins to fester. In addition, it must be remembered that in itself itchy skin accompanies a large number of diseases, not only atopic dermatitis. It is therefore this symptom of atopic dermatitis is considered only in combination with other signs of disease.
- The development of eczema
Often, in the case of illness a child with atopic dermatitis on the skin of his eczema appear very real. And not always the presence of eczema suggests that the disease is in advanced stage. Sometimes it is the first sign of eczema is just beginning the disease. Eczema is called inflammation of the skin, accompanied by phenomena such as redness of the skin.
Her swelling and thickening. Often appear on the skin blisters filled with clear liquid, which is very itchy. These bubbles have a feature to merge into one big blur burst. In their place there is a weeping wound, which is called - weeping eczema. In addition, on the skin affected by atopic dermatitis can cause cracks. This is due to the fact that the skin loses moisture and actively dried up.
Moreover, as already stated, the symptoms, and symptoms of atopic dermatitis differ significantly in children of different ages. It is also very important to know the parents in time to discover the problem and seek medical help. Below are described the symptoms of atopic dermatitis in two main categories of age children:
- Atopic dermatitis in children under one year of age
The course of atopic dermatitis in the smallest crumbs has its own characteristics. In particular, it concerns the location of inflamed skin (eczema). The most common eczema is on the face of the crumbs - on his cheeks and forehead, in the neck, especially in its folds. If the disease is not treated promptly initiated, skin lesions worse, eczema continues to develop - will appear on the elbows, armpits, tummy, behind the knees.
Eczema in babies looks standard - redness and swelling of the skin, the appearance of transparent bubbles with the liquid inside, their union and the emergence of weeping wounds after the breakout. As healing wounds covered with yellow crusts, which fall off on their own.
In no case can not attempt to peel the crust - in this case, the skin may remain scars and shramiki. Ensure that a child shall not combed them. For the same, the child is not ripped crust at night, in a dream, pediatricians recommend that parents put on the baby at night, cotton gloves.
- Atopic dermatitis in children 3 - 5 years
In children older atopic dermatitis manifests itself a little differently. Of course, all the main symptoms remain the same - the appearance of eczema, itchy skin, redness of them. However, little is changing the localization of lesions of the skin. For example, babies eczema often affects the elbows and knees, while the older kids - the hands and feet. In addition, older children are much more frequent cracking of the skin due to their dehydration than weeping eczema.
Very often in children with atopic dermatitis affected skin scalp - on the skin appear yellowish brown, resembling its appearance scabs. The child regularly complains of a strong sense of itching of the scalp. Parents seeking to alleviate the condition of your child, try to hook or by crook to get rid of the scabs on his head at the kid. In the course are all available means - vegetable oil, combing comb crusts. However, these measures do not bring the kid absolutely no relief, because they address the consequences of the disease, but not its cause. The head of the crumbs are not scratched by the presence of scabs, but because of atopic dermatitis, which leads to their emergence.
- Symptoms of atopic dermatitis in schoolchildren
As mentioned above, atopic dermatitis most often affects young children. However, there are exceptions to this rule, for example, if a child the disease was ignored and spilled over into the chronic form. School children atopic dermatitis proceeds differently than in young children. Skin most commonly affects the palms, soles, and elbow and knee joints. The appearance of weeping eczema in school children - a rarity. As a rule, the skin lesions in areas greatly thickens, coarsens and begins to peel off. The affected places of skin acquire a dark - red or even burgundy tint. The spots tend to merge with each other, covering a large area of skin.
In chronic course of atopic dermatitis is marked seasonal exacerbation. As a rule, the greatest aggravation occurs in the cold season, especially in winter. In summer, most of all the symptoms of atopic dermatitis disappear unless some - any severe allergies do not provoke the exacerbation of the disease. Doctors explain the seasonality of the disease different climatic factors such as temperature, its humidity and others.
- Symptoms of atopic dermatitis in adolescents
If the disease is not cured, and continues to develop in teenagers manifestations of atopic dermatitis also slightly modified. Returning weeping eczema, but the maroon and scaly patches also remain in place. Localized lesions of the skin in the following places - the face (cheeks and forehead), back of the neck (especially girls), shoulders, back, groin and knees, feet and hands.
In addition to the physical discomfort of skin lesions in atopic dermatitis is delivered to the child and psychological discomfort.