Such long, but at the same time as quickly flashed nine months of waiting the birth of your crumbs, the first Gulen, the first word "mama" ... All parents are waiting with great anticipation the first words of his remains. But often, when a child begins to speak, these very words evoke not only the joy of parents, but also a certain proportion of the anxiety that all increases as the child grows.
In recent years, more and more often children, who have any - any deviations from normal language development. At the same time, and hear the kid, and the level of mental and physical development does not suffer. In some cases, developmental disorders of speech is very minor and the child is not very clearly pronounces a few individual sounds, or his extremely poor vocabulary for his age group, the rate of deviation from the sound and the voice. Speech therapy in kindergarten these days is quite commonplace.
And in some cases, speech impairment so severe that the child is talking so bad that it is almost incomprehensible to him, and sometimes non-existent. And if the light does not interfere with speech disorders child attend ordinary pre-school, and subsequently an ordinary secondary school, the severe speech disorder does not allow the child to lead a normal life of his peers, attend kindergarten and school. These kids are forced to study in special educational institutions compensating type.
However, in ordinary kindergartens is a huge number of children who are actually in need of the help of a qualified speech therapist. That is why almost every garden work teachers - speech therapists, who conduct special remedial classes with both groups of children in need, and on an individual basis, if the child is in need. In these classes the teachers engaged in the development and correction of not only the speech process, but also the child's attention, the ability to focus all their attention on what - or a certain phenomenon, logical thinking.
If for some - any reason kids at preschool age have not received the necessary help of speech therapy in kindergarten (for example, the child did not attend kindergarten), they may be eligible for such aid in speech therapy points that are completely at any average statistical secondary school. As a general rule, in order to get to class to a speech therapist, a child should receive advice and direction from a speech therapist from the clinic the place of residence of the child.
However, you should not rely solely on the school speech therapists - usually in the school speech therapists focus primarily aimed not at eliminating the drawbacks speech therapy, and to overcome difficulties in learning and improving performance. Therefore, parents must necessarily drive your child to extra classes in serious speech therapy centers. In the event that speech therapy speech defects are not removed in a timely manner, the growth of the baby may have quite serious psychological problems and complexes, which can greatly complicate the life of the child. As a result, and have to go to a speech therapist and a psychologist as well.
In the same case, if the speech therapy speech disorders are so severe that the child's speech slurred completely, making it impossible to educate and train the baby first in an ordinary kindergarten, and after - school, a kid should be trained in special institutions compensating. In these institutions are highly qualified specialists - speech therapists, psychologists. A child receives comprehensive treatment to him classes to improve the speech process, the development of imaginative and logical thinking. Also, these children need to adapt socially, so that they can become productive members of society.
Signs of speech disorders in a child
Children's speech therapists face a variety of speech disorders - from the simplest to the most difficult. In a particularly difficult situation are kids with severe speech disorders, especially if the crumb to the damage of the speech process retains full hearing and an adequate level of intelligence. The child realizes that he is not the same as the other kids.
Such children can not fully participate in the games with their peers, to communicate with their parents, to engage with the teachers - all this can not affect the self-esteem of the child and in the process of its development. As a result, a child with a completely full intellect and level of development is still a group of children, and feels literally plucked from life. That is why parents are so worried about what time the children start talking. By the way - the starting date of occurrence of speech in children spelled out quite clearly - if the child is 2 years old does not mean parents should as soon as possible to show the child's doctors.
In that case, if the parents, doctors and teachers do not notice the signs of a timely speech process and will take all necessary steps, the child starts secondary underdevelopment which unqualified teachers may be regarded as innate.
These kids are very difficult in the future to adapt to teaching reading, writing and numeracy. They have a pronounced lack of sound, which entails limited perception of images, voice generalizations, sounds and letters that makes learning a child in ordinary school impossible. Of course, these children will not be able to adapt and adjust their own independent existence in the society.
Of course, as the child grows and his awareness of himself as a personality to it happening awareness of their disability. The child, in most cases simply withdraws into himself, deliberately refuses to communicate with the outside world, which seems to him alien and hostile. The nature of the child begins to deteriorate significantly - parents say isolation, brutality, tendency to hysteria with his baby. The child becomes insecure.
In this situation, a very large role played by the behavior of the parents and teachers who are engaged in the upbringing of the baby. Many parents are very rude pulls a child in the commission of child speech therapy speech errors, making him tactless and sometimes frankly insulting sharp remarks. However, it is a gross error of teaching that can lead to various psychological problems and a sharp rejection of the child's contact with the outside world.
In the event that violations of speech is not very pronounced, and degree of impairment allows him to be in a regular kindergarten, it is very important to choose the tactics of behavior with the child. In no case do not stress in the conversation once again that a child is different from other children. Of course, the correct speech errors toddler is necessary, but it must be done very tactfully and unobtrusively, without prejudice to the vanity of the kid and not focusing on this issue special attention.
Many parents, for various reasons refuse to attend classes at the speech therapist in the mistaken belief that they can cope on their own. However, under no circumstances should one try to do this in case you do not have a special education speech therapy. No tutorial, no training drive is not able to teach parents the skills that receive speech therapy at the Institute for 5 years. And wrong, even sincere attempts to help the baby suffering from various disorders of speech, not only were unsuccessful, but can only worsen, and sometimes dramatically, the child's condition.
There are many varieties of speech disorders - all in one article to write, of course, is simply impossible. Today, therefore, are more fully described two types of the most common speech disorders: stuttering and dysarthria.
Stuttering in children
Stuttering occurs in approximately 20% of all cases of speech disorders in children. Doctors - speech therapists characterize stuttering as a change in the normal rhythm, tempo and smooth sound of human speech. The reason for such violations are spasms of individual parts of the speech apparatus of man, which can be caused by a variety of reasons that are in different cases can range from mild to severe. Most often, the first question on the problem of the baby associated with stuttering, parents pay attention to it.
In order not to miss the beginning of the disease and early treatment of stuttering in children, parents should be aware of the main symptoms of stuttering:
In a speech to mark the child's parents involuntary pause, repetition of individual sounds or even whole syllables. The most common stuttering in children 3 years of age. However, in some cases, stuttering may appear later in life - often in such cases, the cause of stuttering are the result of psychological stress of the child. Formation of favorable conditions - an important component of how to treat stuttering in children.
- The sudden silence toddler
In life, what happens to the child - a stressful situation - the baby has experienced a lot of pain, a feeling of fear or something else ... and stops. The child is silent hour, another. And then he begins to speak again, but stuttered. If you are in a similar situation as quickly as possible, take the child to a medical facility where experienced doctors and psychologists to help the child smoothly and gently as possible to get out of the state of psychological shock. And in this case, the risk that the child will begin to talk stammer, will be much less than those without medical and psychological support that parents their child, if they wanted, just can not provide because of the lack of necessary knowledge and skills.
- The appearance in speeches superfluous sounds
In that case, if the parents began to notice that their baby before the words began to use extra sounds, most commonly vowels such as "a" and "o".
- The repetition of syllables in words or even whole words, standing in the beginning of the sentence
- Sudden forced to pause in the midst of the word - in the middle offers child stopped talking
Numerous observations neurologists say that all children with stuttering significantly weakened the central nervous system. For successful treatment of stuttering in a child just need to establish the cause of the disease. And these causes can be very different - one can never predict exactly what kind of factor will be the culprit of the disease. But it is better to prevent disease than to wrestle with how to cure stuttering in children.
Causes of stuttering in children
Causes of stuttering in children can be very different. In some cases, stuttering is caused by a general weakening of the nervous system caused by a variety of acute infectious diseases. Sometimes the trigger can be chicken pox or even common colds occurring in particularly severe. That is why it is important to promptly seek medical attention - in the event that sick kids get adequate treatment and proper care.
Also, very often the development of stuttering in children is the result of a severe stress or prolonged depression. Parents must constantly keep in mind that a small child has a very fragile and vulnerable psyche. The main task of parents is not only to feed and clothe the child, as well as create a favorable psychological climate. Remember that children are very hard to tolerate any change in the habitual way of life - which is very important for stability. And stress for the child can be not only negative events, but also positive emotions - it can be a parents' divorce, my mother access to work or hiking in the garden.
Psychologists - speech therapists also point out cases of stuttering in those children whose parents are often forced to read poems or baby talk that - or the public, guests. Remember that the constant repetition of the same information can lead to the development of stuttering in a child - do not force the child to do something against his will, in order to avoid complications of the speech process.
In some cases, stuttering occurs in those kids who start to talk very late (after three years), but very rapidly. It is similar to the development of speech and provokes the emergence of stuttering. But as a rule, this kind of stuttering goes fairly quickly and without any outside interference of parents or speech therapists.
Speaking of this speech disorder like stuttering, not to mention the fine motor skills of hands. Almost always the child's stuttering is accompanied by violation of fine motor skills. This disorder is noticeable even to the naked eye: These kids are very poor command of his wrists - do not lace the shoes can not fasten buttons or pick up off the shelf of a small object - a speck, small toys, a button.
Be sure to remember all the above-mentioned signs of stuttering - in fact it is one of those kinds of violations of normal speech process that can be prevented and to avoid worsening its course, if you start the treatment as early as possible. At first they suspected that the crumbs stuttering occurs, parents should as soon as possible to seek professional medical advice - a speech therapist and a psychologist, who know how to relieve the child's stuttering.
However, in addition to speech therapy it is very important to the tactics of behavior of parents and family of the baby. All around the child's adults have to remember that these children very much weakened by the nervous system. These kids need to be very gentle and tactful approach and attitude. In no case can not be punished by physical effects. And even to raise his voice to these kids is not recommended - it is very much can injure the child's psyche and dramatically worsen the disease.
Try to protect the child's psyche, avoid excess impressions. And this is true not only in global issues, but also in the everyday details. For example, children's books - in any case the child does not read those books that he, because of their young age, are not yet able to understand. In no case do not read the baby before bedtime stories with negative characters, such as goblin, Bag of Bones, dummy. Water - like reading can trigger nightmares and, as a consequence of stuttering.
The same applies to children from watching TV programs. Watching TV itself is very strong effect on the nervous system of the baby, so in any case should not be allowed a longer stay of the child at the TV. Take care that your child looks - try to completely eliminate child watching adult TV shows, cartoons, containing scenes of violence. In no case do not let your child watch TV less than one hour before bedtime.
However, in no case can not occupy the other extreme in dealing with these babies, fully indulging all their whims and never in no way denying. Thus, parents are risking very much to spoil the character and mentality of their child - after all accustomed to the constant indulgence to all his whims, at the slightest failure in what - or may cause severe stress. Remember that your child will grow up and will be first in kindergarten, then in school. And it will not be any extraordinary personality, it is a way for their parents, but only one of the students, the same as everybody else.
Dysarthria in children
The second incidence of problem with violation of speech - it dysarthria. Doctors - speech therapists called dysarthria those infringements of speech, which are caused by an organic lesion of the central nervous system of the baby. The most important and bright sign that the child is dysarthria, is not only the correct pronunciation of individual specific sounds, and a full breakdown of all the pronunciation of words, without exception. Dysarthria in children treatment requires a long and serious. And a survey of children with dysarthria reveals the severity of the violation.
Those children, who suffer from dysarthria, suffering restriction of normal mobility of muscles of jaw - facial machine, and facial muscles. Do these kids it is very specific: it is very slurred and unclear - and, without exception, all of the sounds and the voice is very soft and weak.