Our children - it is the most precious thing that only exists in our lives. And, of course, all parents are very sensitive to the issue of the health of your child. The slightest indisposition very frustrating mom and dad. However, colds are sick all children without exception, and nothing to do about it.
However, unfortunately, acute respiratory infections are one of the least of the evils, which can trap a baby in his life. There are many other diseases that affect the child. And kidney disease are among them. It's about diseases of the kidneys and urinary discussed below.
What is a kidney?
The kidneys are important organs of the human urinary system. The kidneys are a kind of filter through which the human body removes from the body all harmful or unnecessary substances to it. For the functioning of the body is very important to maintain an optimal balance of the internal environment. Only with the right balance can properly flowing metabolism and the formation of new blood cells - red blood cells.
Bookmark and development of the kidney begins during fetal development. However, at the time of birth of the baby develop his kidney is not yet fully completed. The size of the filter surface in the newborn kidney crumbs five times less provisions. And only at the end of the sixth month of life size close to the surface normal.
During fetal development the kidney as a full organ allocation is not yet operational. All unwanted substances from the body of the child are displayed using the placenta. But nevertheless, in the renal pelvis accumulates small amounts of urine, so that even before the birth of the baby takes its extension. Worry about it not worth it, because it is absolutely normal physiological phenomenon f. Expansion of the renal pelvis disappears in about one and a half years.
The principle of urinary system
Before we start talking about diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract, mention must be made about how they function. Itself consists of a cup of kidney and renal pelvis, which, in fact, forms the urine. The resulting urine by the ureters into the bladder, and from there through the urethra (the urethra) is derived from the human body to the outside.
The filling of the bladder occurs gradually, so the urge to urinate appear in person only when his bladder is filled with more than half. In the same case, if there is a violation of the nervous regulation of this process, there are all kinds of urinary tract dysfunction.
The most common kidney disease and disrupt the normal functioning of the urinary system occur in the critical moments of a child's development. These periods are as follows:
- The period from birth to age three. This period is the most dangerous with respect to a variety of disorders of the urinary tract. During this period the baby finally adapted to life outside the mother's body. In addition, during this period are shown all the congenital disorders of the structure and functioning of the urinary system.
- The period from five to seven years. At this point in the body of the child is a series of specific age-related changes, so the urinary system, as well as a number of others, are the most vulnerable.
- Adolescence (14 to 18). As a teenager, an increased risk of disruption of the normal functioning of the urinary system due to two factors: the rapid growth and changes in hormonal levels of the child.
The highest risk of urinary tract diseases in those children whose parents suffer from either pyelonephritis or the diseases of the endocrine system. By the health of babies mom and dad have to be most careful not to miss the first alarm bells. After all, the sooner treatment is started, the more successful it will be.
Types of kidney and urinary tract
Today, modern medicine, there are more than 30 different diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract. This article will explain just about the most common ones, such as:
If the child is not able to hold urine in the bladder and does not feel the urge to urinate, we can talk about such abuse, as incontinence. Such a violation to bring a considerable number of problems, both to the child and his mother. However, it should be borne in mind that the child is able to control their urine no earlier than he will be one - two years. Until then, the diagnosis of "incontinence" is not put.
Withhold urine, though the name is consonant with the previous violation, essentially different from it. The child feels the urge to urinate, but can not hold the urine and does not have time to run to the toilet.
Enuresis called bedwetting nights. In the daytime, the child has full control over her urination, but in the morning he wakes up in a wet bed. Moreover, such a breach without proper treatment can be kept in a child all his life.
- Abnormal expansion of renal pelvis
We have already mentioned that for young children characterized by physiological expansion of renal pelvis, disappearing to the year-old self image. However, there are a pathological expansion of the renal pelvis. There are quite a number of reasons that can cause it. These reasons may become refluxes causing ureteral reflux of urine from the back to the kidney, and renal vascular abnormalities, leading to pathological change of kidney tissue.
All young children during the first months of life is necessary to conduct ultrasound of the kidneys. And if the baby is found physiological extension of renal pelvis, in the subsequent need regular monitoring of the health of the child. Control ultrasound examinations should be carried out every three months. This tactic will allow time to identify all violations in a timely manner and take the necessary measures to prevent deterioration of the child.
Urinary tract infections are the most common kidney disease in children. As a rule, they have at least once in his life every third child is sick. As the incidence of this disease is second only to acute respiratory infections.
There are several types of these infections:
- Pyelonephritis. The inflammatory process affecting the tissues of the kidney.
- Cystitis. The inflammatory process affecting bladder tissue.
- Urethra. The inflammatory process involving membrane of the urethra.
- Asymptomatic presence of pathogenic bacteria in the urinary tract.
The bacteria enter the urethra system on a rising path. Initially, the bacteria get to the perineum and genitals, then climb up the urethra into the bladder and from there further - in the kidneys.
By the way, girls are much more likely to suffer infectious diseases of the urinary system than boys. This happens because of the physiological characteristics of the structure of the genital organs of girls. They urethra wider and short, which facilitates the penetration of bacteria. It is because of this question of personal hygiene girl needs more attention - is very important to wash away the little girl: front to back, not to bring the pathogenic bacteria from the anus to the genitals of the baby. When she grows up, my mother should teach her how to do it yourself.
In that case, if the child is suffering from kidney failure, his kidneys, depending on severity of the disease, may be partially or completely cease to perform its functions. Complete cessation of the functions of the kidneys leads to acute renal failure - of endangering the child's life and requires immediate medical attention.
In renal insufficiency in the body of the child is a violation of electrolyte balance, and blood accumulates large amounts of uric acid.
Doctors have identified two forms of kidney failure: chronic and acute. The chronic form of kidney failure usually is a direct result of some chronic diseases, such as pyelonephritis, diabetes or congenital abnormalities of the urinary tract.
Acute renal failure is almost always arises as a result of exposure to toxic substances or kidney, or large doses of drugs.
Doctors call this violation nephroptosis kidney structure in which it is not fixed in position but movable. In people, the disease also has names such as movable kidney, wandering kidney or renal ptosis.
In that case the mobility of the kidney is lowered, there is great risk that it rotates around its axis. Because of this torsion vessels stretch and bend. This phenomenon is extremely dangerous, as there is a circulatory disorder of the kidney. Features female physiology make the girl more vulnerable to the disease than boys.
- Increased salt content in urine
In that case, if a child disrupted normal metabolism, often increases the amount of urinary salt crystals in urine. The most common phosphates, urates and oxalates. In addition to metabolic factor that provokes high content of salts in the urine can be properly balancing the power of the child, in which the kidneys do not have time to dissolve the salt.
Oxalate in urine is increased in the case of the diet are abundantly present such foods rich in vitamin C and oxalic acid. These products include spinach, beets, celery, parsley, sour apples, currants, radishes, cocoa, chocolate, cheese, soups, etc.).
Elevated levels of urate in the urine caused by diet kid saturated purine bases. These products include meat products, liver, broth, pork, oily fish, sardines, tomatoes, strong tea, sour mineral water.
The content of phosphate in the urine rises if the baby's diet replete with products rich in phosphorous, such as cheese, fish, eggs, barley, buckwheat, millet and oat cereals, peas, beans, alkaline mineral water.
Typically, in such cases, changes in the urine of children are temporary. When the adjustment promptly child's diet composition of urine to normal very quickly. However, in no case is inadmissible to ignore the problem, considering it nothing - or frivolous. In that case, if the parents are not urgently reconsider the diet of their child, the risk of large sand and even the stones in the kidneys and bladder. A urolithiasis is a serious and extremely unpleasant disease that requires long-term and complex treatment.
Symptoms of kidney disease and urinary tract infections in children
Usually, kidney disease noted in a child for attentive parents to have no difficulty. All diseases have a certain number of symptoms:
- Pain in the lumbar region. And the pain can be both acute and pulling.
- Change the color of urine, it blurred and the appearance of blood.
- Increased body temperature for no apparent reason.
- Face edema, especially in the morning, after waking the child.
- The emergence of so-called "bags" under the eyes.
- The feeling of weakness, fatigue of the child.
- Sensation of dryness in the mouth, a constant feeling of thirst.
However, sometimes some kidney disease occur in a latent form, without standard symptoms. That is why parents need to pay attention to any changes in the absolute well-being of the child.
Symptoms of urinary tract diseases in children less than one year:
A small child can not complain to the parents and unpleasant pain in the lumbar region and discomfort when urinating. Therefore, parents crumbs should be especially careful.
Signs of kidney disease in children under one year:
- Changing the color and odor of urine.
- Increasing the size of the tummy crumbs.
- The boy has a cause for concern should be the weakening of the pressure of the jet of urine when urinating. By the way, this can happen is if the child has a place phimosis.
Symptoms of kidney disease in children older than one year of age:
Parents of older children, after about one year old, must also begin to worry that if the child shows the following symptoms:
- The child complains of pain in the lower abdomen or in the lumbar region.
- Sudden pain when urinating - a child may be afraid to go to the potty and cry.
- Significant acceleration or, conversely, a very rare urination.
- The child urinates in small portions, which had for him has never been seen.
- Urinary incontinence or withhold.
- Increased body temperature for no apparent reason.
In no case can not be ignored any kidney disease in children, because the consequences for children's health can be very unpredictable. Thus, for example, congenital renal disease or chronic disease occurring urinary tract can result in a significant lag in the physical development of the child.
In addition, various forms of chronic diseases can lead to such a threatening phenomenon as acute renal failure. This disease jeopardize not only health, but life remains.
Treatment of diseases of the urinary tract
Having discovered about your child - any of the above symptoms, parents should as soon as possible to ask for help to the child's doctor - urologist or, in the absence of a pediatrician. In no case is unacceptable to begin treatment on their own, according to the prompts grandmothers or friends.
In some cases, such self can bring improvement, but only temporary, as the disease is not completely eliminated, but rather has been driven deeper. And in some cases, self-medication can lead to very serious complications and even endanger the life of the child.
Before you assign any - any treatment, the doctor will prescribe a series of studies that are necessary to get a complete picture of the disease and the correct diagnosis. As a rule, the child, the following studies:
It allows you to detect the presence of salts in the urine sediment, the particles of blood, red blood cells. Having the results of laboratory examination of urine, the doctor to get an idea. What happens in the urinary system of a sick child. For the results of urine were correct, not distorted, the urine should be collected correctly. Carefully podmoyte child and collect the urine in a perfectly clean container. If it's a girl - a teenager, it is not necessary to pass a urine test during menstruation.
General blood test will determine whether there is a child in the body of any - any signs of inflammation and general intoxication.
Ultrasonography reveals the structure of congenital anomalies of the urinary system, their pathological change or the presence of sand and stones.
Based on the complaints of parents and the child and the results of research doctor diagnose and prescribe suitable just for your child treatment regimen. In order to successfully get rid of illness parents should strictly follow all your doctor's instructions and do all his appointments. Be healthy!