Are you waiting for spring with horror? At that time, when all the people are happy blossoming of nature and the warm days, you spend at home in the company of a handkerchief and funds from the common cold? Chances are, you are a victim of the so-called seasonal allergies or hay fever.
Hay fever. This disease - one of the most frequently encountered both in adults and in children. Hay fever in children - the most widespread species of allergic diseases. Hay fever - a disease that has an allergic nature and usually has a chronic form. Hay fever symptoms are as follows:
- Allergic inflammation and swelling of the mucous membranes of the nasal passages and airways, which is caused by exposure to the organism pollen.
- Seasonal rhinitis, beginning during the flowering of certain plants.
- Allergic conjunctivitis.
Despite the wide spread of the disease, often, unfortunately, it is not diagnosed or diagnosed in time. A timely diagnosis is very important - it is much easier to take preventive measures and to prevent the development of disease than later to deal with it is at advanced stage.
Do not diagnosed hay fever, doctors often take in the best case of viral disease, in which appointed antiviral drugs, which are absolutely useless in allergic reactions. In the worst case, doctors diagnose a patient - or an inflammatory disease, and antibiotics are prescribed for the treatment. Antibiotics in this case, the body will not bring nothing but harm.
The most difficult in this respect have to small children. As is known, doctors allergists mostly only accept children older than two - three years. But hay fever is often a yearling and crumbs. And if the doctor - a pediatrician who oversees the crumbs are not enough experienced and does not understand the reason for sickness toddler receiving unnecessary and sometimes dangerous for the body of drugs is almost inevitable. That is why all parents should have at least a general idea of what the hay fever, its causes and its symptoms.
In the event that parents possess this information, they will be able in time to understand what is happening with their baby and seek medical advice - allergist. In this way they will have an invaluable service to the kid. Unrecognized time hay fever can cause quite serious complications - chronic allergic reactions to certain allergens, weakened immunity, and even the development of the unpleasant and dangerous diseases such as asthma.
The causes of hay fever
Hay fever begins to develop when the human body dramatically increases their sensitization to pollen of one or more plants, typical of the climate zone in which sick people live. Sensitization is called the body's sensitivity to the impact that it has on some - or environmental factor.
If we take the best average data in Russia noted three main plant flowering period, which most often lead to the development of allergic reactions in humans, in particular, cause pollinosis:
- The spring bloom begins in April - May. During this period begin to blossom trees and shrubs such as hazel, oak, alder, birch and others.
- Period summer flowering occurs June - July. At this time actively blooming grasses such as bluegrass, timothy, fescue, bluegrass and other common plants.
- During the summer - autumn flowering occurs in late August - September. At this time the flowering of the plants that belong to the family Asteraceae and Chenopodiaceae - ambrosia, quinoa, wormwood.
During the active flowering plant pollen is able to spread very, very extensive. This is due to the fact that pollen is the smallest size, and is released in large quantities and is easily carried by the wind for many kilometers around the plant itself. If a person has a tendency to allergic diseases and pollinosis, in contact with the pollen he immediately feels a significant deterioration of their health.
Often, however, hay fever can manifest itself in varying degrees of severity and outside the flowering period of the plant - for example, in the fall or winter. In this case, be sure to try to find the cause - provoking factor that has a very negative impact on the human body. This factor can be almost anything: the sharp smell of paint, household chemicals, perfumes, smoke and even extremely low temperatures - so-called allergic to cold.
Very many of the ill people are trying to find an answer to the question of why someone suffers from allergies, and someone completely immune to them. In fact, a huge role in the transfer of propensity to allergic reactions is played by genetics and heredity.
Genes for allergies, most often a person inherits from his father or mother, and sometimes - and from both. In the event that the propensity to allergic reactions suffered only one parent, the chances of getting such a gene is inherited, is approximately 25%. But if you suffer from allergies, both parents - chances are escalating as much as 50 to 60%
The development of hay fever
Develops hay fever by the following standard procedure. After airways pollen penetrates and settles in the mucosa of the lungs and airways themselves. Also, the pollen falls and remains on the eyes and mucous eyeball. In the body immediately after the penetration of pollen starts the process of recognition of the allergen. During this process meet the cells of the immune system. They immediately start to produce antibodies (protective body), acting on the foreign agent by an overwhelming way. It is this process of doctors - allergists, and the process is called sensitization.
Such a mechanism of the body develops a tendency to allergic reactions in the presence of a child's predisposition can get its start at almost any age child. To begin start-up of such a mechanism is usually quite small enough amount of pollen.
Externally similar to the process of sensitization does not manifest itself absolutely no signs and symptoms. Often, the first contact with the allergen to the clinical manifestation of symptoms of allergic disease takes months or even one year.
For example, the child is in contact with the pollen of ragweed. In that case, if a child has a predisposition to the onset of allergic reactions in the body immediately starts its process, in which the immune system recognizes the child foreign agent, in this case - ragweed pollen.
After that, the body immediately begins to produce protective substances - antibodies that remain in the body of the child to the next contact - next year - with ragweed pollen. And even then, parents can observe the development of hay fever in all its "glory." This process is called the process of "authorization" and enclosing a phase in the development of allergic hay fever.
That is why parents often wonder why allergies occur for no apparent reason, and to those allergens that are used to allergies in children has never been. In fact, all this time in the body of the child proceeded process of sensitization, which turned allergies.
Symptoms of hay fever
Talking about the symptoms of hay fever, the first thing to note is the fact that hay fever - is often only a seasonal disease that is repeated cyclically, every year, during the active phase of flowering of certain plants. Hay fever occurs typically always sufficient and experienced doctor allergist not be difficult to diagnose the disease in time.
Typically, allergic hay fever has the following symptoms:
- In the sick person begins conjunctivitis allergic origin. There redness of the eyes, itching, watery eyes, swelling of the eyelids and photophobia.
- Along with conjunctivitis patient person has allergic rhinitis, accompanied by swelling of the mucous membrane of the nose, itching and burning in the nose, copious clear content.
As a result of nasal congestion often largely can be reduced hearing and smell, and very sick people often complain of severe headaches. The most powerful and fully all the symptoms of hay fever are expressed in the morning. This fact is explained by the fact that it is in the morning levels of pollen in the air is greatest.
The most important distinction from a mere hay fever acute respiratory infection is the lack of hyperthermia. The body temperature of a sick person is almost never rises above the physiological norm. In that case, if the sick person hay fever, when his examination, the doctor will not notice the typical ARD redness of the mucous membrane of the throat and increase in submandibular lymph node and ear.
In the event that a person suffering from pollinosis are detected the above symptoms, this indicates acceded respiratory disease. As a rule, the joint for these two diseases greatly increases the severity and degree of the flow reduces the effectiveness of each treatment. Antivirals greatly reduced effect on human body antihistamines.
The most severe form of hay fever hay fever is the one that accompanies asthma, having an allergic nature of the disease. This form of asthma is accompanied by allergic conjunctivitis and rhinitis. During flowering a sick person is experiencing more frequent than usual asthma attacks.
In that case, if a person suffers from bronchial asthma combined with allergic hay fever, hay fever attacks take place a little differently and are accompanied by the following symptoms:
- A person may experience a severe headache
- There may also be increased irritability and even crying.
- Weakness, sweating, chills.
- Increased body temperature to 38 degrees.
- A sick person feels a sense of fatigue.
Diagnosis of hay fever
If you suspect that you or your loved ones faced with this disease, as seasonal hay fever, the first thing you need to do - is to contact your physician to rule out acute respiratory diseases, or diseases that have the nature of an inflammatory nature, for example, acute bronchitis or pneumonia.
When other diseases are excluded, you should consult a doctor allergist - immunologist. In large cities, it is in the children's clinics, residents of small towns usually have to go to district centers in multidisciplinary medical facilities.
If ill - the child, the first phase of the survey includes a detailed survey of parents on child development, about what illnesses he suffered. Further, in adults and in children blood sample is taken and the content of the nasal mucosa for laboratory examination.
The next step will be the determination of what kind of pollen is an allergen for a specific person. The most optimal time for allergy tests - is the winter when an irritant - in this case, pollen - is absent, and medications into the body of the sick person does not arrive. This allows you to get a more accurate picture of the disease, not "smeared" receiving pharmacological agents.
During the trial on various allergens determined blood levels of immunoglobulin E-Class - are proteins of the immune system, operating in the protective function of the body. Almost all methods of allergy testing is most often performed on an outpatient basis. Hospitalized, usually either children or people with exacerbation of asthma.
The most common allergen to determine doctors allergists use scratch test or the prick test. These tests are carried out only in winter, no less than two weeks after receiving drugs with anti-allergic effect.
These tests are carried out as follows. On the forearm is a few scratches, which are applied on top of a drop of preparations, which contain a high concentration of different allergens. Or, these allergens can be administered by subcutaneous injection. After about 20 minutes, the physician evaluates the size of each of the scratches on the basis of which the allergen is detected. The larger red spot at the site of application of the allergen, the more a person allergic to the allergen.
However, despite the fact that these tests are the most accurate, their implementation is practiced only among children under five. For younger children, doctors recommend an alternative method of investigation - certain blood tests aimed at determining its content of protein antibodies, which the immune system produces in response to a particular pollen. This method of investigation is carried out at any time during the year, without regard to the state of health of the patient and it is taking to pharmacological agents. For young children, it is the only opportunity to diagnose allergic disease and to identify the allergen. Pollinosis pregnancy is diagnosed more often in a similar manner.
The treatment of hay fever
Hay fever - a seasonal allergy, the treatment is also carried out in the period of exacerbation. However, the most effective measure is to prevent seasonal allergies. Try to completely avoid contact of the sick person to the allergen. If possible, a person must leave at the time of flowering of certain plants their region. It could be a trip to summer camp, to his grandmother, or on vacation.
If this is not possible, you should take the following measures:
- Completely eliminate outings to the flowering plants that cause allergic reactions. Remember that an innocent trip to the barbecue on nature can turn into a significant deterioration of health.
- Avoid unless absolutely necessary not to leave the room, especially in the hot daytime. Remember that in windy conditions the concentration of pollen in the air close to the maximum.
- Try to walk in the evening, especially useful walk after a rain or in cloudy weather - in this time of pollen in the air there is little, it all nailed to the ground. This is the most optimal for walking.
- On the window openings is necessary to pull the mesh or cheesecloth and continually moisturize them - this will help to delay most of the pollen. Do not forget to promptly and regularly wet cleaning in the room. During cleaning always wear a gauze bandage - it will reduce the chance of developing an allergic reaction to dust and chemicals.
- Try in the room where the sick person is sleeping, clean carpets and soft toys that are great dust collectors.
Prevention of hay fever and is subject to certain diet. If you have hay fever, a diet will greatly facilitate your condition. Diet, in fact, very simple, but its observance helps avoid many health problems. The sick person should be excluded from the diet of only a few products:
- It is not recommended to eat chicken, especially the legs.
- Chicken eggs.
- During the flowering fruit trees is not recommended to use apples, pears, cherries and so on.
- In no case should not be allowed the use of the sick person or any other honey bee products.
- When taking any drugs, observe the fact that their composition was not of plant components.
- Try to avoid foods that contain any food coloring.
Do not try to treat seasonal allergies, self-appointing a sick person medicine, focusing on advertising boards or acquaintances. One drug that effectively helps one person may significantly harm another. Recommendations how to treat hay fever, the doctor will give you an allergist. As a rule, a human patient is assigned treatment antihistamines, which inhibit the allergic reaction.