One of the most serious illnesses of today is HIV - human immunodeficiency virus. Among other diseases HIV infection is second only to cancer. However, many doctors say that HIV infection is much worse cancers, as modern medicine has learned to cope with the majority of cancers, while ways to cure HIV infection to date does not yet exist. Although in fairness it should be noted that the current treatment of HIV infection today brings pretty good results.
The disease causes global defeat the entire immune system of the human body, which is entirely violate its normal functioning. Due to such disorders of the immune system in humans develop various secondary infectious processes and there are multiple tumors.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus may be present in the genome of human cells for three or more years. Even in plasma devoid of any whatsoever cellular elements, human immunodeficiency virus remains viable and active for at least one year, and sometimes even longer period. By the way, doctors say that this particular feature is due to a high risk of HIV infection at the needle sticks that before that were injected people with HIV infection.
The history of the disease began in 1981 when a group of California's gay in the blood, doctors first discovered a new virus for them, and who later was named "human immunodeficiency virus". Scientists suggest that HIV infection gets its spread from Central Africa. Doctors noticed that the presence of this disease leads to the fact that the adults begin after infection with immunodeficiency.
But still immunodeficiency doctors was known only as a congenital malformation in children. In these same people infected so far still new to the views of the doctors of the virus, the most immunodeficiency occur after getting the virus in the body. Doctors have long studied these patients to rule out the possibility of congenital immunodeficiency virus. That is why the disease became known as AIDS - Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, a virus, it causes - HIV.
Ways of HIV infection
The disease is contagious - HIV infection is transmitted from person to or already ill, or even carry the virus. In all cases the virus is human immunodeficiency in biological fluids such as vaginal secretions, semen and blood. Currently, there are several basic ways to transmit HIV from person to person:
The share of this method of HIV infection up to 70% of all cases of infection with this disease. Moreover, there is a fairly widespread misconception that the infection occurs only during the traditional vaginal intercourse. However, it does not - the chances of contracting the virus immunodeficiency during anal or oral sex, no less. In case the mucous membranes are present microtraumas, the risk of contamination is practically 100%.
In addition, at times increase the risk of HIV infection and the sexual partners of existing diseases, sexually transmitted diseases. Doctors explain this by the fact that, firstly, many venereal diseases provoke the development of ulceration of the mucous membranes of the genitals. And, secondly, we can not lose sight of the fact that sexually transmitted diseases, as, indeed, any other illness, at times weaken the immune system.
Do not lower the risk of HIV infection exists and if a healthy person received a blood transfusion or its components, donors who are HIV infected person. Fortunately, such a very rare because all blood donors undergo rigorous screening.
- The use of non-sterile instruments
Much less, yet still sometimes encountered such a method of infection with human immunodeficiency virus, the use of non-sterile medical instruments, syringes for injections, manicure and beauty tools. For many people, there is a persistent fear that they will be exposed to HIV infection during a visit to cosmetic surgeries or during dental treatment, but in reality, the likelihood that this will happen is very low. Percent of all infected at a fraction of this method is not more than 1%.
In that case, if a person or that the transplanted organ from a donor infected with human immunodeficiency virus infection occurs in almost 100% of cases. However, this happens very rarely.
According to the mode of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus called HIV transmission from pregnant mothers through the placenta to the child himself. Not long ago, the risk of having children infected with HIV - positive mothers was approximately 50%. However, modern medicine can reduce this risk by 20%.
Doctors have isolated certain risk groups belonging to people who have a much higher chance of contracting the human immunodeficiency virus: homosexuals, prostitutes, drug addicts and persons ill with sexually transmitted diseases.
The clinical course of the disease
Human immunodeficiency virus is introduced into the blood cells that are responsible for the proper functioning of the immune system - in the lymphocytes. It is based on this principle and action immunodeficiency virus - due to reduction of the normal functioning of the immune system may develop any disease completely. Simply put, the infected human immunodeficiency virus suffer from a wide variety of diseases - sick almost non-stop.
Like any other disease, immunodeficiency virus makes itself felt immediately after infection - had quite a long incubation period. Moreover, the run can be quite impressive - from a few months to 15 years. Doctors note that the length of the incubation period of HIV greatly affects the way of human infection.
Thus, for example, is well established that when infection occurred sexually incubation period is much shorter than if a person infected with HIV transfused blood or blood enzymes. But, of course, there are exceptions of any rules.
Approximately 50% of all people infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, is already about three weeks after infection, there is a number indicating that the beginning of the pathological processes in the human body. A person may appear a number of characteristics such as:
- Stable low-grade fever that lasts for two weeks.
- Swollen lymph nodes, and anyone can become inflamed lymph node.
- Enlarged liver and spleen, continuing for about two weeks.
- Tonsillitis, that despite intensive treatment, passes about 10 days.
This reactive state lasts for a maximum of one month, after which all symptoms disappear spontaneously, without any - any outside interference. There comes the so-called latency period, which can last a very long time, sometimes for years.
And the only possible sign of the presence in the patient's human immunodeficiency virus can be a steady increase in the lymph nodes. Doctors insist on a blood test in the event that a person for over a month increased two or more lymph node located in two or more different groups. Moreover, most attention should be given to groups of lymph nodes as axillary, elbow, and supraclavicular zadnesheynye - they are infected with the HIV suffer far more than any other.
As a rule, the last days of the incubation period also occur quite unique - the lymph nodes increase again, there is a very high fever - sometimes the temperature rises to 40 degrees, a person reduced physical activity, there is profuse sweating, especially at night. Also, sick people often celebrated intensive weight loss - more than ten kilos in a month, often against a background of severe diarrhea.
In some cases, a patient man marked cough, severe shortness of breath, inflammation of the hair follicles, fungal infections, hair loss, baldness, seborrheic and atopic dermatitis. In that case, if during this period - Doctors call it pre - AIDS - to undertake a study of the blood of the sick person, you can detect the change in the balance of those components whose function is to protect the body from these or other infectious agents.
As mentioned above, HIV appears mainly disruption of normal functioning of the immune system. Therefore, sick people often develop these or other severe infections, or as various neoplasms. Patients often observed:
- Pneumonia. The most commonly in human patients have the disease such as pneumonia, which provoke the development of atypical pathogens. The main danger of this pneumonia is that these atypical pathogens is practically not respond to currently existing methods of treatment, and so comes very quickly fatal to avoid that very, very difficult, and often even impossible.
- The defeat of the central nervous system. Approximately every third patient person holds central nervous system. The most common neurological diseases, such as active progressive dementia, encephalitis and meningitis, as well as the development of certain brain tumors, at least - spinal.
- The defeat of the skin. Approximately 20% of all people infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, there are certain defeat of the skin and mucous membranes. Typically, the skin and mucous affects a certain kind sarcoma - inflammation and growth of blood vessels which are located in mucous membranes and the integuments. And for people living with HIV, typically a very unusual arrangement of these tumors - on the mucous membranes of the mouth, the neck, the head, in the perianal region. The course of tumor development is very active in the process may involve even the lymph nodes and internal organs.
- Furthermore, some patients have cryptococcosis and candidiasis, and viral infection such as herpes simplex virus, which affect not only the skin, mucous membranes and internal organs - the stomach, intestines and lungs. These lesions may be quite broad - up to 50 - 70% of the surface of the skin or mucous membranes.
Symptoms of AIDS
Despite the fact that the recent blood tests for the detection of antibodies to HIV is widespread, often the disease is detected only after the doctor will pay attention to a number of symptoms that can occur in people with AIDS. Examples of these symptoms include:
- Increased body temperature
A sick man, and the treating physician should be alerted in the event that within a month and holds a fever, without any - any obvious reasons for this - first of all necessary to eliminate the possibility of the existence of any hidden inflammation. Moreover, the body temperature can be very different - from the low - 37 2 - 37, 5, to a very significant digits - 39 - 40 degrees.
Also, in these patients, doctors can monitor thrust a dry cough that lasts for several months. Typically, X-rays at the same time do not reveal any abnormalities.
In almost all cases of AIDS sick person complains of persistent diarrhea that can last for months. In addition there are diarrhea and other symptoms of bowel disorders - flatulence, bloating, and often the presence of dysbiosis.
Headaches, systematic emerging and do not pass after taking pain medication, and are often the companion of HIV infection and AIDS. However, needless to say, it is absolutely necessary to eliminate all other possible causes that can trigger headaches.
- The deterioration of the general condition of the person
In all the cases, there is a strong deterioration in the overall health of the person and his health. He complains of fatigue, weakness, emotional instability. At the slightest load, a person begin to shake hands and feet, acts cold clammy sweat, heartbeat quickens.
- Swollen lymph nodes, which are mentioned above, weight loss for no apparent reason
Of course, the presence of one or even several of the above symptoms in any case do not indicate that a person is HIV positive. These symptoms may be caused by a lot of variety of diseases that do not have HIV infection completely irrelevant. But be that as it may, the sick person should as soon as possible to seek medical assistance from a doctor, who will be able to accurately determine the cause of ailments and prescribe the necessary treatment.
However, if the doctor will suggest a person to donate blood for the study of the presence of antibodies to HIV, should not refuse, on the grounds that this possibility is completely ruled out. Tragically, by the disease is immune absolutely nobody. And if for some - any reason the work of the immune system is broken, drooping in the body of the human immunodeficiency virus can manifest itself very quickly, and in a very acute form.
And if the disease is not diagnosed as soon as possible, and will not be started appropriate treatment of HIV infection, the consequences can be very serious - life expectancy with an average decrease of 10 years - 1 - 3 years. And even during that short time without treatment, the human condition is much worse. Therefore, all the same it is not necessary to take a hostile reception to the doctor to investigate the offer blood for HIV.
Diagnosis of HIV and AIDS
As a rule, people learned that he was HIV infected, felt a strong psychological shock. And this is a natural reaction, because HIV infection is entirely changes the way of life. A sick person may experience a variety of feelings - fear, anger, despair, panic. These feelings are natural, and they should not be ashamed of.
However, in no case can not be closed in themselves and refuse to help. There are many organizations that help HIV-infected people. As a rule, these psychologists to help realize and accept the fact of the disease, and fight for their lives. And the doctors in such organizations have a lot of experience working with HIV patients initiated - they know exactly how to help each individual patient.
Timely treatment enables HIV-positive people to live to 15 and sometimes up to 20 years. Agree, it is not so small figure, especially considering the fact that no specific therapy promptly started life expectancy is rarely more than three, maximum of five years. The majority of HIV-infected people mistakenly believe that all these years of life, they will feel very sick.
However, this is not so - that if treatment was initiated in a timely manner, a person can lead a full life almost. Although, of course, a certain number of restrictions still exist - and in the first person is closely associated with a variety of pharmacological agents, without which the modern treatment of HIV infection is simply impossible.
In order to start the treatment required in this case, the doctor must accurately diagnose the presence of HIV infection. Diagnosis of the disease in all cases begins with anamnesis, which includes accommodation of the sick person, the image of his life, the clinical picture of the disease.