violation menstruatsionnogo cycle


  • Norm and deviation
  • Causes of disorders associated with various diseases
  • Age menstrual irregularities
  • Indications for the obligatory visit to the doctor

Such a complex mechanism such as the menstrual cycle, should ideally be run like clockwork, but failures - a fairly common phenomenon. That is why today the failure of the menstrual cycle is one of the most common gynecological abnormalities. To be able to perform the reproductive function, the woman should follow the regularity of the menstrual cycle, and pay attention to any deviations from the norm. If at some point there comes a failure in the functioning of the body, it is always a reason.

At the heart of the menstrual cycle is a system of complex biochemical reactions, it involves the central nervous system (cerebral cortex, subcortical centers), endocrine organs (adrenal glands, thyroid gland), genitals. All are to some extent responsible for the regulation of the cycle.

Failure of the menstrual cycle is not considered a separate disease, it is a sign that the internal organs of the offense occurred.

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Norm and deviation

The cycle time is measured from the first day of menstruation to the next. The normal length of the menstrual cycle - from 21 (some say 26) to 36 days. Menstruation lasts 3 to 7 days. "Standard" is considered to be a 28-day cycle. Do not panic because of the situational delay or reduce monthly cycle: in this case, 5-7 days (according to some sources up to 10 days) are a variant of the norm.

Violation of the menstrual cycle can talk to when monthly constantly delayed more than 10 days or cycle was reduced to 5-7 days. When failures become systemic in nature, it is an indication to action. An exception is the category of women with very long menstrual cycles are normal. Such physiological characteristics are genetically determined. As a rule, it turns out that such cases were observed in the nature of such women.

Menstrual irregularities are not as spotting a small scale during the time of ovulation (14 days before menstruation). The most pronounced form of menstrual disorders is amenorrhea - the complete absence of menstruation for six months or more.

In the first three months of hormonal contraceptive, or after taking emergency contraception may appear intermenstrual spotting. If the selection appear again, is to see a doctor, it can be a symptom of serious illness (such as uterine fibroids).

 Smoking is one of the causes of menstruation
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Causes of disorders associated with various diseases

The birth of healthy children is very important for every woman. Rare, scarce, or, conversely, frequent, heavy, irregular menstruation can cause difficulties in conceiving and carrying a pregnancy, so it is very important time to pay attention to problems in the body. As for the regulation of the menstrual cycle meet certain organs, it is necessary to seek the cause of failure is in violation of their interaction.

Violations of the cerebral cortex and subcortical centers (the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus):

  • chronic psycho-emotional stress, stress and frequent outrageous stress, lack of sleep;
  • change of time and climatic zones;
  • regular waking in the predawn hours (at this time there is an active secretion of hormones of the menstrual cycle regulators);
  • tumor formation;
  • neuroinfection virus.

Failure hormonal cycle can occur in disorders of the endocrine organs and target tissues, hormones have to stand out and be seen in the normal amount.

Disorders of the endocrine system:

  • genetic diseases, hormonal disruptions and pathology of the ovaries (polycystic hypoplasia);
  • function (accumulation of estrogen and progesterone deficiency);
  • inflammatory diseases of the uterus and appendages.

Other triggers:

  • cause of menstrual disorders may be diseases of the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, etc .;
  • infectious and noninfectious diseases of internal organs and systems;
  • One of the most frequent causes of failures - pelvic infection (need to be surveyed and to identify the causative agent, to conduct anti-inflammatory treatment);
  • for a normal cycle in healthy women should be supported by the necessary weight in relation to height and age, because it is very low weight and fast its loss (15-20% of the original) may contribute to the development of disturbances in the menstrual cycle, and in patients with anorexic women menstruation is absent;
  • weakened immunity negative impact on the general state of the organism may also affect the monthly cycle, so you need to eat properly and in a balanced manner, to use the necessary amount of vitamins, micro and macro, to play sports and to minimize the intake of harmful substances;
  • uncontrolled use of certain types of medications (especially antidepressants, hormones, anti-obesity agents) may adversely affect the monthly cycle;
  • harm and chronic intoxication, including smoking, drug use, alcohol abuse;
  • provoke failure of the menstrual cycle may be getting into the organism of various toxic substances, including radiation exposure.

 disruption of organs can cause cycle disorders

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Age menstrual irregularities

Irregular cycles can girls for 1-1, 5 years after the first menstruation in women after childbirth. It can also signal the beginning of menopause. The first menstruation occurs, usually 12-14 years. Regular monthly cycle should be defined in the making, that is, within 1-1, 5 years after the first month.

Irregular periods are not considered to be a deviation in the age of 45-55 years. During this period begins the decline of ovarian activity, production of estrogen (the main "female" hormone) starts to decrease. Menstruation gradually become irregular and infrequent, and then disappear altogether, indicating that the onset of menopause (menopause). The average age of menopause in women living in countries with temperate climates, is 50 years.

In 35-40 years there may come "early menopause" (syndrome ovarian failure). The causes of this condition are different, but the impact of its development may have an autoimmune disorder, past illnesses, medications, environmental factors. Most experts are inclined to think that it is inherited. At present, we developed various methods of treatment of this condition.

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Indications for the obligatory visit to the doctor

Failure of the menstrual cycle to many seems a trifle, but it can lead to serious and permanent problems if it is not detected in time and does not restore the regular cycle. For women who are sexually active, gynecological examination is recommended every six months, even if complaints about health and symptoms of any disease or disorder is not present. There are many infections that did not manifest itself, does not cause complaints and are not being violated, but fraught with serious consequences. In other cases, refer to a specialist is if:

  1. the girl of 15 years has not occurred first menstruation;
  2. through 1-1, 5 years after the first menstruation does not establish a regular monthly cycle;
  3. aged 45-55 years, with increased intervals between periods spotting there are abundant;
  4. there are systematic violations of the menstrual cycle, it becomes shorter or longer than 5-7 days;
  5. observed bleeding or heavy periods (a sign of hormonal disorders that require medical control), for one menstruation a woman should lose a maximum of 150 ml of blood;
  6. menses short and meager allocation;
  7. during ovulation appear painful (in this case, there is a risk of rupture of the ovary);
  8. before and after menstruation appear spotting that "smeared" for a long time (this may be a sign of endometriosis).

The first doctor usually appoints a study hormonal, ultrasound of internal organs, blood, fence material gynecologist to check for infection. Treatment is aimed at the elimination of non-infringement cycle and causes provoke them. Depending on the diagnosis may need medications, physical therapy, hormone therapy or even surgery.

 The reasons for the failure of the menstrual cycle