how to manage time

To learn how to manage time, written many books - they are often called the benefits of time management. Unfortunately, these works are often written by ordinary people who know nothing about the matter - they just honestly fulfill his fee, trying to sell the book to the greatest number of people. But tips on how to manage your time, do not want to hear from the homebrew psychologist or failed sales manager and held on in a person's life.

The principles of effective time management is useful to know not only the beginners careerists, and housewives (especially young mothers!). That is why in this article we have compiled most effective methods of working and successful in their field of people - politicians, businessmen, project managers, marketers, musicians, etc ....

9 Steps to Time Management

"Can you manage time? "- You would not be surprised if this question was asked in one of the fantastic tales. However, they are given very real people for whom it becomes important to get done in your life as much interesting and useful things. So, how to manage your time?

Step 1

Plan your day

It is proved that if you spend fifteen minutes to prepare for the working day, it will save you about two hours of pure time. Keep in mind that the plan - it's not there any hard-coded frame for which you can not go out - it's just your outline for the upcoming events. Everything in life can be: a friend is late, work on the project will be delayed or you suddenly decide that the more urgent is to work on that issue. For you did not have jobs involving all hands and the feeling that you do not have time, remember the "golden rule of successful people": to paint only 60% of your time, and the remaining 40% reserve for unexpected or urgent cases. In the event that such things do not appear, take the time for training, self-development or leisure.

Step 2

Set your priorities and pay attention only to things important to you

This is the main secret of how to manage their time. Once you have decided on a plan for the day, you need to decide what to do in the first place, and that - in the second. You can try to share all of your business into four groups:

  • important and urgent;
  • important and not urgent;
  • unimportant and urgent;
  • unimportant and not urgent;

If the morning is not your most productive time, start the day with unimportant but urgent cases. Recovering, to take over the important and urgent matters, such as meeting with clients or writing of the report. Even if you can not perform all that is planned, the most important and urgent is done, and it will bring you satisfaction.

Step 3

Combine similar problems in the working units

For example, in the morning you meet with people - customers, colleagues and superiors, and the second - work with documents. It will save you a lot of time that you could spend on a "dive" in each type of activity and getting used to it. However, make sure that these units are not tightened too - if you're part of the day engaged in repetitive activities, it will be too monotonous and reduce your productivity.

Step 4

Use the principles of active recreation

Activities - not necessarily sports (although it may be so). The essence of this holiday - to switch attention and change activity. Too long to focus on one thing tiring, so every hour start a small five-minute break. Home understand that the rest - it's not foray into social networks, and the recovery of strength and energy. Make exercise, walk, have a snack - but do not forget to change the situation in this case.

Step 5

Set a specific time frame for all of their cases

Blurred the boundaries of "soon done" or "I need a little more time" discourage and reduce the efficiency of your operations. Instead, it is more clearly articulate the problem and set the rules for himself - "I will do to the five o'clock" or "I need another forty minutes." In addition, punctuality will help you to demand the same of others, that will be another important contribution to how to manage your time.

Step 6

Focus on your own life goals

All the previous tips, you can throw it in the basket in case you do not know what you want from life. Make for yourself a list of what is important to you and what would you like to achieve. And try to do something that will bring you closer to your goals. When planning any business, ask yourself: "Is it brings me closer to my goal? ". This will help you to find the things that you are doing automatically and they really do not need you.

Step 7

Do not be distracted by all sorts of little things

A colleague in a hurry to share with you fresh ideas, a friend asks for advice, and even the screen is flashing continuously ICQ? No wonder that in such circumstances there is little you have time. If we add to this the typical type absorbers time surfing the Internet and unfolding of solitaire, you will be terrified, how many hours wasted! In order to understand how to manage your time, try for one hour each day to write down everything, what, up to five minutes. Then calculate how much time you spent on productive work, and how much you lose nothing. It will be a good example and really shake you.

Step 8

Big business is broken down into smaller

It can be very difficult to force yourself to begin to address difficult or very ambitious task, especially if the result is delayed in time. For example, writing a diploma - it's hard labor! But if you try to divide it into smaller tasks such purpose ceases to be unaffordable: first write an outline, then get the literature, then try to write a chapter in a few days, etc. ... Because after every stage you will see the results, you will be easier to deal with subjective solution to this problem. I will not spend a lot of time trying to force myself to deal with it.

Step 9

Do not tighten the decision-making

Of course, thinking about what you do not. But turn the decision-making process does not necessarily protracted. If you have difficulty, use the classical rational way: write all the possible options on the sheet, select all of their pros and cons. Do not forget to consider your feelings and inclinations (we're still a girl and can not work solely on logic). And make decisions that will be most advantageous. Maybe at first it will seem far from ideal, but the most important thing is that you start to do something, instead of sitting on the ground.

We hope that by reading this article, you learned how to manage my time. It is not so difficult and improbable as it seems at first glance. Try to incorporate into their lives only a part of these recommendations - and you will see how much more you have been unable to keep up! And if you use all the tips? Then you have a great chance of becoming the most successful and luckiest woman in Russia a few years!

 How to manage time and write 48 hours a day

We advise to check: Time Management

 psychological capabilities old

Old age - a great time! But not everybody knows about it, and many will even argue. For most people, retirement - are diseases, helplessness, boredom and monotony. Therefore, when a person turns a certain number of years, he had felt doomed. However, things are not nearly as pessimistic. Psychological possibilities of old age, which many people simply do not notice can be very large and amazing. If you, for whatever reasons, the relevant question, after reading this article, you will be able optimistic and take a fresh look at the prospects that open before you.

At what point comes old age?

Many people ask themselves the question: "At what point do I become old? "Maybe it will surprise you, but some clear and the same for all the border does not exist. Scientists prefer to start from the physiological reasons of old age, as the majority of psychological changes are connected with them. As the main reasons for this often appears climax.

The duration of menopause may vary from one year to ten years, and the peak at an average of fifty to fifty-five years. Currently, there is debate on the subject of whether there is still the climax of both men, or it is only for women. But even if the hormonal changes - it may be the lot of women, the psychological changes are subject to both sexes. These changes are a number of steps in its formation:

  1. Preklimaks

    Some people long before menopause appear first violation in the body - worsening of the cardiovascular system, decreased production of hormones, and a woman can pursue headaches, shortness of breath and fainting. In the state of mind of having the first "alarm bells" - tearfulness and resentment. In men, by the way, there may be a melancholy and depression.

  2. Actually klimakc

    Temporary border it are blurred - from forty-five to fifty-five years .  For some women, it turns into a nightmare .  However, changes in the emotional sphere occur even among those who were active in life, commitment, endurance and self-confident .  Instead, in the foreground can go indecision, anxiety and lack of prospects for the future . In this situation, the woman should be clearly understood that her state of mind - is largely an echo of the grandiose reconstruction that takes place in her body .  May reduce interest even to the fact that before it was exciting .  Often during menopause further sharpened the most striking traits .  The main thing - remember that sooner or later this will be emotion and nervousness, and general condition stabilized . In men, these experiences usually correlate with the midlife crisis .  They turn back and look at my life, and if the impression is far from good, they begin to try to change something .  This can manifest itself in the strange behavior: suspicion, Downshifting, marrying a girl of twenty or buying a convertible .  Sometimes these actions bring comfort in men's soul, and sometimes only reinforce dissatisfaction with life .

  3. Ending

    It is expressed in the fact that the woman calms down. In her mind reigns stability, positive self and harmony. Men could end as well, but there may be less optimistic scenario. For example, a sort of old man's restlessness, or conversely, coarsening - when a man becomes bulky and unwieldy.

The above changes in the old age, it is very closely tied to the climax. However, the boundaries of old age do not have to make a start it on the physiological transformations. Old age as a psychological problem depends on socially accepted norms, which are based on the age and lifestyle of the elderly person. In particular, we offer the following limits for the elderly:

  1. Predstarost

    May occur during the period of fifty-five to sixty-five years. There is increased sensitivity to changes - in this age of change in life circumstances are perceived much more difficult, because psyche becomes less flexible and mobile. People come into this period, retire, respectively, changes occur in any case. This may be associated with depression, and perhaps with joy - for example, if a person finally will ikebana, which had long dreamed of, or can often go fishing. Increased demand for related contacts. There is a surge of self-centeredness, because of which may subsequently lead to conflicts.

  2. Actually aging

    This phase begins at all differently, on average - to sixty-five. Lifestyle can be radically different from the previous period, because, as a rule, are marked changes in the condition of the body, which leads to the need for special conditions: the special diet, daily routine, employment, etc. ... Increased dependence on others people, so many elderly people in need of support from the family and their help.

  3. Decrepitude

    There comes not at all and more to do with some serious illnesses. For example, a person can not walk or take care of themselves. He may need special medications or devices that support any vital functions. In the event of a state of each person individually is shown. That is why now, many people are engaged in the prevention of senility - lead a healthy lifestyle and sports.

Obviously, the old border very, very blurred. Someone feels a deep old woman of fifty years, and for some seventy is not an obstacle for an active and interesting life. Agree, the secret of a happy old age worth it! For example, in the West there is such a thing as the "third age" - this time after retirement rights. It is filled with travel, concerts and various hobbies such as collecting or calligraphy. And even when the forces become smaller, there comes a "fourth age" - a period of not so active, but also quite happy - it's more calm and wise old age. So from what is still depends on our future?

 psychological characteristics of old age

What retirement future for us ...

Future changes very, very much - some of them are better, some worse, and some just need to get used to. This so-called psychological characteristics of old age. In any case, if they were not, old age would not be a new stage in our life. The first changes relate to the human psyche. Obviously, reduced visual acuity and hearing, attention and memory.

But memory is actually not so simple: predominantly affects long-term memory, ie, it is easier to forget everything that happened long ago and for a long time. But while older people remember well all the things that they are interested in, as well as the all important event for them. Reduced learning - which is why old age is so hard to master computer. However, someone is it possible, and therefore, the process depends on the interest and attitude to it.

We should also mention about the intelligence and thought. In order to keep them up to standard in old age need to use special aids, for example, grouping the material about the meaning, the involvement of all the senses, and a greater amount of time spent on thinking. However, this is not all psychologists have made a list of factors that are beneficial to the intelligence:

  • absence of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases;
  • favorable environmental conditions;
  • the level of income above average;
  • a warm family climate;
  • participation in affairs, contributing to the development of cognitive abilities;
  • the spouse who has high intelligence;
  • satisfaction with current life;
  • personal flexibility;

By the psychological characteristics of old age also apply dramatic changes in personality and character of the person. Reduced vitality and tone, an elderly person becomes less active. Many emotions decreased, especially those who used to live rough and emotionally stressful life - they come for calm. It narrows the range of their feelings, sometimes all the love is concentrated on someone one, for example, to grandchildren. A certain helplessness, compliance and suggestibility. This is particularly important in the sense that it is necessary to protect their elderly relatives from the influence of fraud.

It narrows the range of interests. You yourself have heard that older people are talking only about their sores, desires and needs, or how bad life in Russia. All this may be accompanied by increased irritability, and emotional reactions. By the way, sometimes there is such a phenomenon as a change of some traits to the opposite: for example, in the past, generous man suddenly becomes a mean that, of course, does not find support in others. In general, older people are quite self-centered.

It is necessary to recall the phenomenon razobschestvleniya. It characterizes particularly for older people, and, as the name implies, refers to the loss of opportunities for full interaction with others. Unfortunately, it is a fact, and perhaps precisely because of this, many older people this complex. They are hard to satisfy their need to communicate, even to the therapist and to the post office, they come to talk to (the very annoy other people). This phenomenon has several sources:

  1. The loss of family ties. It happens all the time, for example, when elderly parents live separately from adult children. They are often difficult to come to the children, and those in turn once. And it's not always fun to listen to stories from the life of the parents.
  2. Job loss associated with retirement. For a man after thirty lion's share of its communication with other people is communication at work. Some even manage to build friendships with colleagues. But all this comes to an end at a time when a person ceases to regularly go to work.
  3. The inevitable loss of partners in communication. This can happen for various reasons: the death of a spouse or close friends, travel restrictions related to health, the lack of its own transport or financial difficulties. Exactly the same problems could arise with friends, so social contacts in old age are becoming less intense.

However, not all so sad and hopeless - there are obstacles razobschestvleniyu. This can be and balance the nervous system, and high extroversion, but the most important is the prevailing social attitude towards the elderly. For example, in Abkhazia, young people respect the elderly - they are a symbol of wisdom for them - and pay great attention to dialogue with them. Because of this, most older people are satisfied with their lives. It also finds expression in the social sphere in Abkhazia there are no old people, criminals and crimes against the elderly.

It should also be borne in mind that the aging of the role of family in the life of an elderly person. After all, the family contacts able to replace other types of lost it. Deteriorating health, growing over the years, puts an aging man in a growing dependence on other family members - he needs their support and care. When an elderly person is within the family, he is able to feel the security and independence of the problems encountered.

But the elderly grandfather or grandmother does not necessarily become a burden. They may be feasible to engage in domestic chores such as cooking or mess around with the kids. This will give him or her a sense of self-use and self-confidence, and yet they are very important for good health and full adaptation to the period of old age. Furthermore, it is the grandparents can truthfully and interesting to talk about the events of the past than they can in earnest to captivate a young child. The main thing in this whole situation - to treat each other with love and respect.

Not to mention the sad and depressed - the impending death, for many people it is associated with aging and aging-related changes. Interaction with death has several aspects:

  • The value for a person's death. For some, it means the end of all things, and for someone - just move to the next level or even some interesting and exciting event. Agree - the way a person relates to death, largely able to determine his state of health for the period after sixty years.
  • The value of the death of loved ones. It was on this occasion experiencing the caring of us: "What will happen to my husband after my death? "" And what will become of my children after my death? " etc. ... After all, death is often perceived by us not as bad event for outgoing person, but as a tragedy for his family. And this has a homespun truth.
  • Practical aspects. It consists of two questions: what can be done with the fear of death and how to delay? People go to psychotherapists, are spending a lot of money on doctors and a healthy lifestyle (this, by the way, work the whole industrial industry) - all for a few years to delay this moment. By the way, it is very closely related to the meaning of death for a person, as to move away from the death will be only one for whom she painted very negatively.

All these thoughts about death are bad for the psychological characteristics of old age - the person has set the type of "come what may" and "me depends nothing" (many because of the thought of death go to the religion and to transfer responsibility for their lives to God ), as well as enhanced the moral principle. Elderly man becomes wise and increasingly adheres to the moral standards of the fact that changing the perception of reality - the desire to compete with others and have the material goods is replaced by a craving for warm relations and stability in society.

 old age as a psychological problem

Ageism: Danger!

There is another sad phenomenon, which can not fail to mention - it is ageism. This term denotes the negative stereotyping of people of any age group, but most often refers to the stereotype of the elderly. Agree that each of us at least once in his life he experienced an acute attack, scolding grandmother sluggishness in the mail or boring grandfather Sberbank.

This attitude is associated with a variety of reasons. First, older people often do not take care of themselves: they do not look shabby and exude an unpleasant smell, can start a loud sneeze and cough, etc. ... What motivates them to do so - is not always clear (you can not write off all the bad social conditions in Russia, as someone still manages to look and behave aesthetically pleasing!). All this is happening in today's society, where has long been important beauty and harmony. Secondly, with the elderly it can be difficult to communicate and stay close - they talk sometimes like a stream of chaotic thoughts malovosprinimaemy close to idiocy. They often wedged obsessions, furiously flying from senile toothless mouth.

Indeed, as heirs of the best Soviet times, the elderly often are not adapted to modern realities. This explains some of their slowness and inability to learn any new technology. In their time, because even a hint of such progress was not! Faced with one or two such entities, we start to think that they are. So the stereotypes are born, which subsequently affect themselves already in our attitude to old age. First, you see these elderly people are rude to them, and then you think that you will become like that, and you will also be rude, and then you start madly afraid of old age. So a vicious circle.

Breaking his only you can. Feeling threatens to suffocate the wave of irritation and anger at another strange old man, stop and think about why he behaves. You may experience pity and compassion instead of anger, maybe you even want him something to help. Well, if his behavior is totally beyond the pale and seriously hurt you, try to protect themselves from contact with this person.