What is depression


  • Depression as an illness
  • Types of Depression
  • Depression in psychology
  • Depression and Psychosomatics
  • Conclusion

Perhaps each of us in his own way is an answer to the question, what is depression. Some people consider it a far-fetched problem, others - a serious illness that requires medical attention, and for the third depression - it's just bad moods and bouts of melancholy. Whatever it was, without a true understanding of this phenomenon it is very difficult to fight, but this should be done, it is no wonder depression called "the disease the twenty-first century." Almost every resident of the big city in different variants encountered manifestations of depression - including you, which is why the information about it will be interesting and useful to you.

Depression as an illness

It began as usual, with Hippocrates. As many, he described four temperaments, one of which is called melancholy. So, the description of the "melancholy" (which translated from Greek means "black bile") is very close to the modern concept of depression. By the way, even Hippocrates charted its treatment, which, of course, cause a surprise to the person living in the twenty-first century: tincture of opium, long hot baths, massage, cleansing enemas, and, of course, psychological support.

Modern medicine calls illness depression. Just as with any other illness, depression interferes with the normal human activity, it is working, the desire to interact with other members of society, the quality and duration of life and the ability to adapt to the changing world. It belongs to a class of mental disorders and is characterized by the so-called "troika depressive":

  • Depressed mood and loss of ability to experience pleasure;
  • Changes in thinking: pessimism, negative judgments, negative forecasts for the future, etc. ...
  • Motor and thought retardation, lethargy and apathy.

Depression refers to violations of the emotional sphere. In the world according to the World Health Organization, depression at least once in their lives suffered at least ten percent of the population of civilized countries. Most likely, in the underdeveloped countries, people also suffer from it, but this one does not write - agree, in places such as Africa, are much more acute hunger and vaccination against infections, rather than diagnosis and treatment of depression.

It is necessary to say a few words about the diagnosis of depression. Often it is very difficult due to the fact that many patients are silent about the first symptoms of this disorder. Someone is afraid that he was considered a lunatic who is afraid of destination and, depending on the medication, someone thinks that depression does not exist. But the fact remains that almost half percent of cases are diagnosed depression late.

Depression does not develop simultaneously: yesterday it was not, and now she knocks a man down and riotous color blooms. As a rule, first the person is a single depressive episode. It can be of varying severity: light, medium and heavy. In some cases, depression becomes chronic: the episodes are repeated at regular intervals.

Treatment for depression - a single song. Indeed, in many cases, patients are shown antidepressants. But the good doctor prescribes them, after weighing all the "pros" and "cons" of such treatment, evaluating the risks and possible consequences. For people suffering from clinical depression, they are necessary, because without proper treatment the quality of life of these patients is extremely low. In the treatment of depression is almost always an element (and sometimes the main part) psychotherapy. That's right, because it is necessary to eliminate the psychological causes of depression and to secure obtained in the course of treatment outcome.

This is the view of official medicine to the problem of depression. But do not assume that a sick person in front of you, having heard of the words "I have depression." Many people use the term not in the medical sense, but only to indicate the attacks of bad temper. It should be understood that clinical depression - it's always something more than just melancholy. It includes a number of symptoms, which we mentioned above and write below and put the appropriate diagnosis can only be a doctor - we must not forget.


Types of Depression

It just so happened that in the Russian depression called anything - spleen, melancholy, sadness, apathy, sadness, grief, and just in a bad mood. No one cares what really depressed - a mental disorder has its own symptoms. That in the case of such a violation of human should see a doctor and sometimes assign antidepressants.

There are many types of depression. They differ from each other by the symptoms, causes and nature of the flow. If a person is really sick with depression, one of the tasks of the psychiatrist is to determine its kind for the purpose of assigning an appropriate medical and psychotherapeutic treatment. Of course, readers of our journal do not need to know them all, but we think you will be interested in the most common types of

  1. Lypothymia

    This is one of the worst of its kinds. Translated from the Greek word "endogenous" means "originating from within." In the event of a depression, the psychological impact is not tracked or any other factors - disease just suddenly appears in all its glory: the patients' heart aches, "" longing compresses the chest as if a vise, "" broken heart ", etc. Some scientists ... is associated with a type of depression with an imbalance of chemicals in the body, so as the primary drug of it used antidepressants.

    Endogenous depression is unpleasant that it is impossible to predict an attack or something to prevent - it occurs by itself, and it significantly reduces the quality of life of a person suffering from it. We'll tell you a little story, in order to help you better understand the condition of the person who is depressed. Mary was twenty-two years old when she first faced with this problem. After graduating from university and started working, she began to realize that it no longer at happy as before. World stained even in black and white, but dirty-gray color.

    Socializing with friends, until recently caused a storm of positive emotions, no longer pleased her. More than anything, Masha wanted to sit at home and watch at one point, without going anywhere else. The saddest thing is that the awareness of what is happening all of a sudden came to Masha. At first she thought it was all - just bouts of bad temper. But when one is not beautiful day she could not find the strength to go to work, she had to go to a therapist. After listening to Masha, he diagnosed a "depression." She did not understand - like so, because it has everything in life was good! Where did these negative experiences? But the doctor told her that, in some cases, depression appears as if from nowhere, and that we must learn to live and fight.

  2. Reactive depression

    It is this version certainly seems to most readers: in a person's life is something horrible, out of the ordinary, and he did not stand up and breaks from the coils. This is due to the fact that the strength of traumatic events is so great that the human mind reacts to her mental decline activity: bleak, apathy and melancholy. Such events typically include the loss of a loved one, divorce, dismissal, retirement, illness, etc. ...

    In some cases, in the treatment of depression is reactive enough only one therapy. The therapist (or psychologist) to discuss with the client prevailing negative circumstances, and together find a way out of the doldrums. Various techniques are used, resulting in improving the human condition, and it gradually returns to the ability to enjoy life. Tell me we give you the real story. Irina, thirty-five women from Moscow, they say, life is good: favorite work, a caring husband, daughter, smart, house - a full cup. What more could you want! Then one day pick up the phone, Irene heard her in a stern voice: "Your husband had an accident ...".

    Further developments in a daze: hospital, intensive care, sleepless nights. A week later her husband Irina died. She did not know how to live with this further: at one point she had everything and suddenly - bang! - It's all lost. She did not want to get up to go to bed and go to work, and the best solution seemed to be a suicide. It is in this state, Irina and found a sister who later took her to a therapist. Then the sessions were tears, anger and grief, but after a while the strong emotions that have found a splash, Irina began to let go, and she began to take its loss.

  3. Hidden (larvirovannaya) depression

    Oh-oh, this kind of depression therapists spoiled a lot of blood! It is manifested in the form of any of numerous bodily diseases: headaches, heart pain, muscle pain, insomnia, gynecological and other problems. The patient was subjected to numerous examinations and inspections as a result of which the doctor often throws up his hands: Well, it has no physiological reason for such symptoms! And in this case he should think twice and send the girl to a therapist or psychiatrist.

    Hidden depression - a very dangerous thing. It does not appear as a typical mood and reduce depression. Its goal - is the human body. Yes, most likely, the person will experience recurrent bouts of apathy and sadness, but his mind will be contacted with a painful feeling, and not vice versa. After all, he is not a doctor, to know about all the links! The most interesting is that the selection of adequate treatment of physical symptoms disappear by themselves or with minimal interference. Example - the story of Larissa, sorokashestiletney bookkeeper. She is constantly on something complain: knock on the heart, lungs wheezing, nerazgibayuschuyusya back, heartburn, and there is something else.

    The list of her illness was so long that it would be enough to stretch along the Great Wall of China. Larisin usual therapist for a long time treated Larissa from all these ailments, regularly writing tablet and procedures. But from them there was no effect, or it was short-lived. And so it went, until the doctor went on vacation, but Larissa did not get to another therapist. Fluently having studied the medical history of the patient, he immediately gave her a referral to a psychiatrist. Larissa was surprised at first, but to the expert still went, and what was her surprise diagnosis of depression! She did not want to believe it, but how obedient patient drink a course of antidepressants, she worked with a psychologist of their personal problems - and lo! - Its physical symptoms decreased significantly.

  4. Postpartum Depression

    Unfortunately, it happens sometimes. It would seem that can be for a woman happier than the moment of the birth of her child! But in some cases, the mother comes discord, and after the birth, she does not want to see your child does not experience any positive feelings or to himself or to the world in general. To all this is added a grandiose sense of guilt, because a woman in the brain "sits" setting: "I am a bad mother." From this feeling should immediately get rid of. Postpartum depression is associated with the fact that a woman's body was in a cocktail of hormones and other chemicals "bombarded" her nerve receptors, causing the experience joy and other emotions.

    After birth, this cocktail is gradually emerging, and the woman feels the contrast poorly and devastation. Added to this fatigue, sudden changes in life and a certain lack of preparation - these are the reasons arising doldrums. With this definitely need to do something - this state will not pass by itself.

    I must say that all women are somehow endured mental decline after birth, but in five percent of cases it transcends the norm, and the woman becomes need expert help. That's what happened at the Marina - a young mother who gave birth to twenty-three years of his first child. She always stood anxiety, emotion and sensitivity to life's woes. But Marina had always wanted a child and childbirth survived quite easily.

    But left alone with the baby during the postnatal ward, a young mother realized that there was nothing to it does not feel. More precisely there, feeling - anger and irritation. It unnerved crying baby, the need to take care of him, feed him and change diapers. Sometimes Marina could not bring myself to spend hours to go to the baby, and then a nurse carried him away. Neonatologist, who spoke on the condition that a young mother, immediately advised her to see a doctor. From him Marina learned that she - not a bad mother. She just needed help to cope with the problems. A month later Marina proudly walked in the park with stroller and could not understand how her heart when something could not be torn from tenderness to this sweet baby snuffling.

  5. Seasonal Depression

    Probably each of us are familiar bouts of melancholy in autumn and winter. Lack of sunlight and vitamins, a lot of warm and ugly clothes, dry skin - unless those reasons are not enough to get depressed? For some, alas, they become critical. It is these people have negative experiences associated with a particular season. For some it's the fall for someone winter, and some manage to "depressed" in the spring. Unfortunately, to remove the cause of this depression is unlikely - unless the move south. And no one can give you a guarantee that a radical change of climate does not backfire by something more serious. Olya longed every autumn, as long as he could remember. And if the great Russian poet called her "eyes charm", then Oli autumn was and remained a source of boredom, apathy, lethargy - in short, everything that is popularly known as depression.

    And for a long time, she coped with this problem until it was her twenty-fifth fall. Ole did not want to communicate with friends, to go out to work. At that time, when she had an idea of ​​resignation, she turned to a psychologist. But the expert was adequate, and the girl saw the first signs of depression immediately referred her to a psychiatrist. Now every fall Olga takes antidepressants light - it does not cause serious damage to her health, but now Olya longer afraid this time of year.

 Types of Depression

Depression in psychology

Severe clinical depression is located in the area of ​​competence of the doctor-psychotherapist, and it is they should be treated, but the majority of states, which we call depression are psychological roots. Different scientists, they are understood in different ways, and we want to offer you the most interesting, and true facts.

The oldest and classic trend in psychology is psychoanalysis. Some scientists call it the "father" of all other currents, and the name of Sigmund Freud, founder of psychoanalysis, it has long been a household name. Psychoanalysts believe that the root of all ills, including depression, lies in the subconscious. In the life of every person has a place to be stressful events, and the most susceptible to their influence, we deep in my childhood. For example, a mother rarely took his son in his arms in infancy, which is why he did not have her love and affection. It is possible that as an adult he will suffer from depression because of this.

Realizing the essence of their problems and their source, pulling them out of the subconscious, the person is able to overcome his melancholy. As a rule, the source of depression is impaired because of the conflicts and the development of unconscious fantasies, so that a person is incapable of normal relationships with other people and the environment. As a possible cause of depression analysts also point to the loss of a loved object, which can be anything, such as the mother's breast.

As usual, a very bizarre idea of ​​psychoanalysis - which, of course, is not to say that they are not working. From the analysis came a host of other psychological trends, one of which is called Gestalt therapy. One of its tenets is the health of human adaptation to the world: understanding their needs himself, his manners to interact with others and with the environment.

The main symptom of depression in this approach is the lack of demand.