All new parents are extremely interested in everything that is connected with children. Including and especially of the digestive system in children. The fact that the digestive system is different from the crumbs thereof in adults, there is no doubt. But what exactly those differences? That's what we try to find out in this article today.
How it all began?
And let us start talking about the peculiarities of the digestive system in children from the very beginning, namely - after the implantation of the egg in the uterine lining. After all, at this stage of development of the fetus nutrition simply vital. Once an embryo is implanted in the uterus, it begins a secret power, which is produced by the mucous membrane of the uterus.
After about a week the embryo begins to feed on the contents of the yolk sac. And in about the middle of the second month of pregnancy, food crumbs becomes gemotrofnym - that is, the fruit receives nutrients from the mother, with the help of the placenta.
However, own digestive system of the fetus does not remain on the sidelines - it is directly involved in the recycling of nutrients such as protein, water, glucose, and other received them from the mother's body. Despite the fact that the maturation of the digestive system of the fetus is extremely fast to light a child is a very significant physiological immaturity of the salivary glands, pancreas, liver and other organs responsible for proper digestion.
Fortunately, nature is very wise. It has provided and it is - the first few months after the appearance of the crumbs in the light of a single food for him is the mother's milk. Breast milk is not only easily absorbed by the digestive system is still immature crumbs, but all that his physiological needs. By the way, all this is true of artificial milk formula. Although, of course, if it is possible to feed the crumbs chest, better to give preference to breast milk.
Anatomic formation of the salivary glands crumbs completed by the time of the birth. But the secretory function of salivary glands is still far from ideal. And they will be fully operational only in 4 - 5 months. By the way, the active saliva production, which takes place in a child at this age, parents are often taken as a signal that the crumbs begin teething.
In fact, strong salivation caused by the crumbs pronounced immaturity of the mechanisms that regulate salivation and swallowing. Saliva plays a very important role in digestion crumbs - the first few months of life, it is necessary for proper sealing rotika during suckling. In addition, it is with the help of saliva formed small clots of casein - a substance contained in breast milk.
And at that time, when the child's diet is introduced the first solid foods, the role of saliva is simply impossible to overestimate. She just needed to form the correct bolus. If this will not happen, it is very likely to develop in a child a wide variety of digestive problems.
Pancreas and liver
By the time of the crumbs in the light of his pancreas is still relatively immature. Although splitting the digestible nutrients that are found in breast milk or breast milk substitutes, it is very easy to handle. By the way, in case the child is bottle-fed, the maturation of the pancreas occurs much faster. All of the remaining crumbs to eat my mother's milk, the final maturation of pancreatic cancer occurs at a time when their diet begin to introduce solid foods.
It delivers pancreas duodenum juice containing enzymes such as lipase breaks down fats, and trypsin cleave carbohydrates. Well, of course, that the pancreas produces the hormone insulin, which plays a huge role in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. In the case of insulin produced in insufficient quantities, it is very likely to develop such unpleasant diseases such as diabetes.
The pancreas releases into the duodenum pancreatic juice which contains enzymes: trypsin, digesting the proteins, lipase, breaks down fats, amylase breaks down carbohydrates. In addition, the pancreas releases the hormone insulin, which is the main regulator of the carbohydrate metabolism. In case of insufficient insulin production develops a serious disease - diabetes.
Liver. Despite the fact that the size of the liver of a newborn baby is big enough to functional maturity it is also far. Isolation of the bile acids that are necessary for the digestion of solid food is still too small. It starts at about the same time when the diet crumbs introduced an additional lure.
At the time of occurrence of the crumbs to the light his liver is approximately two times greater than that of an adult. Of course, as a percentage of body size. But, as mentioned above, a liver kid still very, very immature. Although, despite this, the liver copes with many of its functions. The liver is the real warehouse many nutrients such as fat, glycogen, proteins. And another very important function of liver - it antitoxic. That liver is one of the main "filters" that remove from the human body all the toxins.
Despite the fact that the volume of the stomach in the newborn child is growing rapidly, its secretory function is extremely weak. The full operation of his starts at about 9 - 10 months of baby's life. And the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the stomach crumbs very peculiar. The bottom of the stomach is very poorly developed, as well as all the muscle layer. But the entrance to the stomach in a young child is still quite wide.
It is the totality of all these three factors leads to the fact that young children often vomit. Yes, and vomiting have also fairly frequent phenomenon. Although, of course, is making its contribution and crumbs swallowing air during suckling.
The mucosa of the stomach of the child is very tender, replete with blood vessels. The stomach of the child has all the same gland that there are adults. And that is why in the gastric juice contains almost all of the child "adult" components, such as rennet, pepsin, hydrochloric acid, lipase and many - many others. But, of course, quite a different percentage than in adults.
For example, rennet is extremely important for the digestion of the child - that it causes curdling milk. By the way - human milk clot more slowly than cow's milk, which is made on the basis of the majority of infant formula. After curdling the milk comes in pepsin, which is designed to break down the milk proteins. A breakdown of fats occurs under the influence of lipase.
Mouth of the child, too, has its own peculiarities, one way or another associated with sucking milk. The very mouth crumbs still very low - because of the low sky, yet still has no roof. Language of a small child is broad and short, with prominent papillae. In addition, the child is very well-developed chewing muscles.
It is because of all this complex crumbs manage very tightly encircle the breast nipple. In her mouth it creates a negative pressure, so that the milk and into the baby's mouth. If a pipsqueak was born full-term, all sucking and swallowing reflexes he developed very well.
The mucous membrane of the mouth of the child is very rich in blood vessels, but very dry. Remember, we talked about the fact that saliva from the first months of life babies are not yet produced in full. All the food consumed by the child, the liquid, so no problem.
But here it is worth to remind parents that because of the increased dryness of the oral mucosa is very sensitive. Therefore, you must treat her with attention and care. Make sure that the child is not pulled into the mouth rough diapers, toys. Otherwise, at mucosal surfaces child may wounds and abrasions. These injuries are extremely painful and can lead to the fact that the child can not suck it needs milk.
The saliva of the child, for that matter, any other person, contains various enzymes that begin to break down food even in the mouth. Of course, the question now is already on the lure, rather than milk.
No less important role in digestion and bowel plays. Toddlers intestine compensate for the immaturity of the rest of the digestive system. After all, it is responsible for the child's gut membrane digestion, so relevant to the crumbs, eat mother's milk or formula. It is in the intestine occurs the cleavage of nutrients into components. And from the gut these nutrients are best absorbed into the bloodstream.
As being hit in the stomach to digest food, under the influence of intestinal peristalsis, it moves into the intestine. Its first stage - the duodenum, where under the influence of enzymes produced by the pancreas and liver, and is a further digestion.
Leaving the duodenum, the food enters the small intestine other departments, where he continues to have digested under the influence of intestinal juices. It then completes the process of digestion. Incidentally, the length of the intestine child twice larger than that of an adult - it is six times more growth crumbs.
There is a very active child intestinal peristalsis - he commits two types of movement:
With this type of movement the food moves through the various sections of the intestine. Without these movements is a normal process of digestion is simply impossible.
With the pendulum movement occurs directly the process of digestion, as well as its subsequent absorption into the blood of a person - in this case the child.
The normal intestinal motility in the adult occurs under the influence hit him food. However, in children can occur peristalsis and strengthened not only because of the mechanical action of food, but also under the influence of some other factors: a long cry of a baby, overheating, excessive physical activity.
The intestinal mucosa of the child is very delicate and sensitive, and its walls have very high permeability. That is why a small child intestinal infections and toxins are particularly dangerous. They quickly penetrate the intestinal wall into the bloodstream, thus provoking the development of intoxication, sometimes very strong. In young children, the most ordinary food poisoning can result in serious consequences such as heart failure, meningitis and others.
Microbes of the gastrointestinal tract
During fetal development the intestines crumbs absolutely sterile. However, just a few hours after the birth of the baby inhabits the gut a lot of variety of bacteria. They disappear into the child's body through the nose, mouth, anus. About the second day after the birth of crumbs in the stool can be found a lot of variety of bacteria. Wherein any stomach or in the upper intestine is practically no bacteria. In general, they are localized in the large intestine and the lower part of the small intestine.
That is exactly what germs are predominant in the gut of the child depends entirely on the nature of feeding a child. In case the child is fed breast milk, which is very rich in carbohydrates, in the infant gut mainly will dominate those bacteria which are necessary for the fermentation of carbohydrates. It is this physiological microflora is for the infant.
In the same case, if the child is artificial milk formula made on the basis of cow's milk in his gut it prevails E. coli. Unfortunately, the intestinal microflora to the child is no longer physiological. And so under the influence of adverse factors may trigger the development of various intestinal diseases. That is why often suffer from intestinal disorders precisely those children who are bottle-fed.
Chair for children
You can not ignore the question of the child's stool. After a bowel movement in infancy kid can really tell a lot about his health. As part of the physiological norm in the first day - two after the birth of a child should stand original cal - meconium. Meconium is a viscous, oily consistency and dark - green light.
Meconium has no odor and germ-free. It is formed in the intestines baby during fetal development - from the digestive juices, swallowed amniotic fluid and the intestinal epithelium. Normal bowel movements come about on the third day. They consist essentially of residues of undigested milk crumbs, digestive juices, salts and bacteria.
The children of the first months of life, the chair is usually two - three times a day. However, very often the chair in the first four - five weeks of life is much more - 8 - 9 times a day, sometimes even has a liquid consistency. Of course, almost all mothers very frightened, believing that pipsqueak violently ill. However, if the overall health of the child does not suffer, the baby eats well and gaining weight within the normal range, for such parts of the chair should not be treated with increased anxiety.
Of course, what to say about the doctor - a pediatrician is still necessary. However, in most cases, this phenomenon is associated with doctors enough crumbs to the rapid adaptation is still new to him conditions of life outside the mother's body. Most often this occurs in children who rushed to be born, or weakened and were born with a low birth weight.
However, there is a reverse situation, in which children from eating in the same breast milk, stool happens only once in two - three days. And the reason is very simple - the mother's milk is digested very well. And almost completely digested, and, therefore, virtually no waste.
By the way, for those kids who are fed with artificial mixtures, made on the basis of cow milk, bowel movements are a darker color, a thick consistency and a foul odor. As children get older the chair becomes less and less. But, of course, up to the full maturity of the digestive system is still very far away. Full maturation of the digestive tract ends only to 15 - 16 years. Until then, parents have to always take into account the peculiarities of the digestive system in children, making their menu.