The first year of the life of each child filled with a huge number of different events. Crumb is born, gets acquainted with his parents. Mom feeds him, learns to care for the child, guessing his slightest needs. And pipsqueak actively learn about the world: the first conscious glance, smile, babbling and word. And at the end of the first year of the most important events: the child comes first awareness of yourself as an independent person.
Certain stages of growing up has its own characteristics, which every parent should know, because forewarned is forearmed. It is necessary to keep the baby in his endeavors to respond appropriately to their needs, to be able to recognize them, and to teach it, you need to understand how the development of the child up to a year by months.
Parents are required to have the slightest idea of how the development of the child up to a year. So it will be much easier to understand their child, be guided in its achievements. However, keep in mind that all children are different, that each of them - a bright personality. Therefore pipsqueak can for one or two months behind or ahead of the conventional calendar, and it is not considered abnormal. So let us follow along to see how the baby is changing, gradually turning from a small helpless creature in the human self.
Newborns rather difficult to adapt to the reality, because their bodies are working with great effort. Therefore, 70% of the time they spend in a dream, and rare moments of wakefulness quickly replaced by fatigue and crumb immersed in slumber.
While at rest, feet and hands the baby usually bends in joints and pressed to the body, and when the baby is awake, his limbs moving erratically.
In the first month of life, children ill-focused view, but it does not mean that they do not react to the world around us - all they hear, blink and wince at the sharp sounds. Over time, vision gets better, and about the third week of life the baby begins to hold his gaze fixed on the bright objects, the faces of adults. Muscles become stronger - soon you will notice how your child is trying to lift the head, lying on his stomach. Of course, the child will not be able to hold her for a long time - only a few seconds - but it will slowly turn your head in different directions.
All children have certain reflexes that help them adapt to the unknown and the new environment. During the first months after the baby's born, many of them disappear (grasping, search, Swimming, sucking, and others), but some - sneezing, yawning, blinking, wince - are preserved for life. For reflex activity of newborn care should be taken very carefully and regularly visit the pediatrician, who can determine how well the child is the development and the nervous system.
During this period, children need special care, kindness and love. It is in the first month of life lays the basic attitude and confidence in the outside world, and it is based primarily on the psychological and emotional bond with her mother. Hearing the sound of her heart, feeling the smell of home, getting food from the mother, the warmth and security, pipsqueak is gradually adapting to the unfamiliar environment and learning to adequately respond to it.
About the second month of life of the children formed the daily rhythm of life - they sleep during the day and at night awake. The child begins to recognize your touch, voice, emotional response when talking to him. By this time my mother understands why her child is naughty or what to say, performing certain actions. Therefore, parents become a little easier.
If the first few weeks of a newborn mostly sleeps, then it almost all the time awake, swinging in different directions legs and arms, as yet do not know how to manage them. However, trying to lay it on its side, you will see that the baby is able to roll over on their own. In addition, closer to the third month, he has a pretty good holding her head, lying on his stomach and leaning on the arm.
Gradually, children learn to control their arms by the end of the eighth week they suck your finger, pull her hands to her mouth, and later will be able to rub their eyes and hold toys. Over time, the child focuses the eye on things, there is an interest he watched the men, departing from his crib and approaching her. If the first days and weeks pipsqueak constantly cries, then the second month begins to smile, not only in dreams, but also watching their parents. Appears positive emotional reaction to my father and mother, there is a need for communication (a complex revitalization). This is the most pleasant time for the parents, because the little one, seeing you from afar, began to publish the joyful sounds, pull the handle and radiant smile.
In order for your child to grow and self-confident personality, in the first months of his life give crumbs to adapt to new conditions of life for him. To do this, you are always close to the baby, because your presence is very positive effect on its psycho-emotional state. As strange as it sounds, but the best way to teach the crumbs of self-organization - is to constantly be with him. The constant presence of parents inevitably leads to the fact that the child begins to relate all his actions with what they do. And so the child begins to feel that he is also a full participant in all the events taking place around him. Child psychologists say that this feeling is born a child very early - about two to three months.
Baby with a pacifier in his mouth - it is a familiar sight. Many parents, preparing things for his crumbs, without hesitation acquire beautiful pacifiers. And once the baby is born, it immediately gives the nipple. Of course, Sucking calms the baby. But in any case, do not forget that many of the situations that cause discontent crumbs are really powerful stimulant for its development.
A simple example: pipsqueak unhappy because his rattle is too far. He begins to groan and to show displeasure, and my mother quickly give him a pacifier, especially without understanding what exactly the problem. However, this is not the best option, because such an approach to achieve its desire to have a child very quickly disappears. Try to guess the needs and desires of the child and encourage his independence.
The third and fourth month
By the third month, children are consciously focus gaze on the face of a man who is talking to them, listening to the voices and recognize them. In response to the talk shows kid joy briskly moves his arms and legs, smiling, it makes a different sound - mostly silent vowels (a, o-y, e-of-a and others). Lying on his stomach and leaning on the arm, pipsqueak much longer holds head than before - up to several minutes. Try to pick him up, supporting the armpits, and you will see how hard he rests his feet on a hard surface. Experts recommend to hang over the crib musical carousel with colorful toys: baby responds positively to the sounds, trying to reach for objects that are near.
This period of time the most emotional and joyful for parents. After all, children are already beginning to laugh leaping, if they like something, more often in a good mood, melodious and quite a long conversation on his infantile language. They are well kept, and the head is actively exploring the world. Now the baby is getting crowded in bed, tired of lying for long periods, there are the first attempts to sit - the child straining press, stretches forward, constantly asking for arms.
By the 16th week of vision in children is gradually approaching the level of adult they acquire the ability to look at things up close, gradually begin to distinguish shapes and primary colors. Scarce closely monitors important for his subjects and objects, like moving, and located on the spot: parents, toys. You can see how deliberately and unmistakably baby turns to a particular source.
So, let's sum up, according to the calendar of that has to do a four-crumb:
Most of the time the child is awake, a lot of moves, often with smiles and makes a joyful sounds.
Listening, he accurately determines where the sound source and turns his head.
Carefully consider the objects hanging over him, he focuses on view, gropes and grabs toys.
During feeding the baby tries to hold his hands a bottle or breast.
By the end of the fourth and the beginning of the fifth month of the child learns the parents are away at a distance of two to three meters.
The fifth and sixth month
For five months the children first try to pronounce the syllables, consisting of labial consonants: m, n, b. And that they have pretty good at it, but if you hear the long-awaited word "Mom", then most likely the baby will tell him unconscious. Continue to talk with your child, because in the process of communication, he remembers, and then learning to pronounce what you said.
At this age, children form the first grasping movements of the hands: they can attract the things and repel them, grab toys, colors and shapes that perfectly distinguish.
The fifth month is considered to be a transition in a child's life - his body adapts to the vertical position. This period of new discoveries and achievements, when the baby is actively involved in the "research" work:
Independently flips from stomach to back;
Features relatives and parents from strangers;
Actively move on an arena, moving his arms and crawled forward a little;
At 24 weeks the baby can sit propped pillows, no pulling to one side, soon it will do so without any support.
Accurately detects the tone in which a conversation with him, he responds cheerfully, respectively, or vice versa, frowns;
Scarce already says some syllables, and more - good eats with a spoon;
Exactly on its feet if support him under the arms.
A long time playing with rattles, intercepting and holding their hands.
Seventh, the ninth month
From a young age lays the child's character, and that parents are responsible for the way in which it will grow. Children who are constantly abused as a child and never praised, are complexed and indecisive people. So when your baby begins to actively explore the world around us, and it will happen in seven months, help him, and does not oppose:
Scarce confidently creeps and gets into all the corners and places, so try to always be near. Note that some children miss this stage and just start walking.
Another achievement - the ability to independently take the rattles and other toys from any position.
Baby responds to the question "where? "And looking for eye object of which you speak. For eight months he not only knows what he was asked, but also points to this thing. In addition, the pipsqueak performs before unlearning movement, such as "Okay", "long" and so on.
Says various syllables long engaged with toys: throws, pulls, hooks his hands.
In the first eight months of pipsqueak attempt to adopt a vertical position. If there is a barrier or other support, it is holding on to her hands, the baby itself rises.
By this time the child is able to perform "reverse" and "direct" action with various objects. For example, to collect cubes scattered on the floor to put the toys in the box, and so on.
By the ninth month of the musculoskeletal skeleton child becomes stronger, and the digestive and cardiovascular system to adapt to the force of gravity acting along the axis of the body. The kid is already prepared to take an active movement on two legs, so there are frequent attempts to walking, at first hesitant. To do this, he needs the support - the wall, furniture, board arena - the baby will hold on to it, but otherwise just a pipsqueak creeps. In nine months the children are responding to his name, well drink from the cup, which for them is holding an adult.
Ten to twelve months
The ten baby constantly moves, the game is closely watching adults and imitating their actions. This ability helps him to learn skills such as the ability to drink from a cup, use a spoon to sleep on a pillow. At this time actively developing fine motor skills: the child takes and holds objects with two fingers, collects and throws toys. At this point, the parents probably already heard of his child "mom", "dad", "woman". Gradually increasing vocabulary baby, and he is about ten words.
Starting with the first eleven months, the child is increasingly active and independent. He wakes up to five hours a day, eats mostly without help from adults when walking periodically falls, however, to be held this year, and the baby perfectly mastered this skill.
Some moms and dads buy a walker, but experts do not recommend it. Of course, it is necessary to pay tribute to this thing - a walker to a large extent facilitate the life of his parents. But there is another side of the coin - and orthopedists, and child psychologists are walkers rather ambiguously. The design involves fixing baby walker in limbo. This is an extremely negative impact on the development of the musculoskeletal system. In addition, when using a walker slows down the normal formation of skills of independent walking.
The child gets used to the fact that the movement he does not have to exert much effort. Houses - walkers on the street - stroller. And why try to crumbs? It makes more sense to buy for a child is not familiar to all walkers and Rolling toys. Such toys are so designed to give the baby during walking solid support, but at the same time stimulate the autonomous walking.
Development of a child under one year is very active - you do not have time to look around, the kid will be quite adult and independent. In the twelve months increased vocabulary - a toddler understands this age are five times more than what is able to speak. Therefore, at this time should focus on classes, reading books and talking with crumbs.
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