Gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa) belongs to the family Gesneriaceae, it is a herbaceous plant stunted, which is considered the birthplace of Brazil. In nature, there are more than fifty types of gloxinia. Although care gloxinia is not complicated by the specific requirements in the indoor environment is grown only some of its varieties.
Indoor gloxinia may have more than twenty large (seven and a half centimeters in diameter) flowers blooming at the same time. Flowers gloxinia terry or have a normal texture, vary in color, may be wavy and normal - it all depends on the type of plant. Grow this lovely flower, you can use it to propagate seeds or leaves and tubers.
To gloxinia delight you with their healthy and flowering species and should adhere to certain rules of the content of this plant. But the requirements for its content are.
Gloxinia refers to the light-loving plants. However, it prefers a fairly bright but diffused light and does not tolerate direct sunlight. The best place to put flower pots with gloxinia are windows facing east or west. Gloxinia growing on the southern windows, will require additional shading because direct sunlight can cause burns the leaves. Plant, located on the northern windows is not enough light, and the resulting shoots stretched out and fade. But with excess coverage it will slow the growth of gloxinia.
It is very important for growing gloxinia and observe the temperature, since this plant is pronounced during periods of active growth and rest. In the summer in a place where growing gloxinia, daytime temperature should be maintained between 20 and 22 degrees. At night permissible temperature drop to 18 degrees. And in winter (dormant period) for this plant will be a comfortable temperature of 10-14 degrees Celsius. It is important to remember that at any time of the year drafts and temperature changes gloxinia suffer badly.
Care room gloxinia requires maintaining humidity in the range 70-80%. Note that the ingress of water on the leaves and flowers gloxinia may be dire. Therefore, spray the plant is not recommended. However, you can humidify the air around gloxinia using a very fine spray. But it's best to place the pot in a tray filled with moist pebbles or expanded clay. It is necessary to make sure that the bottom of the pot does not touch the water.
Gloxinia demanding to the soil. Therefore it is best to plant these flowers in special pochvosmesi such as "Violet", "Begonia" or "Saintpaulia". If you make yourself pochvosmes should take two parts leaf soil and one part peat land and river sand. Drainage for gloxinia required. It can be used as expanded clay, washed eggshells, foam. The root system of gloxinia grows in width. Therefore, plastic or ceramic pots for these plants is recommended to select shallow and wide.
Gloxinia watered as the drying earthen clod, pouring water into the pan, or the edge of the pot. In the growing season watering should be plentiful. However, excessive moisture can ruin the flower, so look for water in the pan. After getting wet land must be put on a pot of wet gauze to completely absorbed excess moisture. Water the plant defended water at a temperature two degrees above room temperature, it contributes to a more rapid absorption of moisture roots and reduces the risk of decay of the root system.
Gloxinia is necessary and periodic dressing fertilizer for flowering houseplants. In the period from April to August, fed her once a week, using half the dose on the package. But in a period of rest should not be fertilized gloxinia.
The rest period
In gloxinia pronounced period of rest. After flowering stems and the leaves begin to turn yellow and wither, die, and also the roots. So that by the time the winter Gloxinia have are only the tubers. With proper care tubers stored until the next season and the beginning of the active period gives new shoots and roots. Once the plant is dumped leaves, the stem should be cut to a height of one centimeter above the ground. Then within three or four weeks continued to care for the room gloxinia, supplying it with a reduced amount of water, and only then gently dig up the tubers, removing them for the winter.
Gloxinia requires certain conditions of winter. To do this, take a small plastic container, place it moist sand to put the tubers and place in a dark and cool place. Ideally, in the winter you will be able to maintain the temperature regime at the level of 10-14 degrees. You can also leave the tubers in a pot and remove it in the garage, basement or attic. If this is not possible, then clean the pot in a cool dark place or store near a bathtub or balcony, covered with a dark film.
Watered gloxinia in this period is very rare - not more than twice a month. Moreover, irrigation is carried out in small doses, is simply not giving the tubers dry out. With more frequent and abundant irrigation gloxinia tubers begin to rot and die. Since the beginning of the active period of the pot with the plant is transferred to a brighter place and begin to gradually increase watering. And then watered and cared for in the usual way.
After a period of rest (around February-March), when the tubers begin to wake up and beat the first sprouts, gloxinia transplant. The tubers were removed from the container or pot with sand, soil and purified from the removed old roots. Tuber washed with clean water and cut with a sharp knife rotten portions, and the surface of slices sprinkled with powdered charcoal. As a precaution rotting tubers should be a half-hour soak in a solution fundazol, fitosporin or any fungicides. You can also use a dark pink solution of potassium permanganate. After that, the tuber is dried during the day.
Planting the tubers in the ground, make a hole in the ground by two-thirds the height of the tuber. Soil slightly moistened and covered with foil. Then put the pot in a warm and bright place. Planted nodules aerate for half an hour in the morning and evening, and the film completely removed only after the first pair of leaves. After removing the film fill up the ground, covering the tuber.
Reproduction gloxinia spend leaf cuttings and seeds. During the multiplication of leaf cuttings are prepared pochvosmes four parts of clean sand and one part peat second, where and perpetuate stalk - cut off from the flowering plant young leaf with handle length of about one centimeter. Put in the ground covered with a sheet of banks and within 18-25 days the temperature regime is maintained in the range of 22-24 degrees. After this time, seedlings should appear at the small nodules. After that, rooted cuttings are transplanted into small pots with a diameter of five to seven centimeters.
Reproduction gloxinia seeds is carried out in the period from November to February. Seeds are sown in a wide bowls filled with leaf ground, mixed with sand. Svetovskhozhi gloxinia seeds, so do not sow them thickly, to deepen in the ground or sprinkle it. Bowl of seeds should be covered with glass and maintain the temperature of 22 degrees. Two weeks after sowing, the seedlings should appear.
When the first leaves sprouting dive, rassazhivaya them at a distance of two centimeters. Repeated picks conducted at the appearance of the third pair of leaves. This increases the distance between the seedlings to five centimeters. Third swordplay is held with well-developed leaves - the seedlings are transplanted to a common pot at a distance of ten centimeters from each other. As soon as the young plants begin to touch the leaves, they must be seated in individual pots with a diameter of twelve centimeters. Subject to the rules of care after about seven months gloxinia bloom. Remember, however, that the cultivation of the seeds Gloxinia not considered the most simple method of reproduction, and not always crowned with success.
Gloxinia tubers and multiply. In the spring, when the tubers appear first buds, choose a large tuber with a sharp knife and divide it into several parts, each of which must be preserved kidney. Slices sprinkled with powdered charcoal, and each new nodule dried and put in a separate pot. Propagated gloxinia and shoots. To do this, cut the escape put in a container with water, wait for rooting and planted in the ground. With this method of reproduction young plant can bloom in the same year.
Pests and diseases
Cultivation gloxinia in ambient conditions can be complicated, and some diseases of the plants, as well as the defeat of the pests.
The appearance of brown spots on the leaves - the result of watering with cold water.
Grey coating on leaves and flowers - a sign of defeat gloxinia mildew or botrytis.
Yellowing leaves - the result of excessive lighting and fertilizers, as well as dry air.
Lack of flowering, pale leaves - a sign of the lack of light, power and violations of human care.
Typical pests Gloxinia - a whitefly, Jose scale, spider mites, mealybug. To combat these pests using special insecticides. It is also important to isolate and treat the infected plant leaves and stems infusion of tobacco or soap solution.
Cultivation gloxinia in the home can not be called very very simple and unproblematic. However, with due diligence and compliance with all the rules of these capricious beauty care will please you just magically blooms. Good luck!