causes of ectopic pregnancy


  • How does an ectopic pregnancy, what it is, its early signs
  • The causes of ectopic pregnancy
  • Signs and symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy
  • What to do when an ectopic pregnancy: Treatment and Rehabilitation
  • Ectopic pregnancy and pipe rupture
  • Ectopic pregnancy and post-operative treatment

Every woman and a young and later in life to be aware of such dangerous diseases as an ectopic pregnancy. According to statistics, this phenomenon occurs at an average of 15% women in the world. To avoid possible complications and related troubles, it is necessary to arm some knowledge of the occurrence of ectopic pregnancy, and during its subsequent treatment. It is important to understand that there is an ectopic pregnancy is unpredictable and difficult to forecast.

This pathology is known and has been described in the medical treatises from the 11th century. More recently, ectopic pregnancy in advanced forms often led to serious complications and, consequently, death. Currently, with the help of high-quality modern surgery ectopic pregnancy is treated much more efficient and much easier. High performance medical equipment and technology allow us to reduce the risks in operations to almost zero.

However, gynecologists worldwide ascertain average statistical increase in cases where ectopic pregnancy is quite difficult for the timely and accurate diagnosis. Therefore it is important to know yourself what is ectopic pregnancy: signs, symptoms, especially its causes, treatment and subsequent rehabilitation.

 symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy

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How does an ectopic pregnancy, what it is, its early signs

In the normal course of pregnancy, the egg after its fertilization leaves the fallopian (uterine) tubes and attached to the uterus, where it continues to develop until birth. When the pathological development of the pregnancy under certain circumstances a fertilized egg (ovum) to the uterus does not fall, and is fixed in the fallopian tube, and more rarely - in the ovaries or abdomen, where during a medical intervention of a doctor and it is necessary to retrieve incorrectly attached egg with fruit .

Ectopic pregnancy as a pathology is well known and well studied. The most common form of this anomaly is tubal ectopic pregnancy.

Delay egg in the fallopian tubes testifies to their lack and low permeability. The fertilized egg is almost a month after its attachment to the wall of the pipe, an increase in the volume and size, can lead to rupture of the pipe. In this case, a very high probability of severe bleeding from hitting the leaked blood into the abdominal cavity.

Not only health, but also the life of a woman at a time when developing an ectopic pregnancy is under the greatest threat.

It is therefore important to know when planning a pregnancy early signs of an ectopic pregnancy, undergo a full medical examination and eliminate all possible violations of the normal functioning of the body to avoid complications later.

 Uzi with the ectopic pregnancy
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The causes of ectopic pregnancy

So why is it that an ectopic pregnancy occurs and it becomes possible to its origin? Because of what the fertilized egg gets off to follow the right course, and suddenly finds himself in completely intended for further development of the site?

Ectopic pregnancy and its related problems are the poor functioning of the fallopian tubes, the permeability of which by virtue of any destabilizing factors and reasons may be broken. As a rule, this is preceded by severe or complicated birth abortion, as well as current or previously transferred inflammatory diseases of the genital and various kinds of infections. The mucous membrane of the uterus due to illness and swollen, while in this state, glued in some places, which is why the pipe themselves lose its ability to contract.

Among other things, an ectopic pregnancy can occur in the case of insufficient development of the fallopian tubes (infantilism). Infantile (immature, undeveloped) pipes on the structure and shape are narrow, long and winding, with enough narrowing. They are deprived of the ability to contract and the possibility of pushing forward the ovum to the uterus (the first sign of an ectopic pregnancy).

At a certain stage of ontogenesis in the ovum villi begin to develop, thanks to which it has the opportunity and the ability to attach to further its development to the uterine wall and get through this constant blood supply. If a specific time has not arrived fertilized egg into the uterus, it is fixed at the point where now there is (second ectopic pregnancy symptom).

Thin and delicate wall of the fallopian tubes are not able to stretch as uterine tissue, because of which their break occurs shortly. This happens roughly between four and six weeks after fertilization. As a result of rupture of the pipe wall the blood rushes directly into the abdominal cavity. As a consequence, nausea and severe acute abdominal pain resembling prenatal bout. Quite often this is accompanied by loss of consciousness, seizures can occur. Break the large blood vessels in the inability to provide skilled medical care may end tragically fatal.

However, in some cases, the scheme of action going on in the other direction when the fertilized egg breaks and flows into the abdominal cavity, and with it also follows certain amount of blood. These circumstances are also accompanied by nausea, and bleeding from the genital organs.

Tubal abortion accompanied by severe pain gradually subsides over time. Most of the women from among those who had a chance to experience it for yourself, after the recession of painful episodes mentally relax, assuming that all is over. However, to enjoy here in time.

I am sure it will be necessary to urgently seek assistance and advice from medical professionals to prevent and eliminate any possible options for the development of pathological symptoms of disease, such as peritonitis - a purulent inflammation of the abdominal cavity, accompanied by severe general state of the organism. In most cases, peritonitis is a direct threat not only to health, but also the life of the patient, which is a medical emergency. Projections in cases of delayed or improper treatment of peritonitis is very unfavorable and very dangerous consequences.

 treatment of ectopic pregnancy
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Signs and symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy

Practice shows that a simple test to determine pregnancy reflects and captures the signs of ectopic pregnancy, as in the case of normal conception. Detect and identify the difference will only be possible as a result of the ultrasound examination. In this case, medical specialists, conducting an ultrasound examination does not detect the presence of a fertilized egg in the uterus and carry out additional checks, as a result of which they will be able to diagnose the likely pathology at the earliest timing of its development.

Deviation from the normal development of the fetus can be diagnosed on the second week of pregnancy. To do this, you must enter into the vaginal cavity sensor Ultrasonic diagnosis apparatus for the study. Thereafter, usually assigned diagnostic laparoscopy which gives the most accurate test results. Another way to check is that you need to take a blood sample for its hormonal analysis.

For the first and main features of ectopic pregnancy in the early stages should be included bleeding from the vagina (the first time they may not be very significant). After that, there are pain in the abdomen. These pains begin to take on the growing character as she developed pathology. At this point, the pain can be very severe and sometimes have a semblance of cramping pain.

Accurate diagnosis itself is quite difficult, but suspected ectopic pregnancy in the early stages it is possible, based on the above-mentioned symptoms. If to the usual symptoms of pregnancy (whether the delay menstruation, morning sickness, psycho-emotional irritability, impaired sense of taste and preferences, etc.) added still not very strong aching pain in the lower abdomen, spotting, it is necessary to promptly and without hesitation go to the hospital to undergo a gynecological examination to exclude any pathology in the development of the fetus. Often in such cases, it is an ectopic pregnancy.

 surgery for an ectopic pregnancy
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What to do when an ectopic pregnancy: Treatment and Rehabilitation

For the treatment of an ectopic pregnancy has occurred several methods which are applied in different stages of its development. If you have any reason to suspect that indicate the possible presence of an ectopic pregnancy, the patient, medical professionals suggest observation in hospital. It is not necessary to refuse this categorically, because all examinations necessary to determine the exact site of implantation of the embryo, it will be much easier to spend it in a hospital. On the early detection of ectopic pregnancy the doctor will be able to interrupt it much more gentle way.

One of these methods malotravmaticheskih medical exposure is laparoscopy. This kind of diagnostic medical examination of the abdominal cavity and its organs, as well as a method of modern surgery, in which the research, analysis and operations on internal organs are carried out through a small hole or puncture (ranging from 0, 5 to 1, 5 cm) of the abdominal wall using a special optical device - a laparoscope.

In a very small incision in the skin of the abdomen into the peritoneal cavity introduced a special tool laparoscope. This device has an optical system similar to the device for gastroscopy. Therefore, all manipulations physician surgical field itself and the process operations are monitored and displayed on the monitor unit. Using the laparoscope the doctor removes the fertilized egg, acting on a type of mini-abortion.

By itself, it is quite safe and relatively painless procedure. The surrounding tissue and internal organs during surgery does not hurt or injured. No danger of post-surgical adhesions and scarring. The risk of deaths at such operations in the medical practice is extremely minimal.

The greatest consolation for the woman in this case is the fact that this operation is to prevent injury to the fallopian tubes, and after the necessary treatment and rehabilitation after a while she could get pregnant again and make a healthy, high-grade child.
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Ectopic pregnancy and pipe rupture

In more severe the consequences of ectopic pregnancy when ruptured fallopian tube, there is an urgent question: save or delete it?

Keep a fallopian tube, of course, possible, but only if it has no gap occurred or was negligible. When you break the pipe is usually prescribed closed-sparing surgery, called salpingotomy (or tubotomiya). This is surgery to remove the affected fallopian tube.

This procedure is less painful, blood loss during surgery is much less. After its implementation is much faster the recovery process of the body, and the patient spends less time in the hospital. Thanks salpingotomy significantly reduced the risk of recurrent abnormalities in subsequent conception and child-bearing.

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Ectopic pregnancy and post-operative treatment

In a certain number of women (from 4 to 8%) in the cavity of the fallopian tubes are so-called tissue pregnancy. Therefore, the treating physician may prescribe a special introduction of the drug stops the growth and development of tissues. This drug called methotrexate - a specialized anti-cancer agent.

It is sometimes used as an alternative to surgery. It is used in the earliest stages of pregnancy, when hormones of pregnancy has not increased in women to a large extent. This tool has a specific effect of a narcotic. It causes the body's absorption of pregnancy tissue.

In the treatment of this drug is to be extremely careful, need to enter just a few injections. After that, in a few weeks will be bleeding from the genitals and so-called purification of the body from the remains of the pregnancy tissue.

At sufficiently early diagnosis of the disease and the availability of the necessary surgery to remove the embryo in the early stages of using this drug may not be necessary. But the decision to appoint the best and optimal treatment for each individual patient receives all the same doctor, and everything depends on their qualifications and experience in this matter.

 The problem of ectopic pregnancy