- Causes of abnormal discharge from the genitals
- The dependence of the causal factors of the age period of life of women
- Protective mechanisms of the genital tract of women
- Classification of abnormal discharge from the genital tract
- The clinical picture in these problems
- Principles of treatment of abnormal discharge from the genitals
- Restoration of normal vaginal flora
- Monitoring the effectiveness of treatment
Heavy discharge with odor from the genitals to be seen as a symptom of a disease. Therefore we can not engage in self-or, worse, to hope that everything will go. In this case, be sure to conduct diagnostics to determine the exact diagnosis.
Copious occur quite often. They affect about 35% of the total female population. This is one of the most common complaints from women that they make coming to the reception to the gynecologist. However, not all women come with this problem to the doctor, so you can meet the medical literature and other data on the prevalence of this unpleasant symptom. Sometimes this symptom can reach 90%.
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Causes of abnormal discharge from the genitals
The emergence of discharge from the genital tract, which have an unpleasant odor may be due to various reasons. Therefore, the first step is to visit a doctor, get tested, and tests, and only then can you start treatment. Among the most significant causal factors include:
- various inflammatory processes, which are caused by microorganisms, affecting a woman's genitals. In this case, profuse discharge is not uncommon;
- diseases of the endocrine glands, which are characterized by a change in the hormonal balance in the body;
- general nature of the disease, accompanied by metabolic disorders of varying severity;
- pathological profuse discharge may be the result of a long and serious antibiotic therapy;
- vaginal douching with various antiseptics. Remember, if the vagina starts to secrete a fluid irrigation should prikratite;
- the use of intrauterine contraceptive devices, which increase the incidence of infectious and inflammatory diseases of the genital organs;
- cervical injury, and different background pathological processes that adversely affect the condition of the cervical epithelium. In this case, copious - a reaction to the injury;
- various oncological processes that are linked to the sex organs. The liquid in this specific smell;
- Sometimes pregnancy can provoke the appearance of discharge with an unpleasant odor, as changes in the composition of the vaginal flora on the background of hormonal changes in the body;
- damaging effects of environmental factors (light radiation, various chemical substances);
- factors that cause local irritation (wearing tight underwear, thongs, vysokoallergennyh use of funds for personal hygiene);
- the presence of obstetric fistula and intestinal-vaginal, under which the authorities of one of the system communicate with the authorities of another system.
The most common infectious and inflammatory diseases of the genital organs, which are accompanied by an unpleasant odor, represented by the following species:
- bacterial vaginosis where the prevailing anaerobic pathogenic microflora in the vagina (primarily dominated gardnerelly) and normal flora is almost absent;
- trichomoniasis (Trichomonas infection);
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The dependence of the causal factors of the age period of life of women
There is a definite pattern between causal factors of discharge with an unpleasant odor, which are found in certain age periods of a woman's life. Let's try to figure it out. Knowledge of these factors will allow for etiological (causal) treatment justified without further investigation related to material costs and a waste of time. So, the situation is as follows. In the neonatal period the most common pathological profuse discharge from the genital tract associated with changes in the content of estrogen.
During puberty girls dominant causal factor is vulvovaginitis, that is inflammation of the vulva and vagina. In adolescence profuse discharge with an unpleasant odor commonly associated with the penetration of pathogens from the intestine to the organs of the reproductive system.
The reproductive period is most often the cause is inflammation of the female genital organs. In menopause secretions leads to unpleasant process of atrophic mucosa. The menopause should first think about the cancer process that affects a woman's genitals.
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Protective mechanisms of the genital tract of women
Normally genital tract is protected against ingress of microorganisms. If these defense mechanisms are failing or were highly virulent microorganism is different, there is the infectious process. Factors protecting female genitals include the following:
- the presence of lactobacilli in vaginal microflora;
- the acidic environment of the vaginal contents;
- sloughing of epithelium during menstruation;
- presence of secretory immunoglobulin A in the mucosa;
- Choose mucosal barrier, etc.
They help maintain the health of the female body by protecting reproductive organs from different organisms and damaging factors. If something goes wrong, there are copious with a rather unpleasant odor.
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Classification of abnormal discharge from the genital tract
Profuse discharge from the genitals, which have an unpleasant odor, may have different origins, depending on where localized pathological process. Clarification source discharges allow for differential treatment. It is advisable to allocate the following types of abnormal discharge from the genitals:
- vestibular - copious associated with the secretion of glands vestibule, as well as the functional activity of the Bartholin gland;
- vaginal - associated with the stimulation of the glandular cells of the vagina;
- uterine - occur in pathological processes that affect the uterus;
- pipe - these secretions appear if the pathological process involved the fallopian tubes;
- cervical - caused increased stimulation glands, localized in the cervical canal and on the surface of the cervix.
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The clinical picture in these problems
The main feature of the pathological process in the female genital organs is to increase the number of selections. These secretions have an unpleasant odor. They can also be accompanied by other symptoms such as itching and burning in the vulva. Permanent enhanced secretion of glandular epithelium of genital tract leads to excessive moisture, which causes some discomfort for women.
Diagnostic search in the allocation
The presence of genital discharge with an unpleasant odor, always an indication for diagnostic research, the purpose of which - to clarify the cause. Just knowing the reasons will allow for appropriate corrective therapy.
To begin with you need to search for a diagnostic study of the objective (this examination and vaginal examination), in which process should adhere to certain rules. This will get the most reliable information.
With regard to the rules of objective examination of women complain of unpleasant copious. Objective research provides a maximum amount of information that is needed to establish the exact cause of the abnormal discharge from the genital tract. It should adhere to the following rules:
- vaginal examination carried out during the period of the most marked clinical manifestations (when a complaint should immediately contact your gynecologist, even if the allocation neobilnye);
- after the last dose of antibiotic must be at least 3 days;
- must-see, not only the sexual organs, but also the opening of the urethra and the anus and the skin of the perineum;
- in some cases, not only it is shown holding vaginal, and rectal examination.
After physical examination the doctor outlines a specific plan of diagnostic measures, putting a preliminary diagnosis. Further examination is directed either confirmation or refutation of the exposed diagnosis.
Additional methods of research
In the presence of abnormal discharge from the genital tract with an unpleasant odor, of course, can be carried out both mandatory and optional methods of laboratory and instrumental diagnostics. In the course of these studies we can conclude that there is vaginal microflora able normotsenoza or there is dysbiosis, ie disruption of quantitative and qualitative composition of microflora.
Required research methods
Mandatory testing methods that are recommended in the presence of secretions from the genital tract with an unpleasant odor, include:
- determination of the nature of the vaginal microflora;
- taking a swab to detect trichomonas;
- identification of gonococci in the smear;
- definition of the dispute in a smear of Candida;
- conducting diagnostics chlamydia and ureaplasma (for this purpose can be used as serology and polymerase chain reaction, which is the "gold" standard for diagnosis of urogenital infections);
- titration of herpes viruses, papilloma virus, cytomegalovirus, HIV.
Conducting these investigations to determine the presence of the most common causal factors that lead to the appearance of abnormal discharge from the genital tract. Additional studies are less diagnostic value, therefore, used only when indicated.
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Principles of treatment of abnormal discharge from the genitals
Treatment of abnormal discharge from the genital tract should be carried out in a timely manner and taking into account the potential causes. Be sure to take into account the patient's age and hormones. Treatment of pathological cables, which are connected with the violation of the microflora in the vagina, usually consists of two stages: the elimination of the pathological agent and the restoration of normal microflora in the vagina.
When hormonal causes and atrophic processes in the treatment of major - is the restoration of normal hormonal balance. If the reason for discharge from the genital tract with an unpleasant odor is intrauterine, it shows its removal. Development of inflammation in the vagina of diabetes mellitus requires adequate hypoglycemic therapy, etc.
Place of antibiotics for the treatment of excreta
Typically, if a profuse discharge from the genital tract associated with activation of pathogenic microflora, that shows the use of topical antibiotics that have such dosage forms such as suppositories, vaginal tablets, creams or other. The most commonly used drugs, which have a devastating effect on intracellular pathogens: Chlamydia, mycoplasma, ureaplasma, and so on. If the reason for discharge are yeast candida, it shows the use of drugs, possessing protivomikoticheskoy activity. This can be a candle (in some cases, only one candle on a course of treatment).
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Restoration of normal vaginal flora
This is a required process in the treatment of any inflammatory process in the vagina as normal vaginal microflora is able to protect the mucosa from the introduction of pathogens. For this purpose, use a product containing lactobacilli. These drugs include candles, which are applied once a day, and inserted into the vagina for 10 days. Also to restore the normal microflora in the vagina is recommended to drink kefir, which is a source of lactic acid bacteria.
In the elderly, to this end also shows the use of hormonal agents that can be used either topically or systemically. The need for their application because the lactobacilli are estrogen-dependent, so at low levels of estrogen, they simply do not survive. Among the local products are used medicinal candles on the basis of estriol.
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Monitoring the effectiveness of treatment
Evaluation of treatment efficacy is conducted based on regression of clinical symptoms, and on the basis of laboratory investigations. With effective treatment, the disappearance of pathogenic microorganisms in the smear. However, treatment must be completed before the end of that there is no recurrence of discharge with an unpleasant odor.
Therefore, abnormal discharge from the abundant genital tract may be associated with a variety of reasons, but in any case they should be considered as a variant of the pathology. For an effective treatment is necessary to establish the exact causes of which must be subsequently removed. Treatment selection should be initiated as early as possible and only by a physician designated as self can be accompanied by the development of superinfection are difficult to therapy.