causes of bladder cancer


  • Causes of Cancer
  • The forms of the disease and symptoms
  • Diagnostic methods
  • Stages of the disease
  • Treatment of cancerous diseases
  • What are recurrences?

Cancer - a malignant tumor that starts its development, disrupting the body as a whole. It is characterized by the uncontrolled growth of penetration into other tissues. Bladder cancer today can not be called a rarity, as the reason for its occurrence can serve even prolonged contact with ordinary detergents.

Treatment may be different. This takes into account the stage at which the cancer was diagnosed, what kind of form it is observed. In identifying the early stages of treatment in most cases successful, but if the disease is started, the most negative forecasts.
Back to contents

Causes of Cancer

This malignant tumor affects first the mucous membrane of the bladder, and then the wall, beyond the boundaries of the muscular layer. Most often, the cancer cells appear on the inner surface is about 90% of cases. But if you do not keep track of their status, the cells gradually grow, the bladder begins to literally rot inside.

For treatment to be effective, you must take time to predictive maintenance, perform all prescription after determining the form and stage of disease.

The reasons for the development of cancers of the bladder is not much more often than it is:

  • cancer occurs in smokers is approximately two times more likely than the others. There is a relatively high likelihood of relapse.
  • prolonged contact with dyes, detergents, aniline, benzene and so on. Bladder cancer occurs most often in dry-cleaning workers, chemical industry, dentists, hairdressers;
  • an earlier chemotherapy, radiotherapy;
  • chronic cystitis;
  • in the presence of a urinary catheter a long time (in diseases such as spinal cord injury, for example);
  • heredity.

 Ultrasound of the bladder

Back to contents

The forms of the disease and symptoms

Symptoms of bladder cancer can be very different. There are several forms of manifestation of this disease:

  • carcinoma, or transitional cell cancer. This form is the most common, it occurs in about 90 percent of cases;
  • Squamous cell carcinoma is less common. Called it the fact that the bladder had previously been greatly impressed by cystitis, that is inflammation;
  • rarer forms, such as lymphoma, adenocarcinoma, small cell carcinoma and so on.

Symptoms of the cancer disease can be different, such as:

  • frequent urination, which is beginning to bother;
  • the presence of blood in urine. Such symptoms - it's an incentive for an urgent examination. Often the appearance of blood goes along with painful sensations;
  • during urination, a strong and sharp pain before and after;
  • We should definitely consider and symptoms such as weakness, fatigue, sudden and unjustified weight loss, an increase in temperature up to about 37, 5 degrees. These symptoms may be signs of other illnesses and are not such serious, but if they are observed along with the above-mentioned phenomenon, the urgent need to pass inspection, not to delay it;
  • If metastases have already appeared, the symptoms such as shortness of breath, jaundice.

If you are experiencing all these symptoms, you are at risk, then an urgent need to make an appointment with a urologist, undergo diagnostic tests. Often, it is a timely reference to the doctor allows you to completely overcome the disease at an early stage.
Back to contents

Diagnostic methods

The main feature that struck bladder cancer is the presence of blood in urine. If you notice that you have any vaginal bleeding while visiting the toilet, this is an urgent reason to go to the hospital. Diagnosis of bladder cancer can be conducted using these methods:

  • urine analysis, allowing to define a urine signs of inflammation, cancer cells. This analysis is called cytology;
  • cystoscopy, when through the urethra into the bladder inserted a thin tube at the end of which the camera is installed. This allows you to explore in detail the condition of the bladder, to see the affected areas;
  • ultrasound examination can correctly determine why there is blood in the urine. It may be causes such as stones, tumors, cancer of the kidney;
  • Computed tomography is carried out to clarify the size of the tumor, presence of metastasis, lymph node involvement. The blood thus introduced a special contrast agent, which allows us to consider the urinary tract;
  • Analysis markers. This method is used when the disease relapses.

 assays for markers

Back to contents

Stages of the disease

Bladder cancer depending on the complexity of the disease can be divided into separate stages:

Stage 0 means that bladder cancer cells were detected, but they did not spread throughout the body. This stage can be divided into 0A and 0is:

  • 0A, or non-invasive papillary carcinoma. This sprouting into the lumen, but the lack of germination in the bladder wall. Lymph nodes are not affected;
  • 0is, or carcinoma in situ. This tumor that will not germinate in the wall, the lumen bladder, lymph nodes are not affected.

Prediction of treatment is 82-100%, that is, it is quite high.

  • Stage 1 - a cancer of the bladder, which is beginning to spread into the deeper muscle layers, but fat tissue is not affected, complete germination yet. If treatment is started in time, the percentage of elimination of the disease is 82-100%.
  • Stage 2 - is a cancer of the bladder, which has already been distributed in the muscle layer of the organ. The likelihood that the disease will be cured with timely start of medication and procedures, is only between 63% to 83%.
  • Stage 3 is when the tumor grows through the wall, adipose tissue, often it is already covered by the seminal vesicles, prostate, vagina or uterus, but the lymph nodes are not yet affected. Forecasts for the recovery of low, only 17% to 53%.
  • Stage 4 - a cancer of the bladder, in which the tumor is strongly spreads to other organs, it metastasizes to the lungs, liver. Forecasts for the cure is very low probability that the duration of life when this disease will be more than five years - only 20%.


Back to contents

Treatment of cancerous diseases

The cancer treatment may be different. All depends on the stage of the disease, the patient's general condition, age, and many other causes. Treatment may include surgery, when tissues are simply removed, radiotherapy (irradiation of the affected area), chemotherapy (reception special drugs).

Treatment 0 stage depends on the size, which has a tumor from its behavior, growth rate, the growth direction (in the bladder wall or lumen). Cancer can be a step to treat the following methods:

  • transurethral resection, that is, removal of the tumor through the urethra. This is completely no external incisions, scars on the skin does not remain;
  • the use of BCG vaccine, administered directly into the bladder. This allows the patient's own immune system to fight the tumor, cancer cells are gradually destroyed. Such treatment not only gets rid of cancer without the need for surgery, but also reduces the risk of recurrence is approximately twice that an excellent result;
  • Chemotherapy is the treatment by means of special anti-cancer drugs, which are introduced into the cavity of a bladder;
  • cystectomy - a radical treatment, which involves removal of the entire bladder, if it found multiple tumor foci. At zero stage such a method is seldom necessary, usually cost drugs.

Prediction of treatment at this stage, assuming that all necessary action is good, it reaches 98% of a full recovery. But even at this stage of bladder cancer can recur, so you need to visit the attending physician.

Cancer treatment stage 1 does not differ from the methods for a zero stage. Can be used drugs administered into the bladder. The incidence of recurrence of the disease in this case is about twice as much is usually assigned cystectomy.

Cancer Treatment 2 stage almost always involves surgery, ie removal of the bladder. At this stage, the tumor penetrates into adjacent pelvic organs, so that removal can affect them as well. Women are removed ovaries, uterus, fallopian tubes, the front part of the vagina, in men, the prostate is removed. Many experts recommend the right to remove lymph nodes in the pelvis as possible the development of new cancer outbreak. After the surgery receive chemotherapy, which minimizes the risk of metastasis.

Treatment of cancer stage 3 also involves the removal of the bladder, lymph nodes and organs close. Before and after the operation was compulsory course of chemotherapy.

Treatment of cancer stage 4 - the most difficult. In this case, the area of ​​distribution is very extensive, surgery is carried out only in order to slow the disease, to suspend its development. Among the basic techniques that are used for such treatment are the following:

  • Radiotherapy, or radiation. Used in this method if the tumor has not metastasized to blizlezhayshie organs - the liver, bone, lung, etc .;
  • chemotherapy, i.e. the use of special drugs. This method can be administered concurrently with radiation therapy, it is used when metastases have penetrated into other organs.


Back to contents

What are recurrences?

Even if the cancer was completely cured, it is possible the resumption of the disease, which is called a relapse. This happens quite often. Therefore it is necessary to regularly visit all patients attending physician, urologist, passed appropriate examination.

After recovering in the first two years of required preventive examinations, which are held every 3-6 months depending on the complexity of the disease, risk factors. Relapse can occur after a couple of months after the treatment, but may be in a few years. It is therefore recommended constant supervision, they can not be neglected. We must remember that the sooner will relapse, the more difficult it will proceed disease, treatment of the cancer difficult, in some cases, diagnosed an incurable stage.

Recurrence may occur not only in the bladder, but also in other organs, it is practically impossible to forecast. The treatment process will depend on the severity of the disease, the extent of cancer spread.

If there is a second bladder cancer, the severity of the disease is large, it is necessary to conduct cystectomy - complete removal of the organ. If the cancer has manifested itself in a different location, then receive chemotherapy, surgery is performed only in complex cases.

Malignant tumor of the bladder - a dangerous disease from which no one is immune. It manifests itself in the occurrence of cancer, the growing tumor, which affects not only the body, but also other body tissues. The disease requires mandatory treatment, continuous monitoring of the urologist. In addition to medical treatment for some stages prescribed surgery involves removal of the affected tissue, the surrounding areas, if there is the threat of proliferation.

 Malignant tumors of the bladder: diagnosis and treatment