the causes of melanoma


  • Certain types of melanoma
  • How to identify melanoma at an early stage
  • What to do with dangerous mole?
  • Measures for the prevention of this disease

Melanoma (skin cancer) - a malignant tumor. In most cases, skin cancer manifests itself against the background of pigment nevus (single pigment spots). In very rare cases, melanoma can develop and clean the skin. Melanoma skin can look different from moles, slightly protruding above the surface of the skin, uneven color bleeding to tumor formation.

Among all skin tumors in the melanoma share of 13%. The disease most often affects people quite young (15-40 years). Approximately half of the patients die regardless of whether an anti-tumor therapy. This happens due to the fact that patients go to the doctor too late, often at the stage of metastasis. This type of skin cancer metastasizes very quickly.

That's why doctors attach great importance to the prevention and early detection of melanoma.

Early detection of skin cancer symptoms and timely diagnosis is very important: early treatment is a fairly easy operation.

 types of melanoma
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Certain types of melanoma

Doctors are several types of malignant tumors.

  • Surface melanoma - one of the most common types of skin cancer. It is in the upper layers of the skin and its surface is only slightly above the surface of healthy skin. This is not easy to distinguish melanoma from an ordinary mole.
  • Nodular melanoma. This species occurs in 25% of patients with this disease. This is the most dangerous form of skin cancer. It is a dark-colored nodules of various sizes, which is very appreciably raised above the skin surface.
  • Melanoma is lentigines on the neck and head elderly. The surface of this type of tumor is not very much elevated above the surface of the skin.
  • Subungual melanoma occurs in every tenth case. Often, a malignant tumor located under the big toe nail.

What are the reasons can cause melanoma skin?

  • Long exposure to ultraviolet radiation (tanning, solarium).
  • Radioactive radiation.
  • Prolonged heat exposure.
  • Frequent contact with arsenic, tar, soot, tar.

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How to identify melanoma at an early stage

  • Changing the size of a mole - rapid growth - the most common symptom. Especially should pay attention to moles larger than 7 mm in diameter. When a new mole appears and begins to grow rapidly or suddenly begins to grow old mole, it is an alarming symptom.
  • Change the shape and color of a nevus, a change in the contour line of the old mole - a very dangerous symptoms. Especially suspicious dark brown and black moles. Uneven color of a mole should also be alerted.
  • The disappearance of hair nevus. Hair growing out of a mole, a sign of its good quality. If your hair starts to fall out of it, it may indicate a malignant nevus.
  • The emergence of itching in the region of the mole or other unpleasant sensations.
  • Bleeding, moist discharge from the moles and the appearance of the inflammatory area on the edge of the pigment formation.

Diagnosing melanoma, it is important to keep in mind that men often this tumor is on the back, while the women in the lower leg. Despite this, check the whole body, including the scalp and nails on the hands and feet (the case that it has the form of malignancy black spot under the nail).

 removal of birthmarks
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What to do with dangerous mole?

If you find a mole that correspond to at least one and especially more of the above symptoms, you should immediately consult a dermatologist. Dangerous moles to be removed and subsequent histological examination. It would be better if you get rid of moles, which are located in places of permanent trauma (eg, bra strap, waistband, and so on. D.). Since moles damage often leads to their transformation into a tumor.
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Measures for the prevention of this disease

You are at risk if in the past often sunburn. Ultraviolet radiation - it is one of the main factors in the development of this cancer. Therefore, when a large number of moles on the body of sunbathing on the beach and tanning should be avoided. If sun exposure can not be prevented, protect exposed skin from direct sunlight with the help of clothes and sunscreen.

It is necessary to explore all the main features of diseases and be sure to consult with your doctor if you are at risk. Make sure that you know well, it looks like melanoma and how it differs from a simple healthy moles. Carry out regular inspection of the entire surface of the skin. The skin of the head and back should check your friend or relative.

Treatment of skin cancer and its effectiveness depends on what stage of development you see your doctor. The sooner this is done, the greater the chance of an absolute recovery. When the diagnosis of skin cancer is performed surgical removal of a malignant tumor. Typically, surgery is not dangerous for the patient and the absence of metastases leads to a full recovery.

 How to detect melanoma?

 gynecological diseases of women


  • Gynecological illnesses and their causes
  • The symptoms of gynecological diseases
  • The causes and symptoms of gynecological diseases according to the three groups

Unfortunately, gynecological diseases in women are not a rare occurrence in the rhythm of modern life. Poor environment, poor diet and stress reduce our immunity, which is often the cause of many diseases of female sexual sphere. However, there are some diseases that are hereditarily acquired.
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Gynecological illnesses and their causes

Gynecological diseases - a disease female reproductive system, manifested a variety of signs and symptoms.

However, among them are the most common symptoms observed in the majority of gynecological diseases.
Gynecological problems in women are quite common. The number of women with complaints of genital diseases every year is greatly increased. This is due to various factors, both internal and external environment of the female body.

All causes of gynecological diseases are classified conditional on internal and external.

The external factors include:

  • frequent or periodic, but sufficiently strong stress reactions to external stimuli;
  • deteriorating environmental situation, which occurs in large cities;
  • early sexual activity;
  • frequent change of sexual partners;
  • failure to comply with hygiene rules and the resulting frequent development of infectious diseases;
  • infectious diseases such as the risk of symptoms of gynecological diseases;
  • uncontrolled and frequent use of antibiotics.

The internal factors include:

  • Pathology of the female genital organs, for example, a doubling of the vagina or uterus bicornuate presence;
  • incorrect placement of internal genital organs;
  • hormonal diseases;
  • miscarriage or abortion, which were produced at a medical intervention, such as curettage.

 various reasons for gynecological diseases

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The symptoms of gynecological diseases

All gynecological diseases are divided into 3 groups due to provoke this or that disease. The first group includes diseases associated with the development of infection in women. The second group includes pathology of the endocrine system and hormonal background of the female organism. The third group includes the development of hyperplastic diseases or degenerative changes of cancer.

There are symptoms that occur in any disease in each group.

The symptoms of gynecological diseases - is the specific features present only in diseases of the sexual sphere. These include:

  • Beli - abnormal discharge whitish, as a rule, their number depends on the activity of the process.
  • bleeding occurring outside menstruation, and they can occur in the middle of the menstrual cycle, as before or after it. Bleeding can be very strong, and there are spreadable or completely insignificant. Bleeding can occur immediately after intercourse. All these symptoms should certainly be a condition of obligatory visits to the gynecologist;
  • itching or burning in the area of ​​the genitals. They can occur in varying degrees. Burning is negligible, delivering only a small discomfort. And sometimes unbearable and painful, when a woman gets a serious damage, trying to remove the itch;
  • discomfort during intercourse, until the pain and the inability of this sex;
  • the occurrence of discomfort or pain during urination;
  • as a result of gynecological diseases in some cases, on the genitals of women can detect erosion or ulceration, indicating the presence of her gynecological diseases;
  • another symptom characteristic of genital diseases are pain in the abdomen, they are of diverse nature, such as bursting, pulling or pressing;
  • as a result of gynecological diseases can occur nevynashivaemaya pregnancy or the Tuesday infertility, multiple miscarriages.

 signs of gynecological diseases

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The causes and symptoms of gynecological diseases according to the three groups

The first group of diseases caused by various infections, usually diagnosed as a result of the following reasons:

  • STIs - sexually transmitted infections by. Notable among them is given for gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, candidiasis, or thrush, chlamydia;
  • viral disease that can cause genital herpes virus, HIV, cytomegalovirus, or human papillomavirus;
  • suppurative diseases of an inflammatory nature. There allocate common diseases: obesity, endometritis, adnexitis, cervicitis, pelvitoperitonity, vulvity and other diseases.

Among the causes of the disease in this group, allocate specific microorganisms that cause sexually transmitted infections, and non-specific, which include all other diseases. Diseases such as a sexually transmitted and appear as a result of separation by the blood from other organs and systems.

The symptoms of gynecological diseases in the first group generally represent a complaint for the presence of cables, purulent discharge from the genital tract, pain during intercourse and urination, itching and burning in the genital area, as well as the possible presence of erosions and ulcers in the female genital organs.

Inflammatory processes contribute to the development of any infection, disease, abortion, childbirth, hypothermia, surgical manipulation and diagnostic nature (scraping of the uterus, uterine sounding, hysteroscopy, gidrotubatsii, hysterosalpingography, etc.), Failure to comply with personal hygiene, excessive use of antibiotics. The spread of infection may also contribute to the presence of an intrauterine device (IUD).

When it is used the risk of inflammation is increased 4-5 times. In the same property, the spread of infection, and incorrect application has intravaginal tampons.

The second group of gynecological diseases, resulting from various disorders hormonal or endocrine system

In general, the following symptoms: menstrual disorders, amenorrhea or amenorrhea, decrease or increase menstrual periods may become scarce or, conversely, heavy, bleeding can occur is monthly. In addition, as a result of hormonal disorders may have dysfunctional uterine bleeding, ie monthly at women are acyclic and irregular. The result is that a woman develops secondary infertility, requiring immediate treatment. However, whatever the menstrual cycle has changed, be sure to consult a gynecologist.

 Preventive gynecological check

The third group of gynecological diseases include neoplastic processes

And not necessarily that these processes were malignant. They also include and cysts in the ovaries, and uterine cancer, and cervical changes, such as pseudo, erosion and ulcerative changes. Among the signs of disease in the third group of women often experience pain during intercourse, or bleeding from the genital tract after intimacy, bleeding not related to menstrual periods.

However, in spite of the specific symptoms of gynecological diseases, there are those who for a long time or did not show themselves, or symptoms are so nonspecific that long period of time a woman can not be treated by gynecologic diseases.
Treatment of gynecological diseases - a complicated matter and responsible. In no case is not recommended to self-medicate, as this can lead to unpredictable results, and only complicate the situation.

As a result, the illiterate treatment may develop endometriosis, infertility or cancer.

Any gynecological diseases and their symptoms require a visit to a doctor as soon as possible with a view to a correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment appointment. This will give an opportunity to restore the function of the sexual sphere and benefit from the intimacy only pleasure without fear of bleeding or pain.
That is why you need to undergo medical check-ups from an obstetrician-gynecologist.

Usually it is sufficient transmission and delivery of all necessary tests 1-2 times per year depending on the availability of complaints and health. If a woman has a gynecological problem, then it is necessary to visit the gynecologist often subject to individual negotiation with him.

 Gynecological diseases and their symptoms