causes of HIV


  • The mechanism of HIV
  • Ways of HIV infection
  • Group risk and signs of HIV
  • AIDS symptoms from the primary to the manifestations of the acute phase
  • The clinical picture of the acute phase
  • The beginning and the course of AIDS

Today, probably, there is no person who would not know what is HIV, or human immunodeficiency virus. This virus is the causative agent of AIDS, namely Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, and HIV infection. In a sick person with HIV symptoms such as a complete defeat of the entire immune system, the body's inability to deal with any infection, even not too serious. The common cold is becoming deadly, wounds do not heal, the body is exposed to any diseases.
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The mechanism of HIV

Immunodeficiency virus belongs to the retroviruses which still are called lentiviruses, i.e. slow viruses. Since the infection can take up to ten years before AIDS develops. Approximately 50% of patients have no symptoms until the disease enters a critical stage.

Virus entering the human blood, is attached to the cells responsible for immunity. Why is this happening? The fact that the surface of such cells has particular CD4 molecules, which recognize and HIV.

Inside immune cells HIV multiplies rapidly, but the immune response does not have time to come in time, as the infection is spreading rapidly throughout the body.

And the very first affected lymph nodes, in which the content of immune cells is very high.

HIV infection begins to develop rapidly. The body can not fight it. This happens because the immune cells are regularly subjected to shock, they just do not have time to react properly, the virus is not identified. Over time, HIV infection progresses, a growing number of immune cells that are called lymphocytes CD4, are affected. Their number is declining rapidly, eventually becomes critically low, as is the beginning of the development stage of AIDS.

 ways of HIV infection
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Ways of HIV infection

Today, there are several ways of human infection, notably the five major:

  1. Infection through sexual contact. The virus has a feature to accumulate in the tissues and fluids with a large number of immune cells. One such fluid is semen, in which the amount of the highest virus. The risk of human infection increases many times if there are sores, cracks, blisters and other damage to the reproductive organs. Anal sex is one of the most dangerous as HIV trauma rectal quickly penetrates through the mucous membrane into the blood. In women, high levels of the virus observed in the cervix in vaginal secretions.
  2. Transmitted infections when injecting narcotic drugs by using reusable syringes. In this case, immediately gets infected blood from an infected to a healthy body, where it begins to multiply rapidly.
  3. There is a human infection and blood transfusions if the donor has become infected. HIV infection can be contained in fresh frozen plasma, platelets, blood products. In such transfusions 90-100% infection occurs. But you can not get infected if introduced special and normal immunoglobulin, as previously, all these drugs are processed in the complete inactivation of viruses.
  4. Can a person be infected with HIV from mother to child. At birth the risk ranges from 13% to 48%. Much depends on the health of the mother, medical care during childbirth, as medicaments, the rules of their reception. If HIV infection was not transmitted during childbirth, the completely non-breastfeeding, as it is in the milk contains a large number of viruses.
  5. There is a risk of infection in hospitals by patient staff. The level of risk in this case is different, it is about 0, 3% of skin is damaged by sharp objects, which could still be traces of blood infected. Less than 0, 3% of the risk of transmission in contact with the skin or mucous membrane of blood from an infected patient. Today there is a path, and transmission, both the hospital staff to the patient. The risk is very small, almost negligible, because the staff undergoes regular medical examination, but it can not be completely excluded.

 through hugs can not be infected with HIV

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Group risk and signs of HIV

Thus, based on the transmission paths can be identified risk group:

  • addicts who use injection;
  • babies if the mother is infected;
  • people who practice anal, unprotected sex, promiscuity;
  • by blood transfusion, especially when procedures were performed in the interval between the years 1977-1985. It was at this time revealing the AIDS virus was not accepted necessary practice when giving blood.

There are ways in which the transmission of the HIV virus is not possible:

  • through the arms of the infected;
  • through mosquito bites (all the blood that passes through the insect undergoes a complete decontamination of any viruses, it is sterile);
  • with the joint participation in the competition;
  • When you touch objects that have been previously touched by infected people.

All signs of the virus can be divided into two groups. This so-called large and small features. The symptoms of HIV are different, they depend on the stage of the disease.

For more signs of HIV include:

  • sudden weight loss, which is more than 10% of the original;
  • chronic diarrhea that lasts more than one month;
  • prolonged fever, which also lasts for more than one month. This fever may be intermittent or continuous form.

It must be small signs include:

  • persistent cough, which is no easier, lasts more than one month;
  • generalized itchy dermatitis;
  • oropharyngeal candidiasis;
  • herpes zoster in history;
  • generalized lymphadenopathy form;
  • herpes infections (chronic progressive or disseminated).

Small signs are also referred to as secondary.

 constant fatigue is one of the signs of HIV
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AIDS symptoms from the primary to the manifestations of the acute phase

The first symptoms of AIDS can be very different, they depend on what stage the disease, the general condition of the patient. Consideration, which symptomatology is observed for each stage.

At the primary stage, the body's infection with HIV, symptoms may be non-clinical, often observed the development of secondary diseases. Identify the infection can only laboratory tests, so if there is the slightest suspicion of being infected with AIDS, you should seek medical advice.

Stage of asymptomatic seroconversion is more dangerous. At this stage it is beginning to produce antibodies, which occurs in response to infection. The name of this stage is received due to the presence of antiviral antibodies in the blood that is going on so-called seroconversion. But at this stage, antibodies are already beginning to falter, they disappear for a while and then reappear. Special symptoms are not observed, but may reappear chronic diseases, worsen fatigue.

The onset of the acute phase, that is the primary non-specific manifestations (retroviral syndrome), is observed only in 20-30% of cases. During this stage there are manifestations of such a person, such as:

Common symptoms are:

  • excessive sweating at night;
  • fever;
  • pharyngitis;
  • there is a weakness, persistent lethargy;
  • loss of appetite;
  • swollen lymph nodes;
  • myalgia.

Cutaneous manifestations of this stage:

  • herpes zoster;
  • recurrent herpes;
  • urticaria;
  • maculopapular rash;
  • petechial rash;
  • roseolous rash.

The lesions of the nervous system:

  • Guillain-Barre syndrome;
  • headache;
  • aseptic meningitis;
  • cognitive impairment, affective;
  • photophobia;
  • brachial plexopathy, and more.

The defeat of the digestive tract:

  • diarrhea;
  • oral candidiasis;
  • enlargement of the liver, the spleen;
  • vomiting, nausea.

At this stage, you want to carry out such laboratory tests, such as:

  • during the acute period of: HIV antibodies, ESR, ALT, AST, platelets, white blood cells on;
  • the attenuation of acute manifestations: on atypical mononuclear cells, to raise antibodies to limfotoz, normocytosis, CD4 / CD8 (fall).

 Diarrhea is one of the symptoms of HIV

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The clinical picture of the acute phase

Clinical stage begins about 2-4 weeks after the infection occurred. It may appear mononucleosis, which occurs in approximately 15-30% of patients. The main symptoms at this stage you will be asked:

  • enlargement of the spleen, liver;
  • raising the temperature to 37, 5, sometimes up to 38-39 degrees;
  • strep throat, tonsillitis, enlarged tonsils;
  • krasnuhopodobnye rash;
  • swollen lymph nodes of the neck.

When this temperature increase can be maintained from one to three weeks, and tonsillitis - from two to three weeks. In rare cases, a disorder that resembles the principles of clinical SARS.

If you allocate the frequency of symptoms of AIDS, the table will be as follows:

  • state fever - 87, 1%;
  • exanthema - 67, 7%;
  • sores in the throat - 48, 4%;
  • myalgia - 41, 9%;
  • not passing headaches - 38, 7%;
  • frequent diarrhea - 32, 3%;
  • observed abdominal pain - 29, 9%;
  • coughing - 25, 8%;
  • vomiting, nausea - 25, 8-22, 6%;
  • sudden unexplained weight loss, appearance of ulcers in the oral cavity - 12, 9%.

Other symptoms of AIDS appear much less frequently, but they should still pay attention.

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The beginning and the course of AIDS

After the initial symptoms begins the so-called stage of AIDS, the duration of which is from 2 to 15 years depending on the conditions of life of the infected, health originally. HIV replication continues, the stage is characterized by the emergence of viral, bacterial infections, secondary diseases, malignant tumors. Among the symptoms you need to select groups such as:

Common symptoms of AIDS:

  • anergy;
  • weight loss, lack of weight;
  • intoxication.

The defeat of the respiratory system:

  • tuberculosis;
  • pneumonia, its various forms.

Lesions of the digestive tract:

  • diarrhea;
  • leukoplakia;
  • thrush.

Neurological disorders:

  • encephalopathy;
  • brain lymphoma;
  • Toxoplasma encephalitis;
  • cryptococcal meningitis;
  • neuropathy;
  • Ataxia.

Skin manifestations:

  • herpetic persistent rash;
  • seborrheic dermatitis;
  • herpes zoster;
  • skin lesions in the form of rashes, ulcers.

Further AIDS goes into the so-called thermal stage. The stricken severely depleted, the body often affected variety of infections that can not be practically cured, because the content of immune cells located in a minimum volume, they are unable to cope with the disease. AIDS in this case is characterized by multiple symptoms that are characteristic of various diseases. Stage of the latter, it requires only the support of the body, since the infected very exhausted.

HIV - a disease that today takes the form of this pandemic. It affects a wide variety of people, but the way the transfer preclude contamination at the household level, ie prevention measures can effectively prevent infection. At risk are disadvantaged population groups, drug users, infants born to infected mothers, people who practice promiscuity.

Preventive measures should be taken not so much, here are protection during sexual intercourse, use only disposable syringes and medical instruments. For infected mothers today, a special drug complex, which reduces the risk of having a sick baby many times.

 HIV: from the first signs of the disease before